Little has been published comparing the graduate medical education training structure and requirements across multiple countries. The goal of this study was to summarize and compare the characteristics of anesthesiology training programs in the USA, UK, Canada, Japan, Brazil, Denmark, and Switzerland as a way to better understand efforts to train anesthesiologists in different countries. Two physicians trained in each of the seven countries (convenience sample) were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The interview was facilitated by use of a predetermined questionnaire that included, for example, the duration of post-medical school training and national requirements for certain rotations, a number of cases, faculty supervision, national in-training written exams, and duty hour limits. These data were augmented by review of each country's publicly available residency training documents as available on the internet. Post-medical school anesthesia residency duration varied: three years (Brazil), four years (USA), five years (Canada and Switzerland), six years (Japan and Denmark) to nine years (UK), as did the number of explicitly required clinical rotations of a defined duration: zero (Denmark), one (Switzerland and UK), four (Brazil), six (Canada), and 12 (USA). Minimum case requirements exist in the USA, Japan, and Brazil, but not in the other countries. National written exams taken during training exist for all countries studied except Japan and Denmark. The countries studied increasingly aim to have competency-based education with milestone assessments. Training duty hour limits also varied including for example 37 hours/week averaged over a one month with limitations on night duties (Denmark), a weekly average of 48 hours taken over a 17 week period (UK), 50 hours/week maximum (Switzerland), 60 hours/week maximum (Brazil), and 80 hours/week averaged over four weeks (USA). Some countries have highly structured training programs with multiple national requirements with training principally carried out at a home institution. Other countries have a more decentralized and unregulated approach with fewer (if any) specific case or rotation requirements, where the trainee creates his/her own customized training to meet broad objectives and goals. The countries studied have different national training requirements, unique duty hour rules and are at varying stages in transitioning to an outcome based model of residency.
View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.1060
View details for PubMedID 28367396