Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington (2019)
Master of Social Work, University of Washington (2013)
Bachelor of Arts, University of North Carolina, Charlotte (2011)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for unipolar treatment-resistant depression (TRD). rTMS has been utilized clinically to treat bipolar TRD; however, there remains a lack of evidence and support for effectively utilizing this intervention for bipolar TRD. We retrospectively analyzed data from a group of patients who were treated with rTMS for unipolar or bipolar TRD and describe a case example to further delineate management techniques for employing rTMS in the treatment of bipolar TRD.Records of 71 patients treated with rTMS for unipolar (n=54) or bipolar (n=17) TRD between 2008 and 2017 were reviewed. The primary outcome of depression severity, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, was completed at baseline and after every 5 sessions throughout the course of 30 treatments. Secondary outcomes involved a comparison of outcomes and clinical characteristics within and between the bipolar and unipolar TRD groups.In the total sample, patients' depression improved significantly over the course of treatment. Patients with bipolar TRD showed greater response and remission rates over the course of treatment compared with patients with unipolar TRD, but this difference was not statistically significant. Both groups showed a similar pattern of depression response over treatment time. No manic or hypomanic episodes occurred during any patient's course of rTMS treatment. A case example is provided discussing the timing of rTMS in a patient with bipolar depression to decrease the likelihood of treatment-induced hypomania.Limitations included the small overall sample size, the smaller size of the patient group with bipolar TRD compared with the group with unipolar TRD, and the naturalistic setting of this study.Our data suggest that rTMS may be equally effective and safe for patients with both unipolar and bipolar depression. Patients with bipolar TRD showed a similar response profile over treatment time compared with patients with unipolar TRD.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PRA.0000000000000447
View details for PubMedID 31913968
New antidepressant treatments are needed that are effective, rapid acting, safe, and tolerable. Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation treatment that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment-resistant depression. Recent methodological advances suggest that the current iTBS protocol might be improved through 1) treating patients with multiple sessions per day at optimally spaced intervals, 2) applying a higher overall pulse dose of stimulation, and 3) precision targeting of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) circuit. The authors examined the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of Stanford Accelerated Intelligent Neuromodulation Therapy (SAINT), an accelerated, high-dose resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI)-guided iTBS protocol for treatment-resistant depression.Twenty-two participants with treatment-resistant depression received open-label SAINT. fcMRI was used to individually target the region of the left DLPFC most anticorrelated with sgACC in each participant. Fifty iTBS sessions (1,800 pulses per session, 50-minute intersession interval) were delivered as 10 daily sessions over 5 consecutive days at 90% resting motor threshold (adjusted for cortical depth). Neuropsychological testing was conducted before and after SAINT.One participant withdrew, leaving a sample size of 21. Nineteen of 21 participants (90.5%) met remission criteria (defined as a score <11 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale). In the intent-to-treat analysis, 19 of 22 participants (86.4%) met remission criteria. Neuropsychological testing demonstrated no negative cognitive side effects.SAINT, an accelerated, high-dose, iTBS protocol with fcMRI-guided targeting, was well tolerated and safe. Double-blinded sham-controlled trials are needed to confirm the remission rate observed in this initial study.
View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19070720
View details for PubMedID 32252538