School of Medicine

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  • Mildred Cho, PhD

    Mildred Cho, PhD

    Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Center for Biomedical Ethics) and of Medicine (General Medical Disciplines)

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Cho's major areas of interest include: ethical and social issues in genetic research, stem cell research, bioweapons and microbial genome research, the effects of gene patenting on clinical genetic testing and research, and the impacts of academic-industry ties on biomedical research.

  • Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, Ph.D

    Sandra Soo-Jin Lee, Ph.D

    Sr Research Scholar, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Lee is a medical anthropologist whose research focuses on the sociocultural dimensions and ethical issues of emerging technologies and their translation into clinical practice. Dr. Lee leads studies on the public understandings of research using clinical data and biological samples, concepts of race, culture and human genetic variation, and citizen science, commercialization of biotechnology and entrepreneurship.

  • David Magnus, Ph.D.

    David Magnus, Ph.D.

    Thomas A. Raffin Professor in Medicine and Biomedical Ethics, Professor (Teaching) of Medicine (General Medical Disciplines) and, by courtesy, of Bioengineering

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Genetic testing, gene therapy, genetically engineered organisms, and the history of eugenics. Stem cell research and cloning, and egg procurement. Examining ethical issues in reproductive technologies. Organ transplantation – including donation after cardiac death, ethics of listing decisions. End of life issues in both adults and children.

  • Maren Grainger-Monsen, MD

    Maren Grainger-Monsen, MD

    Sr Research Scholar, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Maren Grainger-Monsen creates films and education programs that touch people emotionally and intellectually to cause them to think deeply about important issues in healthcare, change health policy and improve patient care. She has developed a signature style of interweaving documentary footage with beautiful stylistic imagery and sound to create visually, intellectually and emotionally stirring documentaries for medical students, healthcare providers and the general public.

  • Christopher Thomas Scott, PhD

    Christopher Thomas Scott, PhD

    Sr Research Scholar, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics

    Bio Christopher Thomas Scott, MLA, PhD, is Director of the Stanford University Program on Stem Cells in Society, a faculty and senior research scholar at the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics, and a member of the Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. He is part of the University of British Columbia?s National Core on Neuroethics. His academic interests focus on the social, economic, political and ethical dimensions of new biotechnologies. Scott is widely published in high impact journals such as Cell, Cell Stem Cell, Nature Methods, Nature Biotechnology, and the American Journal of Bioethics. His introductory text on stem cell biology, Stem Cell Now (Penguin/Plume) has been translated into four languages. He has taught stem cell biology to undergraduates and directs three Stanford courses on the ethics, policy and law of stem cell research. He is a contributing editor at Nature Biotechnology and serves on the editorial boards of several journals. A former cell biologist, Scott was the Assistant Vice Chancellor at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and co-founded Acumen Sciences, a research and consulting company based in San Francisco. He was past President and CEO of The Stem Cell Advisors, a non-profit company providing stem cell research oversight for biotechnology companies. He is one of only a handful of senior officials awarded for their contributions to Stanford?s research enterprise. He is regularly featured in national and local coverage of ethics and policy, including ABC, BBC, NBC, PBS, The New York Times, The Boston Globe, Time, U.S. News and World Report, Boston Globe, The Atlantic Monthly, Nightline, UPI, Fox, and NPR?s Fresh Air with Terry Gross, Talk of the Nation, and TechNation.

  • Sara L. (Sally) Tobin

    Sara L. (Sally) Tobin

    Sr Research Scholar, Pediatrics - Center for Biomedical Ethics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Tobin is a Senior Research Scholar at the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. She obtained her Ph.D. in Developmental Biology from the University of Washington and did postdoctoral research in Genetics at the University of California, Berkeley and in Biochemistry at the University of California, San Francisco. She became a faculty member at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine in 1983 and moved to Stanford University in 1996. Her research contributions have been published in prestigious journals such as Cell, Nature, Genes & Development, Neuron, and Journal of Cell Biology.


    With her collaborator, graphic designer Ann Boughton, Tobin has completed the production of three educational multimedia CD-ROM discs about the genetic revolution in medical care sparked by the rapid advances in our knowledge about the human genome. An on-line version derived and updated from these CDs is pending release through Twisted Ladder Media, and is entitled: "The New Genetics: Medicine and the Human Genome. Molecular Concepts, Applications, and Ramifications." In addition, Tobin and Boughton have collaborated on educational websites on inherited risk of breast cancer and on hereditary colorectal cancer with the Stanford Cancer Genetics Clinic.

    Tobin's current major research interests include an educational project funded by the National Science Foundation to create and evaluate innovative modules for undergraduates entitled, "The New Genetics: Electronic Tools for Educational Innovation." The modules are presented in on-line form as an electronic course and are accompanied by workbook exercises and problem sets. The content includes principles of genetics, molecular genetic technologies, applications in medicine, environmental biology, agriculture, and society, as well as implications. In addition, she is collaborating on two projects that are exploring the ramifications of using genetic information about addiction risk in the judicial system.

    Tobin is a member of the Benchside Consultation Team for the Center for the Integration of Research on Genetics and Ethics, and she evaluates clinical protocols for ethical issues for the Clinical Translational Research Program.

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