Bio

Honors & Awards


  • ?Highlights of PMB in 2012? <http://goo.gl/aXoPho>, Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) (2013)
  • ?The top 10 most popular paper of 2012? <http://goo.gl/9Gp0M4&lt >, Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB). (2013)
  • ?Robert C. Block Prize" winner for Radiation Technology Research, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (2012)

Education & Certifications


  • PhD, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Health/Medical Physics (2012)
  • DSc, Chinese Academy of Science, Biophysics (2009)
  • MS, Chinese Academy of Science, Nuclear Engineering and Science (2006)

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Extension of RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms to obese patients and a Monte Carlo study of the effect on CT imaging dose PHYSICS IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY Ding, A., Mille, M. M., Liu, T., Caracappa, P. F., Xu, X. G. 2012; 57 (9)

    Abstract

    Although it is known that obesity has a profound effect on x-ray computed tomography (CT) image quality and patient organ dose, quantitative data describing this relationship are not currently available. This study examines the effect of obesity on the calculated radiation dose to organs and tissues from CT using newly developed phantoms representing overweight and obese patients. These phantoms were derived from the previously developed RPI-adult male and female computational phantoms. The result was a set of ten phantoms (five males, five females) with body mass indexes ranging from 23.5 (normal body weight) to 46.4 kg m(-2) (morbidly obese). The phantoms were modeled using triangular mesh geometry and include specified amounts of the subcutaneous adipose tissue and visceral adipose tissue. The mesh-based phantoms were then voxelized and defined in the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended code to calculate organ doses from CT imaging. Chest-abdomen-pelvis scanning protocols for a GE LightSpeed 16 scanner operating at 120 and 140 kVp were considered. It was found that for the same scanner operating parameters, radiation doses to organs deep in the abdomen (e.g., colon) can be up to 59% smaller for obese individuals compared to those of normal body weight. This effect was found to be less significant for shallow organs. On the other hand, increasing the tube potential from 120 to 140 kVp for the same obese individual resulted in increased organ doses by as much as 56% for organs within the scan field (e.g., stomach) and 62% for those out of the scan field (e.g., thyroid), respectively. As higher tube currents are often used for larger patients to maintain image quality, it was of interest to quantify the associated effective dose. It was found from this study that when the mAs was doubled for the obese level-I, obese level-II and morbidly-obese phantoms, the effective dose relative to that of the normal weight phantom increased by 57%, 42% and 23%, respectively. This set of new obese phantoms can be used in the future to study the optimization of image quality and radiation dose for patients of different weight classifications. Our ultimate goal is to compile all the data derived from these phantoms into a comprehensive dosimetry database defined in the VirtualDose software.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0031-9155/57/9/2441

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303046200005

    View details for PubMedID 22481470

  • Monte Carlo calculation of imaging doses from diagnostic multidetector CT and kilovoltage cone-beam CT as part of prostate cancer treatment plans MEDICAL PHYSICS Ding, A., Gu, J., Trofimov, A. V., Xu, X. G. 2010; 37 (12): 6199-6204

    Abstract

    To calculate imaging doses to the rectum, bladder, and femoral heads as part of a prostate cancer treatment plans, assuming an image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) procedure involving either the multidetector CT (MDCT) or kilovoltage cone-beam CT (kV CBCT).This study considered an IGRT treatment plan for a prostate carcinoma patient involving 50.4 Gy from 28 initial fractions and a boost of 28.8 Gy from 16 fractions. A total of 45 CT imaging procedures, each involving a MDCT or a kV CBCT scan procedure, were carefully modeled using the MCNPX code version 2.5.0. The MDCT scanner model is based on the GE LightSpeed 16-MDCT scanner and the kV CBCT scanner model is based on the Varian On-Board Imager using parameters reported by the CT manufacturers and literatures. A patient-specific treatment planning CT data set was used to construct the phantom for the dose calculation. The target, organs-at-risk (OARs), and background voxels in the CT data set were categorized into six tissue types according to CT numbers for Monte Carlo calculations.For a total of 45 imaging procedures, it was found that the rectum received 78.4 and 76.7 cGy from MDCT and kV CBCT, respectively. The bladder received slightly greater doses of 82.4 and 77.9 cGy, while the femoral heads received much higher doses of 182.3 and 141.3 cGy from MDCT and kV CBCT, respectively. To investigate the impact of these imaging doses on treatment planning, OAR doses from MDCT or kV CBCT imaging procedures were added to the corresponding dose matrix reported by the original treatment plans to construct dose volume histograms. It was found that after the imaging dose is added, the rectum volumes irradiated to 75 and 70 Gy increased from 13.9% and 21.2%, respectively, in the original plan to 14.8% and 21.8%. The bladder volumes receiving 80 Gy increased to 4.6% from 4.1% in the original plan and the volume receiving 75 Gy increased to 7.9% from 7.5%. All values remained within the tolerance levels: V70<25%, V75 <15% for rectum and V75 < 25%, V80 < 15% for bladder. The irradiation of femoral heads was also acceptable with no volume receiving >45 Gy.IGRT procedures can irradiate the OARs to an imaging dose level that is great enough to require careful evaluation and perhaps even adjustment of original treatment planning in order to still satisfy the dose constraints. This study only considered one patient CT because the CT x rays cover a relatively larger volume of the body and the dose distribution is considerably more uniform than those associated with the therapeutic beams. As a result, the dose to an organ from CT imaging doses does not vary much from one patient to the other for the same CT settings. One factor that would potentially affect such CT dose level is the size of the patient body. More studies are needed to develop accurate and convenient methods of accounting for the imaging doses as part of treatment planning.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.3512791

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285849400010

    View details for PubMedID 21302776

  • TRAINING SOFTWARE USING VIRTUAL-REALITY TECHNOLOGY AND PRE-CALCULATED EFFECTIVE DOSE DATA HEALTH PHYSICS Ding, A., Zhang, D., Xu, X. G. 2009; 96 (5): 594-601

    Abstract

    This paper describes the development of a software package, called VR Dose Simulator, which aims to provide interactive radiation safety and ALARA training to radiation workers using virtual-reality (VR) simulations. Combined with a pre-calculated effective dose equivalent (EDE) database, a virtual radiation environment was constructed in VR authoring software, EON Studio, using 3-D models of a real nuclear power plant building. Models of avatars representing two workers were adopted with arms and legs of the avatar being controlled in the software to simulate walking and other postures. Collision detection algorithms were developed for various parts of the 3-D power plant building and avatars to confine the avatars to certain regions of the virtual environment. Ten different camera viewpoints were assigned to conveniently cover the entire virtual scenery in different viewing angles. A user can control the avatar to carry out radiological engineering tasks using two modes of avatar navigation. A user can also specify two types of radiation source: Cs and Co. The location of the avatar inside the virtual environment during the course of the avatar's movement is linked to the EDE database. The accumulative dose is calculated and displayed on the screen in real-time. Based on the final accumulated dose and the completion status of all virtual tasks, a score is given to evaluate the performance of the user. The paper concludes that VR-based simulation technologies are interactive and engaging, thus potentially useful in improving the quality of radiation safety training. The paper also summarizes several challenges: more streamlined data conversion, realistic avatar movement and posture, more intuitive implementation of the data communication between EON Studio and VB.NET, and more versatile utilization of EDE data such as a source near the body, etc., all of which needs to be addressed in future efforts to develop this type of software.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265066800008

    View details for PubMedID 19359853

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