Increasing prevalence of cirrhosis among U.S. adults aware or unaware of their chronic hepatitis C virus infection.
Journal of hepatology
2016; 64 (5): 1027-1032
Current and Future Burden of Chronic Nonmalignant Liver Disease
CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY
2015; 13 (12): 2031-2041
Cirrhosis from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. We determine the prevalence of cirrhosis among HCV-infected American adults including those unaware of their infection.Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, we identified participants aged⩾20 years with detectable serum HCV RNA. The prevalence of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis was determined for Eras 1 (1988-94), 2 (1999-2006) and 3 (2007-12) by using FIB-4 > 3.25 and APRI > 2.0, respectively.Out of 52,644 NHANES examinees, 49,429 were tested for HCV, of whom 725 met the inclusion criteria (positive HCV RNA with available data for FIB-4 and APRI). Based on APRI, 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]:2.2-11.0) of HCV-infected adults in Era 1, 7.6% (95%CI:3.4-11.8) in Era 2 and 17.0% (95%CI:8.0-26.0) in Era 3 had cirrhosis. In the multivariable regression analysis, this era effect was attributable to increasing age (odds ratio [OR]:1.04, 95%CI:1.02-1.07), diabetes (OR:2.33, 95%CI:1.01-5.40) and obesity (OR:2.96, 95%CI:1.15-7.57). Cirrhosis was as common among respondents who were unaware of their infection as those who were aware (both 11%). Results were identical when FIB-4 was used.Among HCV-infected American adults, the proportion with cirrhosis has increased rapidly. Cirrhosis prevalence remains high in individuals unaware of their HCV infection. These data highlight the urgency for HCV screening regardless of symptoms, systematic assessment for liver fibrosis in those with HCV infection and institution of antivirals to prevent advanced liver disease.Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis, creatingalarge public health burden. Based on the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sample, we found the proportion of patients with cirrhosis among Americans with HCV infection increased from 6.6% to 17.0% over the past two decades. Patients who wereunaware of their infection was just as likely to have cirrhosis as those who knew about their infection,which highlights the need for screening and treatment for HCV at the population level.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.01.009
View details for PubMedID 26809112
Disease burden is an important indicator of the state of health of a population. It can be measured as the frequency (eg, incidence and prevalence) of a condition or its effects including fatal and non-fatal health loss from disease (eg, disability-adjusted life years) as well as the financial costs (eg, direct healthcare costs and indirect healthcare expenditures related to lost income because of premature death). Accurate disease burden information is essential for policy-making such as prioritization of health interventions and allocation of resources. Chronic liver disease (CLD) causes substantial health and economic burden in the United States, where nearly 2 million deaths annually are attributable to CLD. In the recent past, overall mortality rate of CLD has been increasing. Viral hepatitis and alcoholic liver disease are thought to be the most common etiologies of chronic liver diseases. More recently, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is rapidly increasing, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis has become a leading indication for liver transplantation. In this article, we assemble available data on the burden of CLD in the United States, focusing on nonmalignant complications, whereas the impact on mortality and healthcare expenses of hepatocellular carcinoma, an important consequence of CLD, is discussed elsewhere.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.08.015
View details for Web of Science ID 000363166200002
View details for PubMedID 26291665