Bio

Current Role at Stanford


Deputy Director, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS)

Education & Certifications


  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Chemistry (1998)
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Texas, Chemical Engineering (1997)
  • PhD, Uppsala University, Sweden, Organic Chemistry (1996)

Patents


  • Gunilla Jacobson, W. Tumas, K. Johnston. "United States Patent 6,479,708 Biphasic Catalysis in Water/Carbon Dioxide Micellar Systems.", Los Alamos National Laboratory
  • Glenn Gale, Joe T. Hillman, Gunilla Jacobson, Bentley Palmer,. "United States Patent 7,250,374 System and Method for Processing a Substrate Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing.", TEL Ltd.
  • Gunilla Jacobson, Deborah Yellowaga. "United States Patent 7,387,868 Treatment of a Dielectric Layer Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.", TEL Ltd
  • Tatsiana Lobovkina, Richard N, Gunilla B Jacobson, Ramin E. Beygui, Evgenios Neofytou.. "United States Patent US 20130243848 A1 Nanoparticles, Nanoparticles Delivery Methods, and Systems of Delivery.", Stanford University, Mar 13, 2013
  • Gunilla Jacobson, R.N. Zare, K. E. Markides, C. Contag. "United States Patent US 2008/0095856 A1 Encapsulated Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery.", Stanford University, May 14, 2007
  • Gunilla Jacobson, Subramanyam A Iyer. "United States Patent US 2007/0000519 A1 Removal of Residues from Low-k Dielectric Material in Wafer Processing.", Supercritical Systems Inc., Jun 30, 2005
  • Gunilla Jacobson, Robert Kevwitch, Deborah Yellowaga. "United States Patent US 2006/0255012 A1 Removal of Particles from Substrate Surface Using Supercritical Processing", Supercritical Systems Inc., May 10, 2005
  • Gunilla Jacobson. "United States Patent US 2006/0219268 Neutralization of Systemic Poisoning in Wafer Processing", Supercritical Systems Inc., Mar 30, 2005
  • Gunilla Jacobson, Robert Kevwitch, Marie Lowe. "United States Patent US 2006/0186088 A1 Etching and Cleaning BPSG Material Using Supercritical Processing", Supercritical Systems Inc., Feb 23, 2005
  • Gunilla Jacobson, Robert Kevwitch, Deborah Yellowaga. "United States Patent US 2006/0180572 A1 Removal of Post Etch Residue for a Substrate With Open Metal Surfaces", Supercritical Systems Inc., Feb 15, 2005
  • Gunilla Jacobson, Bentley Palmer, Shan C. Clark, Vijayakumar S. Ramachandrarao, Subramanyam A. Iyer, Robert Turkot,. "United States Patent US 2006/0102204 A1 Method For Removing A Residue From A Substrate Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing,", Supercritical Systems Inc., Nov 12, 2004
  • Gunilla Jacobson, Bentley Palmer. "United States Patent US 2006/0102208 A1 System For Removing A Residue From A Substrate Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing", Supercritical Systems Inc., Nov 12, 2004
  • Gunilla Jacobson, Marie Lowe, Robert Kevwitch, Brandon Hansen. "United States Patent US 2006/0102591 A1 Method and System For Treating A Substrate Using A Supercritical Fluid", Supercritical Systems Inc., Nov 12, 2004

Professional

Work Experience


  • Visting Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford School of Medicine (2014 - 2016)

    Location

    Stanford CA

  • Docent, Faculty of Science and Technology, Uppsala University (2014 - Present)

    Location

    Uppsala, Sweden

  • Senior Scientist, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet (2011 - 2013)

    Location

    Stockholm, Sweden

  • Senior Research Associate, Department of Chemistry, Stanford University (2004 - 2011)

    Location

    Stanford, CA

  • Process Development Manager, Supercritical Systems / Tokyo Electron, Ltd, (2002 - 2004)

    Location

    Gilbert AZ

  • Technical Staff Member, Los Alamos National Laboratory (2000 - 2002)

    Location

    Los Alamos NM

  • Research Engineer, Uppsala University PET Center

    Location

    Uppsala, Sweden

Publications

All Publications


  • Scaffold-mediated BMP-2 minicircle DNA delivery accelerated bone repair in a mouse critical-size calvarial defect model JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART A Keeney, M., Chung, M. T., Zielins, E. R., Paik, K. J., McArdle, A., Morrison, S. D., Ransom, R. C., Barbhaiya, N., Atashroo, D., Jacobson, G., Zare, R. N., Longaker, M. T., Wan, D. C., Yang, F. 2016; 104 (8): 2099-2107

    Abstract

    Scaffold-mediated gene delivery holds great promise for tissue regeneration. However, previous attempts to induce bone regeneration using scaffold-mediated non-viral gene delivery rarely resulted in satisfactory healing. We report a novel platform with sustained release of minicircle DNA (MC) from PLGA scaffolds to accelerate bone repair. MC was encapsulated inside PLGA scaffolds using supercritical CO2 , which showed prolonged release of MC. Skull-derived osteoblasts transfected with BMP-2 MC in vitro result in higher osteocalcin gene expression and mineralized bone formation. When implanted in a critical-size mouse calvarial defect, scaffolds containing luciferase MC lead to robust in situ protein production up to at least 60 days. Scaffold-mediated BMP-2 MC delivery leads to substantially accelerated bone repair as early as two weeks, which continues to progress over 12 weeks. This platform represents an efficient, long-term nonviral gene delivery system, and may be applicable for enhancing repair of a broad range of tissues types. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2099-2107, 2016.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.35735

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379736500025

    View details for PubMedID 27059085

  • Swedish Medical Nanoscience Center at Karolinska Institutet NANOTECHNOLOGY REVIEWS Jacobson, G. B., Richter-Dahlfors, A. 2012; 1 (3): 273-279
  • In Vivo Sustained Release of siRNA from Solid Lipid Nanoparticles ACS NANO Lobovkina, T., Jacobson, G. B., Gonzalez-Gonzalez, E., Hickerson, R. P., Leake, D., Kaspar, R. L., Contag, C. H., Zare, R. N. 2011; 5 (12): 9977-9983

    Abstract

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a highly potent drug in gene-based therapy with a challenge of being delivered in a sustained manner. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems allow for incorporating and controlled release of therapeutic payloads. We demonstrate that solid lipid nanoparticles can incorporate and provide sustained release of siRNA. Tristearin solid lipid nanoparticles, made by nanoprecipitation, were loaded with siRNA (4.4-5.5 wt % loading ratio) using a hydrophobic ion pairing approach that employs the cationic lipid DOTAP. Intradermal injection of these nanocarriers in mouse footpads resulted in prolonged siRNA release over a period of 10-13 days. In vitro cell studies showed that the released siRNA retained its activity. Nanoparticles developed in this study offer an alternative approach to polymeric nanoparticles for encapsulation and sustained delivery of siRNA with the advantage of being prepared from physiologically well-tolerated materials.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/nn203745n

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298316700073

    View details for PubMedID 22077198

  • Biodegradable Nanoparticles With Sustained Release of Functional siRNA in Skin JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES Jacobson, G. B., Gonzalez-Gonzalez, E., Spitler, R., Shinde, R., Leake, D., Kaspar, R. L., Contag, C. H., Zare, R. N. 2010; 99 (10): 4261-4266

    Abstract

    A key challenge in developing RNAi-based therapeutics is efficient delivery of functional short interfering RNA (siRNA) to target cells. To address this need, we have used a supercritical CO(2) process to incorporate siRNA in biodegradable polymer nanoparticles (NPs) for in vivo sustained release. By this means we have obtained complete encapsulation of the siRNA with minimal initial burst effect from the surface of the NPs. The slow release of a fluorescently labeled siRNA mimic (siGLO Red) was observed for up to 80 days in vivo after intradermal injection into mouse footpads. In vivo gene silencing experiments were also performed, showing reduction of GFP signal in the epidermis of a reporter transgenic mouse model, which demonstrates that the siRNA retained activity following release from the polymer NPs.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jps.22147

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282473400012

    View details for PubMedID 20737633

  • Nanoparticle Formation of Organic Compounds With Retained Biological Activity JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES Jacobson, G. B., Shinde, R., McCullough, R. L., Cheng, N. J., Creasman, A., Beyene, A., Hickerson, R. P., Quan, C., Turner, C., Kaspar, R. L., Contag, C. H., Zare, R. N. 2010; 99 (6): 2750-2755

    Abstract

    Many pharmaceuticals are formulated as powders to aid drug delivery. A major problem is how to produce powders having high purity, controlled morphology, and retained bioactivity. We demonstrate the use of supercritical carbon dioxide as an antisolvent for meeting this need for two model drug systems, quercetin, a sparingly soluble antioxidant, and short interfering RNA (siRNA), which can silence genes. In both cases we achieve retention of bioactivity as well as a narrow particle size distribution in which the particles are free of impurities.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jps.22035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278241800022

    View details for PubMedID 20039390

  • Sustained release of nucleic acids from polymeric nanoparticles using microemulsion precipitation in supercritical carbon dioxide CHEMICAL COMMUNICATIONS Ge, J., Jacobson, G. B., Lobovkina, T., Holmberg, K., Zare, R. N. 2010; 46 (47): 9034-9036

    Abstract

    A general approach for producing biodegradable nanoparticles for sustained nucleic acid release is presented. The nanoparticles are produced by precipitating a water-in-oil microemulsion in supercritical CO(2). The microemulsion consists of a transfer RNA aqueous solution (water phase), dichloromethane containing poly(l-lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (oil phase), the surfactant n-octyl ?-D-glucopyranoside, and the cosurfactant n-butanol.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c0cc04258g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284482100040

    View details for PubMedID 21052588

  • Sustained release of drugs dispersed in polymer nanoparticles ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION Jacobson, G. B., Shinde, R., Contag, C. H., Zare, R. N. 2008; 47 (41): 7880-7882

    View details for DOI 10.1002/anie.200802260

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260062500019

    View details for PubMedID 18773393

  • Subcritical water extraction and beta-glucosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of quercetin glycosides in onion waste GREEN CHEMISTRY Turner, C., Turner, P., Jacobson, G., Almgren, K., Waldeback, M., Sjoberg, P., Karlsson, E. N., Markides, K. E. 2006; 8 (11): 949-959

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b608011a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241588000008

  • Organic synthesis in water carbon dioxide emulsions JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Jacobson, G. B., Lee, C. T., daRocha, R. P., Johnston, K. P. 1999; 64 (4): 1207-1210
  • Organic synthesis in water carbon dioxide microemulsions JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Jacobson, G. B., Lee, C. T., Johnston, K. P. 1999; 64 (4): 1201-1206
  • Biphasic Catalysis in Water/Carbon Dioxide Emulsions, Journal of the American Chemical Society Jacobson, G. B., Lee, C. T., Johnston, K. P., Tumas, W. B. 1999; 121 (50)
  • Synthesis of O-[C-11]acetyl CoA, O-[C-11]acetyl-L-carnitine, L-[C-11]carnitine labelled in specific positions, applied in PET studies on rhesus monkey NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY Jacobson, G. B., Watanabe, Y., Valind, S., Kuratsune, H., Langstrom, B. 1997; 24 (5): 471-478

    Abstract

    The syntheses of L-carnitine, O-acetyl CoA, and O-acetyl-L-carnitine labelled with 11C at the 1- or 2-position of the acetyl group or the N-methyl position of carnitine, using the enzymes acetyl CoA synthetase and carnitine acetyltransferase, are described. With a total synthesis time of 45 min, O-[1-11C]acetyl CoA and O-[2[11C]acetyl CoA was obtained in 60-70% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, and O-[1-11C]acetyl-L-carnitine and O-[2-11C] acetyl-L-carnitine in 70-80% yield, based on [1-11C]acetate or [2-11C]acetate, respectively. By an N-methylation reaction with [11C]methyl iodide, L-[methyl-11C]carnitine was obtained within 30 min, and O-acetyl-L-[methyl-11C]carnitine within 40 min, giving a decay-corrected radiochemical yield of 60% and 40-50%, respectively, based on [11C]methyl iodide. Initial data of the kinetics of the different 11C-labelled L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitines in renal cortex of anaesthetized monkey (Macaca mulatta) are presented.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XP97800017

    View details for PubMedID 9290085

  • Supercritical Fluid Extraction of 11C-Labelled Metabolites from Tissue using Supercritical Ammonia. ANAL. CHEM. Jacobson, R. B., Moulder, R., Lu, L., Bergström, M., Markides, K. E., Långström, B. 1997
  • High Uptake of [2-11C]Acetyl-l-Carnitine into the Brain: A Pet Study Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Kuratsune, H., Watanabe, Y., Yamaguti, K., Jacobson, G., Takahashi, M., Machii, T., Onoe, H., Onoe, K., Kiyoshi, Valind, S., Kitani, T., Bengt 1997: 488
  • Synthesis of 11 C-Labeled Guanidines in Supercritical Ammonia JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY Jacobson, G. B., Westerberg, G., Markides, K. E., Långtsröm, B. 1997; 118 (29): 6868
  • Acylcarnitine and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. CARNITINE TODAY Kuratsune, H., Yamaguti, K., Watanabe, Y., Takahashi, M., Nakamoto, I., Machii, T., Jacobson, G. B., Onoe, H., Matsumura, K., Valind, S., Långström, B., Kitani, T. 1997
  • Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and On-line Preparative Supercritical Fluid Chromatography of 11C-Labelled Compounds in Supercritical Ammonia. ACTA CHEM. SCAND. Jacobson, G. B., Markides, K. E., Långström, B. 1997; 51
  • Methodological aspects for in vitro characterization of receptor binding using 11C-Labelled receptor ligands: a detailed study with the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist [11C]Ro 15-1788 NUCL. MED. BIOL. Sihver, W., Sihver, S., Bergström, M., Murata, T., Matsumura, K., Onoe, H., Andersson, Y., Bjurling, P., Fasth, K., Westerberg, G., Ögren, M., Jacobson, G., Lundqvist, H., Oreland, L., Watanabe, Y., Långström, B. 1997; 24 (8): 723
  • PET and parathyroid L-[carbon-11]methionine accumulation in hyperparathyroidism JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Sundin, A., Johansson, C., Hellman, P., Bergstrom, M., Ahlstrom, H., Jacobson, G. B., Langstrom, B., Rastad, J. 1996; 37 (11): 1766-1770

    Abstract

    The study was designed to characterize L-[methyl-11 C]methionine accumulation in abnormal parathyroid tissues of hyperparathyroidism (HPT).Thirty-four patients with primary (n = 32) or secondary HPT were investigated with PET before primary or reoperative (n = 25) parathyroid surgery. Parathyroid 11C-methionine accumulation was analyzed for integrated uptake values in defined tissue volumes standardized for the injected dose and body weight (SUV), four contiguous pixels of maximal accumulation (SUVhs), SUV multiplied by area of region of interest (SUVr) and by the excised tissue weight (SUVw). Transport rate constants (slope, slopehs) were calculated according to Patlak's formula using plasma 11C activity corrected for 11C-methionine metabolites.True-positive localization was achieved in 85% of patients in whom 81% of the excised parathyroid lesions were visualized; no false-positive results were obtained. Corresponding proportions were 59% and 57% for CT and 55% and 52% for ultrasound, respectively. In the true-positive cases, parathyroid SUV, SUVhs and transport rate constants were consistently higher (p < 0.01) than in the thyroid, pharynx-esophagus, neck muscle and apical lung. Parathyroid SUV, SUVhs and SUVr increased with intact serum parathyroid hormone and calcium values (p = 0.0001-0.031), and weight of the excised tissue correlated with SUV and SUVhs (p = 0.024, 0.044). Parathyroid SUVhs varied strongly with the transport rate constants (p = 0.0008), and SUVr as well as s-calcium values differed significantly between parathyroid adenomas (n = 11), chief cell hyperplasias (n = 13), inadvertent implants (n = 3) and parathyroid cancers (n = 3).Carbon-11-methionine PET has potential application in preoperative localization and metabolic characterization of abnormal parathyroid tissues in human HPT.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VR84600013

    View details for PubMedID 8917171

  • Levodopa-induced changes in synaptic dopamine in patients with Parkinson's disease as measured by [C-11]raclopride displacement and PET NEUROLOGY Tedroff, J., PEDERSEN, M., Aquilonius, S. M., Hartvig, P., Jacobsson, G., Langstrom, B. 1996; 46 (5): 1430-1436

    Abstract

    Changes in striatal binding of [11C]raclopride, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, induced by acute levodopa administration, were evaluated with PET in 10 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). The patients were scanned on two occasions: drug-free and 15 minutes after a 5-minute intravenous infusion of 3 mg/kg levodopa. Levodopa administration produced reductions in striatal [11C]raclopride uptake index with a rostrocaudal gradient. The most pronounced reduction was found in the posterior putamen (to 82% of baseline), followed by the anterior putamen (to 88% of baseline) and the caudate nucleus (to 94% of baseline). The magnitude of [11C]raclopride uptake index reduction correlated with drug-free disability. Moreover, in four hemiparkinsonian patients, a reduction in [11C]raclopride uptake index was measured in the putamen contralateral to the parkinsonian symptoms. The present results demonstrate a positive correlation between striatal dopaminergic nerve-terminal deficiency and the capacity for levodopa to increase synaptic dopamine and displace [11C]raclopride binding, which corresponds to an accelerated amine turnover in dopamine-depleted striatal tissue. We therefore suggest that dopaminergic degeneration in PD is paralleled by a progressive acceleration of amine turnover. This mechanistic consequence of nigrostriatal degeneration, the selective restoration of synaptic dopaminergic neurotransmission in denervated striatal subregions, may explain the effectiveness of levodopa in producing symptomatic benefits in early PD. However, we also suggest that in the vastly denervated striatum, as in advanced PD, an excessive acceleration of amine turnover results in swings in levodopa-induced synaptic dopamine levels that are far beyond normal. This phenomenon most likely plays a key role in the pathogenesis underlying the development of motor-response complications in PD.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UK62800043

    View details for PubMedID 8628494

  • IN-VITRO POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PET) - USE OF POSITRON EMISSION TRACERS IN FUNCTIONAL IMAGING IN LIVING BRAIN-SLICES NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH Matsumura, K., Bergstrom, M., Onoe, H., Takechi, H., Westerberg, G., Antoni, G., Bjurling, P., Jacobson, G. B., Langstrom, B., Watanabe, Y. 1995; 22 (2): 219-229

    Abstract

    Positron-emitting radionuclides have short half-lives and high radiation energies compared with radioisotopes generally used in biomedical research. We examined the possibility of applying positron emitter-labeled compounds to functional imaging in brain slices kept viable in an oxygenated buffer solution. Brain slices (300 microns thick) containing the striatum were incubated with positron emitter-labeled tracers for 30-45 min. The slices were then rinsed and placed on the bottom of a Plexiglas chamber filled with oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution. The bottom of the chamber consisted of a thin polypropylene film to allow good penetration of beta+ particles from the brain slices. The chamber was placed on a storage phosphor screen, which has a higher sensitivity and a wider dynamic range than X-ray films. After an exposure period of 15-60 min, the screen was scanned by the analyzer and radioactivity images of brain slices were obtained within 20 min. We succeeded in obtaining quantitative images of (1) [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, (2) dopamine D2 receptor binding, (3) dopa-decarboxylase activity, and (4) release of [11C]dopamine preloaded as L-[11C]DOPA in the brain slice preparation. These results demonstrate that positron emitter-labeled tracers in combination with storage phosphor screens are useful for functional imaging of living brain slices as a novel neuroscience technique.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RB42100008

    View details for PubMedID 7566703

  • Synthesis of [11C]Acetyl-CoA and [11C]Acetyl-L-Carnitine. Synth. Appl. Isot. Labelled Compounds Jacobson, G. B., Watanabe, Y., Kuratsune, H., Yamaguchi, K., Onoe , , Kittani , Valind , 1995; 118 (29): 375

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