Bio

Professional Education


  • Doctor of Medicine, Stanford University, MED-MD (2009)
  • Bachelor of Arts, Stanford University, ENGL-BA (2002)

Publications

All Publications


  • Dialysis plus do not resuscitate--not a contradiction. JAMA internal medicine Wilhelm-Leen, E. R., Chertow, G. M. 2015; 175 (6): 1035-1036

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0413

    View details for PubMedID 25915153

  • Phase Angle, Frailty and Mortality in Older Adults JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE Wilhelm-Leen, E. R., Hall, Y. N., Horwitz, R. I., Chertow, G. M. 2014; 29 (1): 147-154

    Abstract

    Frailty is a multidimensional phenotype that describes declining physical function and a vulnerability to adverse outcomes in the setting of physical stress such as illness or hospitalization. Phase angle is a composite measure of tissue resistance and reactance measured via bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Whether phase angle is associated with frailty and mortality in the general population is unknown.To evaluate associations among phase angle, frailty and mortality.Population-based survey.Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (1988-1994).In all, 4,667 persons aged 60 and older.Frailty was defined according to a set of criteria derived from a definition previously described and validated.Narrow phase angle (the lowest quintile) was associated with a four-fold higher odds of frailty among women and a three-fold higher odds of frailty among men, adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity and comorbidity. Over a 12-year follow-up period, the adjusted relative hazard for mortality associated with narrow phase angle was 2.4 (95 % confidence interval [95 % CI] 1.8 to 3.1) in women and 2.2 (95 % CI 1.7 to 2.9) in men. Narrow phase angle was significantly associated with mortality even among participants with little or no comorbidity.Analyses of BIA and frailty were cross-sectional; BIA was not measured serially and incident frailty during follow-up was not assessed. Participants examined at home were excluded from analysis because they did not undergo BIA.Narrow phase angle is associated with frailty and mortality independent of age and comorbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-013-2585-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329352900029

    View details for PubMedID 24002625

  • Predicting the outcomes of rhabdomyolysis: a good starting point. JAMA internal medicine Wilhelm-Leen, E. R., Winkelmayer, W. C. 2013; 173 (19): 1828-1829

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9235

    View details for PubMedID 23999843

  • Vitamin D deficiency and frailty in older Americans JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Wilhelm-Leen, E. R., Hall, Y. N., DEBOER, I. H., Chertow, G. M. 2010; 268 (2): 171-180

    Abstract

    To explore the relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and frailty. Frailty is a multidimensional phenotype that describes declining physical function and a vulnerability to adverse outcomes in the setting of physical stress such as illness or hospitalization. Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are known to be associated with multiple chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to all cause mortality.Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III), we evaluated the association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and frailty, defined according to a set of criteria derived from a definition previously described and validated.Nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized US residents collected between 1988 and 1994.25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum concentration <15 ng mL(-1), was associated with a 3.7-fold increase in the odds of frailty amongst whites and a fourfold increase in the odds of frailty amongst non-whites. This association persisted after sensitivity analyses adjusting for season of the year and latitude of residence, intended to reduce misclassification of persons as 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficient or insufficient.Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with frailty amongst older adults.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02248.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279448600009

    View details for PubMedID 20528970

  • Frailty and Chronic Kidney Disease: The Third National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Wilhelm-Leen, E. R., Hall, Y. N., Tamura, M. K., Chertow, G. M. 2009; 122 (7): 664-U86

    Abstract

    Frailty is common in the elderly and in persons with chronic diseases. Few studies have examined the association of frailty with chronic kidney disease.We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate the prevalence of frailty among persons with chronic kidney disease. We created a definition of frailty based on established validated criteria, modified to accommodate available data. We used logistic regression to determine whether and to what degree stages of chronic kidney disease were associated with frailty. We also examined factors that might mediate the association between frailty and chronic kidney disease.The overall prevalence of frailty was 2.8%. However, among persons with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2), 20.9% were frail. The odds of frailty were significantly increased among all stages of chronic kidney disease, even after adjustment for the residual effects of age, sex, race, and prevalent chronic diseases. The odds of frailty associated with chronic kidney disease were only marginally attenuated with additional adjustment for sarcopenia, anemia, acidosis, inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Frailty and chronic kidney disease were independently associated with mortality.Frailty is significantly associated with all stages of chronic kidney disease and particularly with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Potential mechanisms underlying the chronic kidney disease and frailty connection remain elusive.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.01.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267341000014

    View details for PubMedID 19559169

  • Reducing mortality from anthrax bioterrorism: Strategies for stockpiling and dispensing medical and pharmaceutical supplies BIOSECURITY AND BIOTERRORISM-BIODEFENSE STRATEGY PRACTICE AND SCIENCE Bravata, D. M., Zaric, G. S., Holty, J. C., Brandeau, M. L., Wilhelm, E. R., McDonald, K. M., Owens, D. K. 2006; 4 (3): 244-262

    Abstract

    A critical question in planning a response to bioterrorism is how antibiotics and medical supplies should be stockpiled and dispensed. The objective of this work was to evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative strategies for maintaining and dispensing local and regional inventories of antibiotics and medical supplies for responses to anthrax bioterrorism. We modeled the regional and local supply chain for antibiotics and medical supplies as well as local dispensing capacity. We found that mortality was highly dependent on the local dispensing capacity, the number of individuals requiring prophylaxis, adherence to prophylactic antibiotics, and delays in attack detection. For an attack exposing 250,000 people and requiring the prophylaxis of 5 million people, expected mortality fell from 243,000 to 145,000 as the dispensing capacity increased from 14,000 to 420,000 individuals per day. At low dispensing capacities (<14,000 individuals per day), nearly all exposed individuals died, regardless of the rate of adherence to prophylaxis, delays in attack detection, or availability of local inventories. No benefit was achieved by doubling local inventories at low dispensing capacities; however, at higher dispensing capacities, the cost-effectiveness of doubling local inventories fell from 100,000 US dollars to 20,000 US dollars/life year gained as the annual probability of an attack increased from 0.0002 to 0.001. We conclude that because of the reportedly rapid availability of regional inventories, the critical determinant of mortality following anthrax bioterrorism is local dispensing capacity. Bioterrorism preparedness efforts directed at improving local dispensing capacity are required before benefits can be reaped from enhancing local inventories.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240714200010

    View details for PubMedID 16999586

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