School of Medicine


Showing 1-100 of 515 Results

  • Ranjana Advani

    Ranjana Advani

    Saul A. Rosenberg, MD, Professor of Lymphoma

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Clinical investigation in Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas and cutaneous lymphomas. Experimental therapeutics with novel chemotherapy and biologically targeted therapies.

    The research program is highly collaborative with radiation oncology, industry, pathology and dermatology.

  • Catherine Aftandilian

    Catherine Aftandilian

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Pediatrics - Hematology & Oncology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests I am interested in the prevention and management of infectious complication in pediatric oncology patients. I am also interested in developing a protocol for the management of low risk patients with fever and neutropenia.

  • Rajni Agarwal-Hashmi

    Rajni Agarwal-Hashmi

    Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Stem Cell Transplantation) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Hematopoietic Stem cell biology-created a SCID mouse model to study engraftment of cord blood derived hematopoietic cells and use of this model to develop gene transfer technology for Fanconi anemia.
    Clinical research interests are to develop new protocols to reduce graft vs host disease,treatment of viral infections post transplant and use of manipulated HSC graft in patients who receive mismatched donor transplants.

  • Ash A. Alizadeh, MD/PhD

    Ash A. Alizadeh, MD/PhD

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Oncology)

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests My research is focused on attaining a better understanding of the initiation, maintenance, and progression of tumors, and their response to current therapies toward improving future treatment strategies. In this effort, I employ tools from functional genomics, computational biology, molecular genetics, and mouse models.

    Clinically, I specialize in the care of patients with lymphomas, working on translating our findings in prospective cancer clinical trials.

  • Russ B. Altman

    Russ B. Altman

    Kenneth Fong Professor and Professor of Bioengineering, of Genetics, of Medicine (General Medical Discipline), of Biomedical Data Science and, by courtesy, of Computer Science

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests I refer you to my web page for detailed list of interests, projects and publications. In addition to pressing the link here, you can search "Russ Altman" on http://www.google.com/

  • Justin P. Annes M.D., Ph.D.

    Justin P. Annes M.D., Ph.D.

    Assistant Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology)

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests The ANNES LABORATORY of Molecular Endocrinology: Leveraging Chemical Biology to Treat Endocrine Disorders

    DIABETES
    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing at a staggering rate. By the year 2050 an astounding 25% of Americans will be diabetic. The goal of my research is to uncover therapeutic strategies to stymie the ensuing diabetes epidemic. To achieve this goal we have developed a variety of innovate experimental approaches to uncover novel approaches to curing diabetes.

    (1) Beta-Cell Regeneration: Diabetes results from either an absolute or relative deficiency in insulin production. Our therapeutic strategy is to stimulate the regeneration of insulin-producing beta-cells to enhance an individual?s insulin secretion capacity. We have developed a unique high-throughput chemical screening platform which we use to identify small molecules that promote beta-cell growth. This work has led to the identification of key molecular pathways (therapeutic targets) and candidate drugs that promote the growth and regeneration of islet beta-cells. Our goal is to utilize these discoveries to treat and prevent diabetes.

    (2) The Metabolic Syndrome: A major cause of the diabetes epidemic is the rise in obesity which leads to a cluster of diabetes- and cardiovascular disease-related metabolic abnormalities that shorten life expectancy. These physiologic aberrations are collectively termed the Metabolic Syndrome (MS). My laboratory has developed an original in vivo screening platform t to identify novel hormones that influence the behaviors (excess caloric consumption, deficient exercise and disrupted sleep-wake cycles) and the metabolic abnormalities caused by obesity. We aim to manipulate these hormone levels to prevent the development and detrimental consequences of the MS.

    HEREDIATY PARAGAGLIOMA SYNDROME
    The Hereditary Paraganglioma Syndrome (hPGL) is a rare genetic cancer syndrome that is most commonly caused by a defect in mitochondrial metabolism. Our goal is to understand how altered cellular metabolism leads to the development of cancer. Although hPGL is uncommon, it serves as an excellent model for the abnormal metabolic behavior displayed by nearly all cancers. Our goal is to develop novel therapeutic strategies that target the abnormal behavior of cancer cells. In the laboratory we have developed hPGL mouse models and use high throughput chemical screening to identify the therapeutic susceptibilities that result from the abnormal metabolic behavior of cancer cells.

    As a physician scientist trained in clinical genetics I have developed expertise in hereditary endocrine disorders and devoted my efforts to treating families affected by the hPGL syndrome. By leveraging our laboratory expertise in the hPGL syndrome, our care for individuals who have inherited the hPGL syndrome is at the forefront of medicine. Our goal is to translate our laboratory discoveries to the treatment of affected families.

  • Sally Arai

    Sally Arai

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Blood and Marrow Transplantation) at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Research interest in utilizing post-transplant adoptive cellular immunotherapy to reduce GVHD and relapse in patients with high risk hematologic malignancies.

  • Steven Artandi

    Steven Artandi

    Director, Stanford Cancer Institute, Jerome and Daisy Low Gilbert Professor and Professor of Biochemistry

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect chromosome ends and shorten with cell division and aging. We are interested in how telomere shortening influences cancer, stem cell function, aging and human disease. Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that synthesizes telomere repeats and is expressed in stem cells and in cancer. We have found that telomerase also regulates stem cells and we are pursuing the function of telomerase through diverse genetic and biochemical approaches.

  • Ann M. Arvin

    Ann M. Arvin

    Lucile Salter Packard Professor of Pediatrics and Professor of Microbiology and Immunology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our laboratory investigates the pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, focusing on the functional roles of particular viral gene products in pathogenesis and virus-cell interactions in differentiated human cells in humans and in Scid-hu mouse models of VZV cell tropisms in vivo, and the immunobiology of VZV infections.

  • Rebecca Aslakson

    Rebecca Aslakson

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health) and of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Bio Dr. Rebecca A. Aslakson is an Associate Professor at Stanford University with appointments in the Department of Primary Care & Population Health in the Palliative Care Section as well as the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine. With a Summa Cum Laude B.A. from Washington University in St. Louis, an MD from Harvard Medical School?MIT, and an MSci degree with Distinction from the University of Ulster in Northern Ireland, Dr. Aslakson completed anesthesia residency at Massachusetts General Hospital and surgical critical care fellowship at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, where she then was on faculty from 2008-2017. In 2013, Dr. Aslakson obtained her PhD in Clinical Investigations from The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health with her dissertation concerning integration of palliative care in intensive care units. Triple boarded in anesthesia, surgical critical care, and palliative medicine, Dr. Aslakson is an active researcher and clinician; her goal is to improve delivery of palliative medicine, particularly to perioperative and critically ill populations. She has published over 60 peer-reviewed papers and chapters and received research awards from multiple national funders such as AHRQ, PCORI, the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research, and the National Palliative Care Research Society. Dr. Aslakson serves on national committees for professional societies including the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM), the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM). Dr. Aslakson has received national awards including the 2015 AAHPM Early Career Investigator Award and the 2014 ASA Presidential Scholar Award. Dr. Aslakson clinically attends in the Stanford Medical Center Medical-Surgical Intensive Care Unit in Stanford, CA and lives in Palo Alto, CA with her husband and two young sons.

  • Michelle Atallah

    Michelle Atallah

    Ph.D. Student in Cancer Biology, admitted Autumn 2014

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests As part of my graduate work I developed ImmunoGlobe, a map of the immune intercellular interactome that describes how immune cells and immune system components interact to drive immune responses. By structuring our knowledge of immune interactions into a directional graph, ImmunoGlobe makes it easy to explore the relationships between components of the immune system. An interactive version of the network is available online at immunoglobe.org.

  • Laura Attardi

    Laura Attardi

    Professor of Radiation Oncology (Radiation and Cancer Biology) and of Genetics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our research is aimed at defining the pathways of p53-mediated apoptosis and tumor suppression, using a combination of biochemical, cell biological, and mouse genetic approaches. Our strategy is to start by generating hypotheses about p53 mechanisms of action using primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), and then to test them using gene targeting technology in the mouse.

  • Jeffrey Axelrod

    Jeffrey Axelrod

    Professor of Pathology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Genetic and cell biological analyses of signals controlling cell polarity and morphogenesis. Frizzled signaling and cytoskeletal organization.

  • Leah Backhus

    Leah Backhus

    Associate Professor of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Thoracic Surgery) at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System

    Bio Leah Backhus trained in general surgery at the University of Southern California and cardiothoracic surgery at the University of California Los Angeles. She practices at Stanford Hospital and is Chief of Thoracic Surgery at the VA Palo Alto. Her surgical practice consists of general thoracic surgery with special emphasis on thoracic oncology and minimally invasive surgical techniques. She is also involved in research with the Thoracic Surgical Health Services Research group, and has grant funding through the Veterans Affairs Administration. Her current research interests are in imaging surveillance following treatment for lung cancer and cancer survivorship. She is a member of the National Lung Cancer Roundtable of the American Cancer Society serving as Chair of the Task Group on Lung Cancer in Women. She also serves as a professional member of the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) Advisory Panel on Improving Healthcare Systems. As an educator, Dr. Backhus is the Associate Program Director for the Thoracic Track Residency and serves on the ACGME Residency Review Committee for Thoracic Surgery which is the accrediting body for all cardiothoracic surgery training programs in the US.

  • Annelise E. Barron

    Annelise E. Barron

    Associate Professor of Bioengineering

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Biophysical mechanisms of host defense peptides (a.k.a. antimicrobial peptides) and their peptoid mimics; also, molecular and cellular biophysics of human innate immune responses.

  • Michael Bassik

    Michael Bassik

    Assistant Professor of Genetics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests My laboratory is focused on (1) the development of new technologies for high-throughput functional genomics using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and (2) application of these tools to study the cellular response to drugs and endocytic pathogens (such as bacteria, viruses, and protein toxins). Fascinating in themselves, these pathogens also help illuminate basic cell biology. A complementary interest is in the identification of new drug targets and combinations to combat cancer and neurodegeneration.

  • Philip Beachy

    Philip Beachy

    The Ernest and Amelia Gallo Professor in the School of Medicine, Professor of Urology, of Developmental Biology and, by courtesy, of Chemical and Systems Biology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Function of Hedgehog proteins and other extracellular signals in morphogenesis (pattern formation), in injury repair and regeneration (pattern maintenance). We study how the distribution of such signals is regulated in tissues, how cells perceive and respond to distinct concentrations of signals, and how such signaling pathways arose in evolution. We also study the normal roles of such signals in stem-cell physiology and their abnormal roles in the formation and expansion of cancer stem cells.

  • Christopher Beaulieu M.D., Ph.D.

    Christopher Beaulieu M.D., Ph.D.

    Professor of Radiology (Musculoskeletal Imaging) and, by courtesy, of Orthopaedic Surgery at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Informatics and image processing techniques that provide infrastructure for diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging. Decision support for improving accuracy of bone tumor diagnosis. Improved methods for MRI in the musculoskeletal system.

  • Hans Becker

    Hans Becker

    Professor of Radiology (Cardiovascular Imaging) at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Myocardial bridges (MB) with associated upfront atherosclerotic lesions are common findings on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Abnormal septal wall motion in exercise echocardiography (EE) may to be associated with MB. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is considered the gold standard for the detection of MB. We investigate whether CTA is comparable to IVUS for the assessment of MB and upstream plaques in symptomatic patients with suspicion for MB raised by EE.

  • Gill Bejerano

    Gill Bejerano

    Associate Professor of Developmental Biology, of Computer Science, of Biomedical Data Science and of Pediatrics (Genetics)

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Bejerano, co-discoverer of ultraconserved elements, studies the Human Genome. His research focuses on genome sequence and function in both humans and related primate, mammalian and vertebrate species. He is deeply interested in mapping both coding and non-coding genome sequence variation to phenotype differences, and in extracting specific genetic insights from high throughput sequencing measurements, in the contexts of development and developmental abnormalities.

  • Sean Bendall

    Sean Bendall

    Assistant Professor (Research) of Pathology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our goal is to understand the mechanisms regulating the development of human systems. Drawing on both pluripotent stem cell biology, hematopoiesis, and immunology, combined with novel high-content single-cell analysis (CyTOF ? Mass Cytometry) and imagining (MIBI-Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging) we are creating templates of ?normal? human cellular behavior to both discover novel regulatory events and cell populations as well as understand dysfunctional processes such as cancer.

  • Jonathan S. Berek, MD, MMS

    Jonathan S. Berek, MD, MMS

    Laurie Kraus Lacob Professor

    Bio Laurie Kraus Lacob Professor
    Stanford University School of Medicine

    Director, Stanford Women?s Cancer Center
    Senior Advisor, Stanford Cancer Institute

    Director, Stanford Health Communication Initiative
    Advancing Communication Excellence at Stanford
    Stanford Center for Health Education
    Office of the Vice Provost for Teaching and Learning
    Stanford University

    Director, Stanford Health Care Communication Program
    Stanford Health Care

  • Dominique Bergmann

    Dominique Bergmann

    Professor of Biology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests We use genetic, genomic and cell biological approaches to study cell fate acquisition, focusing on cases where cell fate is correlated with asymmetric cell division.

  • Daniel Bernstein

    Daniel Bernstein

    Alfred Woodley Salter and Mabel Smith Salter Endowed Professor in Pediatrics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests 1. Role of alterations in mitochondrial structure and function in normal physiology and disease.
    2. Differences between R and L ventricular responses to stress, including gene expression and miR regulation.
    3. Using iPSC-derived myocytes to understand hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and congenital heart disease.
    4. Immune biomarkers of risk after pediatric VAD implantation.
    5. Biomarkers for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

  • Carolyn Bertozzi

    Carolyn Bertozzi

    Director, ChEM-H, Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences and Professor, by courtesy, of Radiology and of Chemical and Systems Biology

    Bio Professor Carolyn Bertozzi's research interests span the disciplines of chemistry and biology with an emphasis on studies of cell surface sugars important to human health and disease. Her research group profiles changes in cell surface glycosylation associated with cancer, inflammation and bacterial infection, and uses this information to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, most recently in the area of immuno-oncology.

    Dr. Bertozzi completed her undergraduate degree in Chemistry at Harvard University and her Ph.D. at UC Berkeley, focusing on the chemical synthesis of oligosaccharide analogs. During postdoctoral work at UC San Francisco, she studied the activity of endothelial oligosaccharides in promoting cell adhesion at sites of inflammation. She joined the UC Berkeley faculty in 1996. A Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator since 2000, she came to Stanford University in June 2015, among the first faculty to join the interdisciplinary institute ChEM-H (Chemistry, Engineering & Medicine for Human Health). Named a MacArthur Fellow in 1999, Dr. Bertozzi has received many awards for her dedication to chemistry, and to training a new generation of scientists fluent in both chemistry and biology. She has been elected to the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and American Academy of Arts and Sciences; and received the Lemelson-MIT Prize, the Heinrich Wieland Prize, and the ACS Award in Pure Chemistry, among many others. Her efforts in undergraduate education have earned the UC Berkeley Distinguished Teaching Award and the Donald Sterling Noyce Prize for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching.

    Today, the Bertozzi Group at Stanford studies the glycobiology underlying diseases such as cancer, inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, and infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. The work has advanced understanding of cell surface oligosaccharides involved in cell recognition and inter-cellular communication.

    Dr. Bertozzi's lab also develops new methods to perform controlled chemical reactions within living systems. The group has developed new tools for studying glycans in living systems, and more recently nanotechnologies for probing biological systems. Such "bioorthogonal" chemistries enable manipulation of biomolecules in their living environment.

    Several of the technologies developed in the Bertozzi lab have been adapted for commercial use. Actively engaged with several biotechnology start-ups, Dr. Bertozzi founded Redwood Bioscience of Emeryville, California, and has served on the research advisory board of GlaxoSmithKline.

  • Ami Bhatt

    Ami Bhatt

    Assistant Professor of Medicine (Hematology) and of Genetics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests The Bhatt lab is exploring how the microbiota is intertwined with states of health and disease. We apply the most modern genetic tools in an effort to deconvolute the mechanism of human diseases.

  • Francis Blankenberg

    Francis Blankenberg

    Associate Professor of Radiology (Pediatric Radiology) and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Studies on apoptotic cell death in vivo using the H MRS phenomenon.

  • Helen M. Blau

    Helen M. Blau

    The Donald E. and Delia B. Baxter Foundation Professor and Director, Baxter Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Prof. Helen Blau's research area is regenerative medicine with a focus on stem cells. Her research on nuclear reprogramming and demonstrating the plasticity of cell fate using cell fusion is well known and her laboratory has also pioneered the design of biomaterials to mimic the in vivo microenvironment and direct stem cell fate. Current findings are leading to more efficient iPS generation, cell based therapies by dedifferentiation a la newts, and discovery of novel molecules and therapies.

  • Douglas W. Blayney

    Douglas W. Blayney

    Professor of Medicine (Oncology) at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Improving the quality of cancer care at Stanford, in our network of care, and nationally

  • Nikolas Blevins, MD

    Nikolas Blevins, MD

    Larry and Sharon Malcolmson Professor in the School of Medicine and Professor, by courtesy, of Neurosurgery at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Inner ear microendoscopy -- Developing techniques for minimally-invasive imaging of inner ear microanatomy and neural pysiology. Applications include improved cochlear implant development, inner ear regenerative techniques, inner ear surgery, and auditory physiology.

    Microsurgical robotics -- Developing scalable microsurgical instrumentation and robotic techniques for use in head and neck surgery.

    Surgical Simulation -- Immersive environment for temporal bone surgical simulation.

  • Daniel Bloch

    Daniel Bloch

    Professor (Research) of Health Research and Policy, Emeritus

    Bio I received my PhD. in Mathematical Statistics in 1967. I joined the research community at the Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Immunology & Rheumatology, in 1984 as head statistician directing the biostatistics consulting and analytic support of the Arthritis Rheumatism Aging Medical Information System (ARAMIS) and Multipurpose Arthritis Center (MAC) grant-related research programs. In 1993 I was appointed Associate Professor with a joint appointment in the Departments of Medicine and of Health Research & Policy, and am currently Professor of Biostatistics at Stanford University, emeritus since 2007. My contributions to the statistics literature span numerous fields, including methods of sample size estimation, efficiency and bias of estimators, research methods for kappa statistics, non-parametric classification methods and methods of assessing multi-parameter endpoints. I have over 200 peer-reviewed publications. I have been directly involved with the development of numerous criteria rules for classification of diseases and with establishing guidelines for clinical trial research and in proposing responder criteria for osteoarthritis drugs. Since 1987, I have been a consultant on an ad hoc basis to pharmaceutical and biotechnical firms, including both start-up and established companies. I have extensive experience with devices, drugs and biologics and have participated in all aspects of applying statistics to implement investigational plans; e.g.: for protocol development, design of trials, database design. I?ve been a member of the FDA Statistical Advisors Panel, the statistical member on numerous data safety monitoring boards, and frequently represent companies at meetings with the FDA

  • Paul D. Blumenthal, MD, MPH

    Paul D. Blumenthal, MD, MPH

    Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Gynecology-Family Planning) at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Improving Access to Family Planning Services in Low Resource Settings:

    Through a collaboration with Population Services International, the Stanford Program for International Reproductive Education and Services (SPIRES) provides technical direction in a program designed to improve access to and uptake of family planning, particularly Long Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) such as IUDs and implants, in 14 developing countries globally. The first year saw insertion of over 280,000 IUDs.

  • Matthew Bogyo

    Matthew Bogyo

    Professor of Pathology and of Microbiology and Immunology and, by courtesy, of Chemical and Systems Biology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our lab uses chemical, biochemical, and cell biological methods to study protease function in human disease. Projects include:

    1) Design and synthesis of novel chemical probes for serine and cysteine hydrolases.

    2) Understanding the role of hydrolases in bacterial pathogenesis and the human parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii.

    3) Defining the specific functional roles of proteases during the process of tumorogenesis.

    4) In vivo imaging of protease activity

  • Donna M. Bouley

    Donna M. Bouley

    Professor of Comparative Medicine at the Stanford University Medical Center, Emerita

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Research interests: ocular pathology, host-pathogen interactions in infectious disease, infectious disease in frogs, phenotypic characterization of tg and ko mice, histopathology of minimally-invasive radiological ablation techniques (focused ultrasound, cryoablation).

  • Linda Boxer, MD, PhD

    Linda Boxer, MD, PhD

    Vice Dean of the School of Medicine and Stanley McCormick Memorial Professor in the School of Medicine

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Regulation of expression of oncogenes in normal and malignant hematologic cells.

  • Scott Boyd, MD PhD

    Scott Boyd, MD PhD

    Associate Professor of Pathology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our goal is to understand the lymphocyte genotype-phenotype relationships in healthy human immunity and in immunological diseases. We apply new technologies and data analysis approaches to this challenge, particularly high-throughput DNA sequencing and single-cell monoclonal antibody generation, in parallel with other functional assays.

  • Onn Brandman

    Onn Brandman

    Assistant Professor of Biochemistry

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests The Brandman Lab studies how cells sense and respond to stress. We employ an integrated set of techniques including single cell analysis, mathematical modeling, genomics, structural studies, and in vitro assays.

  • James D. Brooks

    James D. Brooks

    Keith and Jan Hurlbut Professor in the Stanford University School of Medicine

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests We use genomic approaches to identify disease biomarkers. We are most interested in translating biomarkers into clinical practice in urological diseases with a particular focus in cancer.

  • Martin Brown

    Martin Brown

    Professor of Radiation Oncology, Emeritus

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests We seek to understand the mechanisms responsible for the resistance of cancers to treatment and to develop strategies to overcome these resistances. We are using molecular and cellular techniques and mouse models to potentiate the activity of radiation on tumors by inhibiting the bone marrow rescue of the tumor vasculature following therapy.

  • Wes (Janice) Brown

    Wes (Janice) Brown

    Professor of Medicine (Blood and Marrow Transplantation) at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Bio Dr. Janice (Wes) Brown specializes in the treatment of infectious complications that occur in patients who are receiving cancer treatments or are undergoing transplantation of solid organs or hematopoietic cells. She has been a member of the Blood and Marrow Transplantation faculty for more than twenty years and co-founded the Immunocompromised Host Infectious Diseases consultation service. Dr. Brown?s special interest is to understand the nature of immunodeficiency resulting from an ever- evolving spectrum of targeted and immunomodulatory therapy. Her laboratory studies approaches to enhance and/or rebuild protective immunity. She is a leader in the design and execution of clinical trials of new treatments for infections that have significantly improved the outcomes of high-risk patients.

  • Anne Brunet

    Anne Brunet

    Michele and Timothy Barakett Endowed Professor

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our lab studies the molecular basis of longevity. We are interested in the mechanism of action of known longevity genes, including FOXO and SIRT, in the mammalian nervous system. We are particularly interested in the role of these longevity genes in neural stem cells. We are also discovering novel genes and processes involved in aging using two short-lived model systems, the invertebrate C. elegans and an extremely short-lived vertebrate, the African killifish N. furzeri.

  • Nam Quoc Bui

    Nam Quoc Bui

    Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Oncology

    Bio Dr. Bui is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at the Stanford Cancer Institute and a specialist in the Sarcoma and Developmental Therapeutics programs. Dr. Bui earned an undergraduate degree in Computer Science at Stanford University and went on to earn his medical degree from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. He completed Internal Medicine residency at Stanford Hospital and Hematology/Oncology fellowship at the University of California San Diego, where he performed extensive research in bioinformatics to analyze tumor sequencing data. His research background and interests are in the field of bioinformatics as applied to large data sets and the study of novel compounds in rare malignancies.

  • Carlos Bustamante

    Carlos Bustamante

    Professor of Biomedical Data Science, of Genetics and, by courtesy, of Biology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests My genetics research focuses on analyzing genome wide patterns of variation within and between species to address fundamental questions in biology, anthropology, and medicine. We focus on novel methods development for complex disease genetics and risk prediction in multi-ethnic settings. I am also interested in clinical data science and development of new diagnostics.I am also interested in disruptive innovation for healthcare including modeling long-term risk shifts and novel payment models.

  • Eugene Butcher

    Eugene Butcher

    Klaus Bensch Professor in Pathology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our interests include:
    1) The physiology and function of lymphocyte homing in local and systemic immunity;
    2) Biochemical and genetic studies of molecules that direct leukocyte recruitment;
    3) Chemotactic mechanisms and receptors in vascular and immune biology;
    4) Vascular control of normal and pathologic inflammation and immunity;
    5) Systems biology of immune cell trafficking and programming in tumor immunity.

  • Mark A. Cappelli

    Mark A. Cappelli

    Professor of Mechanical Engineering

    Bio Professor Cappelli is the author of over 100 papers in these areas. He is currently a member of the Editorial Board of Diamond Films and Technology. He is also secretary of the Electric Propulsion Technical Committee of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics.

  • Ian Carroll, MD, MS

    Ian Carroll, MD, MS

    Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (Adult Pain) at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests We are committed to promoting an understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and ensuring that all patients who are suffering from cerebrospinal fluid leaks receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment of this devastating, chronic, and fixable condition. We believe this can be best accomplished in a multidisciplinary setting involving expertise in radiology, neurology, and interventional pain medicine.

  • Chris Cartwright, MD

    Chris Cartwright, MD

    Professor of Medicine (Gastroenterology and Hepatology), Emerita

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Molecular mechanisms of intestinal cell growth control; function and regulation of the Src family of tyrosine kinases in normal cells, and their deregulation in cancer cells.

  • Jacob Chabon

    Jacob Chabon

    Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Stanford Cancer Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests I am interested in genomics and bioinformatics, with a focus on using cell free DNA (cfDNA) to inform more personalized treatment strategies for cancer patients. My lab uses cfDNA, which is accessible via the circulation, as a non-invasive biomarker to both detect cancer (i.e. screening) and better monitor whether patients are responding to treatment over time (i.e. surveillance).

  • Anne Lynn S. Chang, MD

    Anne Lynn S. Chang, MD

    Associate Professor of Dermatology at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests I have two main research interests:
    1) to better understand and treat patients with aggressive basal cell carcinomas
    2) to better understand the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of healthy human skin aging and to translate these insights into better care of skin diseases enriched in older patients particularly skin cancer and rosacea

  • Daniel Chang

    Daniel Chang

    Sue and Bob McCollum Professor

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests I specialize in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies. I am interested in developing stereotactic body radiotherapy for tumors of the liver, both primary and metastatic. I am interested in developing functional imaging as a means of determining treatment response with radiation. I am also interested in developing image-guided radiotherapy to improve radiation delivery for GI cancers to reduce toxicity and improve disease outcome.

  • Howard Y. Chang, MD, PhD

    Howard Y. Chang, MD, PhD

    Virginia and D. K. Ludwig Professor of Cancer Genomics and of Genetics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our research is focused on how the activities of hundreds or even thousands of genes (gene parties) are coordinated to achieve biological meaning. We have pioneered methods to predict, dissect, and control large-scale gene regulatory programs; these methods have provided insights into human development, cancer, and aging.

  • James K. Chen

    James K. Chen

    Professor of Chemical and Systems Biology, of Developmental Biology and of Chemistry

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our laboratory combines chemistry and developmental biology to investigate the molecular events that regulate embryonic patterning, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. We are currently using genetic and small-molecule approaches to study the molecular mechanisms of Hedgehog signaling, and we are developing chemical technologies to perturb and observe the genetic programs that underlie vertebrate development.

  • Alan G. Cheng

    Alan G. Cheng

    Associate Professor of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (Pediatrics) and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Active Wnt signaling maintains somatic stem cells in many organ systems. Using Wnt target genes as markers, we have characterized distinct cell populations with stem cell behavior in the inner ear, an organ thought to be terminally differentiated. Ongoing work focuses on delineating the developing significance of these putative stem/progenitor cells and their behavior after damage.

  • Zhen Cheng

    Zhen Cheng

    Associate Professor (Research) of Radiology (Molecular Imaging)

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests To develop novel molecular imaging probes and techniques for non-invasively early detection of cancer using multimodality imaging technologies including PET, SPECT, MRI, optical imaging, etc.

  • Thomas L. Cherpes, DVM, MD

    Thomas L. Cherpes, DVM, MD

    Assistant Professor of Comparative Medicine

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Directs an infectious disease laboratory that performs basic, translational, and clinical research. Laboratory has particular focus on:
    1) relationship between exogenous sex steroids on susceptibility to microbial pathogens
    2) role of Type 2 immunity in Chlamydia infection
    3) developing cellular immunotherapies to combat infectious disease and cancer

  • Athena Cherry

    Athena Cherry

    Professor of Pathology and of Pediatrics at the Stanford University Medical Center and the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests The use of molecular and molecular cytogenetic methods to identify chromosomal abnormalities in acquired and congenital disorders.

  • Ramsey Cheung

    Ramsey Cheung

    Professor of Medicine (Gastroenterology and Hepatology) at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Cheung's research interests focus on liver diseases, with emphasis on viral hepatitis. His past research include investigating the mechanism of viral neutralization of hepatitis B virus at the molecular level and immune response to hepatitis C virus. Dr. Cheung is studing various aspects of hepatitis C, both clinical and translational research.

  • Allis Chien

    Allis Chien

    Director, Stanford University Mass Spectrometry (SUMS), Mass Spectrometry Center

    Current Role at Stanford Director, Stanford University Mass Spectrometry (SUMS) core resource laboratory

  • Yueh-hsiu Chien

    Yueh-hsiu Chien

    Professor of Microbiology & Immunology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Contribution of T cells to immunocompetence and autoimmunity; how the immune system clears infection, avoids autoimmunity and how infection impacts on the development of immune responses.

  • Frederick T. Chin, Ph.D.

    Frederick T. Chin, Ph.D.

    Assistant Professor (Research) of Radiology (Molecular Imaging)

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our group's primary objectives are:

    1) Novel radioligand and radiotracer development.
    We will develop novel PET (Positron Emission Tomography) imaging agents with MIPS and Stanford faculty as well as other outside collaborations including academia and pharmaceutical industry. Although my personal research interests will be to discover and design of candidate probes that target molecular targets in the brain, our group focus will primarily be on cancer biology and gene therapy. In conjunction with our state-of-the-art imaging facility, promising candidates will be evaluated by PET-CT/MR imaging in small animals and primates. Successful radioligands and/or radiotracers will be extended towards future human clinical applications.

    2) Designing new radiolabeling techniques and methodologies.
    We will aim to design new radiolabeling techniques and methodologies that may have utility for future radiopharmaceutical development in our lab and the general radiochemistry community.

    3) Radiochemistry production of routine clinical tracers.
    Since we also have many interests with many Stanford faculty and outside collaborators, our efforts will also include the routine radiochemistry production of many existing radiotracers for human and non-human use. Our routine clinical tracers will be synthesized in custom-made or commercial synthetic modules (i.e. GE TRACERlab modules) housed in lead-shielded cells and be distributed manually or automatically (i.e. Comecer Dorothea) to our imagers.

  • Bill Chiu

    Bill Chiu

    Associate Professor of Surgery (Pediatric Surgery) at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Bio Dr. Chiu obtained his B.S. degree in Biological Sciences and graduated with Honors from Stanford University. After graduating, he received his Medical Degree at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, where he remained for his internship and General Surgery residency training. Dr. Chiu completed his Pediatric Surgery training at The Children?s Hospital of Philadelphia. He is an Associate Professor at Stanford University School of Medicine where he has an active research program studying innovative approaches to treat patients with neuroblastoma.

  • Gilbert Chu

    Gilbert Chu

    Professor of Medicine (Oncology) and of Biochemistry

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our laboratory seeks to understand how cells repair DNA damage. We currently focus on how non-homologous end joining proteins assemble on DNA ends to juxtapose them for repair of DNA double-strand breaks.

    We are collaborating on a point-of-care device to measure ammonia from a drop of blood. The device will facilitate diagnosis and management of urea cycle defects, liver disease, and chemobrain due to elevated ammonia.

  • Katrin Chua

    Katrin Chua

    Associate Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology, Gerontology and Metabolism)

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our lab is interested in understanding molecular processes that underlie aging and age-associated pathologies in mammals. We focus on a family of genes, the SIRTs, which regulate stress resistance and lifespan in lower organisms such as yeast, worms, and flies. In mammals, we recently uncovered a number of ways in which SIRT factors may contribute to cellular and organismal aging by regulating resistance to various forms of stress. We have now begun to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which these SIRT factors function. In particular, we are interested in how SIRT factors regulate chromatin, the molecular structure in which the DNA of mammalian genomes is packaged, and how such functions may link genome maintenance to stress resistance and aging.

  • Benjamin I. Chung

    Benjamin I. Chung

    Associate Professor of Urology at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer outcomes research and epidemiology.

  • Karlene Cimprich

    Karlene Cimprich

    Professor of Chemical and Systems Biology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Genomic instability contributes to many diseases, but it also underlies many natural processes. The Cimprich lab is focused on understanding how mammalian cells maintain genomic stability in the context of DNA replication stress and DNA damage. We are interested in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular response to replication stress and DNA damage as well as the links between DNA damage and replication stress to human disease.

  • Michael F. Clarke, M.D.

    Michael F. Clarke, M.D.

    Karel H. and Avice N. Beekhuis Professor in Cancer Biology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Clarke maintains a laboratory focused on two areas of research: i) the control of self-renewal of normal stem cells and diseases such as cancer and hereditary diseases; and ii) the identification and characterization of cancer stem cells. His laboratory is investigating how perturbations of stem cell regulatory machinery contributes to human disease. In particular, the laboratory is investigating epigenetic regulators of self renewal, the process by which stem cells regenerate themselves.

  • Michael Cleary

    Michael Cleary

    Lindhard Family Professor in Pediatric Cancer Biology and Professor of Pathology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests The role of oncoproteins in cancer and development; molecular and cellular biology of hematologic malignancies; targeted molecular therapies of cancer.

  • Jennifer R. Cochran

    Jennifer R. Cochran

    Shriram Chair of Bioengineering, Professor of Bioengineering and, by courtesy, of Chemical Engineering

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Molecular Engineering, Protein Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Cell and Tissue Engineering, Molecular Imaging, Chemical Biology

  • Harvey Cohen

    Harvey Cohen

    Deborah E. Addicott - John A. Kriewall and Elizabeth A. Haehl Family Professor in Pediatrics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests My research interests extend from hypothesis-driven studies in biochemistry and cell biology to discovery-driven interests in proteomics and systems biology to clinical treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children, and pediatric palliative care.

  • Stanley N. Cohen, MD

    Stanley N. Cohen, MD

    Kwoh-Ting Li Professor in the School of Medicine, Professor of Genetics and of Medicine

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests We study mechanisms that affect the expression and decay of normal and abnormal mRNAs, and also RNA-related mechanisms that regulate microbial antibiotic resistance. A small bioinformatics team within our lab has developed knowledge based systems to aid in investigations of genes.

  • A. Dimitrios Colevas

    A. Dimitrios Colevas

    Professor of Medicine (Oncology) and, by courtesy, of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Multi- modality treatment of Head and Neck Cancer

    Phase 1 clinical trials

  • Christos E. Constantinou

    Christos E. Constantinou

    Associate Professor of Urology, Emeritus

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests My main recent interest is the application of Biomedical Engineering approaches for the clinical visualization and characterization of the static and dynamic properties of pelvic floor function. This extends to ultrasound Imaging and image processing, construction of computer models and biomechanics analysis of pelvic floor function. It is envisioned that these considerations are important constituents of the clinical evaluation of patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction and urodynamics.

  • John P. Cooke, MD, PhD

    John P. Cooke, MD, PhD

    Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine), Emeritus

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our translational research program in vascular regeneration is focused on generating and characterizing vascular cells from human induced pluripotential stem cells. We are also studying the therapeutic application of these cells in murine models of peripheral arterial disease. In these studies we leverage our longstanding interest in endothelial signaling, eg by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as well as by nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChR).

  • David N. Cornfield

    David N. Cornfield

    Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor in Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine and Professor, by courtesy, of Surgery

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Over the past 20 years, the Cornfield Laboratory has focused upon basic, translational and clinical research, with a primary focus on lung biology. As an active clinician-scientist, delivering care to acutely and chronically ill infants and children, our lab focuses on significant clinical challenges and tried to use science to craft novel solutions to difficult clinical problems.

  • Steven Coutre

    Steven Coutre

    Professor of Medicine (Hematology) at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests My research integrates clinical care of patients with novel treatments for a variety of hematologic disorders. I see patients with a wide range of problems with a particular focus on chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. I provide comprehensive consultative services as well as treatment for both the acute and chronic leukemias as well as non-malignant conditions such as clotting disorders and thrombocytopenia.

  • Gerald Crabtree

    Gerald Crabtree

    Department of Pathology Professor in Experimental Pathology and Professor of Developmental Biology

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Chromatin regulation and its roles in human cancer and the development of the nervous system. Engineering new methods for studying and controlling chromatin in living cells.

  • Mark R. Cullen, MD

    Mark R. Cullen, MD

    Director, Center for Population Health Sciences, Senior Associate Dean for Research-School of Medicine, Senior Associate Vice Provost, Professor of Medicine, of Biomedical Data Science, of Health Research & Policy & Senior Fellow at SIEPR

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Social and environmental determinants of health; role of workplace physical environment and work organization as causes of chronic disease and disability

  • Christina Curtis

    Christina Curtis

    Assistant Professor of Medicine (Oncology) and of Genetics

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests The Curtis laboratory is focused on the development and application of innovative experimental, computational, and analytical approaches to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and early detection of cancer.

  • Gary Dahl

    Gary Dahl

    Professor of Pediatrics (Hematology/Oncology) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Hematology/Oncology, Phase I drug studies for childhood cancer, overcoming multidrug resistance in leukemia and solid tumors, biology and treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, early detection of central nervous system leukemia by measuring growth, factor binding proteins.

  • Jeremy Dahl

    Jeremy Dahl

    Associate Professor of Radiology (Pediatric Radiology)

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Ultrasonic beamforming, imaging methods, systems, and devices.

  • Hongjie Dai

    Hongjie Dai

    The J.G. Jackson and C.J. Wood Professor in Chemistry

    Bio Professor Dai?s research spans chemistry, physics, and materials and biomedical sciences, leading to materials with properties useful in electronics, energy storage and biomedicine. Recent developments include near-infrared-II fluorescence imaging, ultra-sensitive diagnostic assays, a fast-charging aluminum battery and inexpensive electrocatalysts that split water into oxygen and hydrogen fuels.

    Born in 1966 in Shaoyang, China, Hongjie Dai began his formal studies in physics at Tsinghua U. in Beijing (B.S. 1989) and applied sciences at Columbia U. (M.S. 1991). His doctoral work under Dr. Charles Lieber at Harvard U. (Ph.D. 1994) focused on charge-density waves and superconductivity. During postdoctoral research at Rice U. with Dr. Richard Smalley, he developed carbon nanotube probes for atomic force microscopy. He joined the Stanford faculty in 1997, and in 2007 was named Jackson?Wood Professor of Chemistry. Among many awards, he has been recognized with the ACS Pure Chemistry Award, APS McGroddy Prize for New Materials, Julius Springer Prize for Applied Physics and Materials Research Society Mid-Career Award. He has been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, AAAS and National Academy of Sciences.

    The Dai Laboratory has advanced the synthesis and basic understanding of carbon nanomaterials and applications in nanoelectronics, nanomedicine, energy storage and electrocatalysis.

    Nanomaterials
    The Dai Lab pioneered some of the now-widespread uses of chemical vapor deposition for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth, including vertically aligned nanotubes and patterned growth of single-walled CNTs on wafer substrates, facilitating fundamental studies of their intrinsic properties. The group developed the synthesis of graphene nanoribbons, and of nanocrystals and nanoparticles on CNTs and graphene with controlled degrees of oxidation, producing a class of strongly coupled hybrid materials with advanced properties for electrochemistry, electrocatalysis and photocatalysis. The lab?s synthesis of a novel plasmonic gold film has enhanced near-infrared fluorescence up to 100-fold, enabling ultra-sensitive assays of disease biomarkers.

    Nanoscale Physics and Electronics
    High quality nanotubes from his group?s synthesis are widely used to investigate the electrical, mechanical, optical, electro-mechanical and thermal properties of quasi-one-dimensional systems. Lab members have studied ballistic electron transport in nanotubes and demonstrated nanotube-based nanosensors, Pd ohmic contacts and ballistic field effect transistors with integrated high-kappa dielectrics.

    Nanomedicine and NIR-II Imaging
    Advancing biological research with CNTs and nano-graphene, group members have developed ??? stacking non-covalent functionalization chemistry, molecular cellular delivery (drugs, proteins and siRNA), in vivo anti-cancer drug delivery and in vivo photothermal ablation of cancer. Using nanotubes as novel contrast agents, lab collaborations have developed in vitro and in vivo Raman, photoacoustic and fluorescence imaging. Lab members have exploited the physics of reduced light scattering in the near-infrared-II (1000-1700nm) window and pioneered NIR-II fluorescence imaging to increase tissue penetration depth in vivo. Video-rate NIR-II imaging can measure blood flow in single vessels in real time. The lab has developed novel NIR-II fluorescence agents, including CNTs, quantum dots, conjugated polymers and small organic dyes with promise for clinical translation.

    Electrocatalysis and Batteries
    The Dai group?s nanocarbon?inorganic particle hybrid materials have opened new directions in energy research. Advances include electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction and water splitting catalysts including NiFe layered-double-hydroxide for oxygen evolution. Recently, the group also demonstrated an aluminum ion battery with graphite cathodes and ionic liquid electrolytes, a substantial breakthrough in battery science.

  • Heike Daldrup-Link

    Heike Daldrup-Link

    Professor of Radiology (General Radiology) and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics (Hematology/Oncology)

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests As a physician-scientist involved in the care of pediatric patients and developing novel pediatric molecular imaging technologies, my goal is to link the fields of nanotechnology and medical imaging towards more efficient diagnoses and image-guided therapies. Our research team develops novel imaging techniques for improved cancer diagnosis, for image-guided-drug delivery and for in vivo monitoring of cell therapies in children and young adults.

  • Edward J. Damrose, MD, FACS

    Edward J. Damrose, MD, FACS

    Professor of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (Laryngology) and, by courtesy, of Anesthesiology, Perioperative & Pain Medicine at the Stanford University Medical Center

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Advanced MRI imaging for laryngeal cancer and swallowing disorders; applications of robotics in microlaryngeal surgery; high speed digital imaging of vocal fold vibration; the effects of hormones and anabolic steroids on vocal function.

  • Bruce Daniel

    Bruce Daniel

    Professor of Radiology (Body Imaging) and, by courtesy, of Bioengineering

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests 1. MRI of Breast Cancer, particularly new techniques. Currently being explored are techniques including ultra high spatial resolution MRI and contrast-agent-free detection of breast tumors.

    2. MRI-guided interventions, especially MRI-compatible remote manipulation and haptics

    3. Medical Mixed Reality. Currently being explored are methods of fusing patients and their images to potentially improve breast conserving surgery, and other conditions.

  • Millie Das

    Millie Das

    Clinical Associate Professor, Medicine - Oncology

    Bio Dr. Das specializes in the treatment of thoracic malignancies. She sees and treats patients both at the Stanford Cancer Center and at the Palo Alto VA Hospital. She is Chief of Oncology at the Palo Alto VA and also leads the VA thoracic tumor board on a biweekly basis. She has a strong interest in clinical research, serving as a principal investigator for multiple clinical and translational studies at the Palo Alto VA, and also as a co-investigator on all of the lung cancer trials at Stanford. In her free time, she enjoys spending time with her family, traveling, and running.

  • Kara Davis

    Kara Davis

    Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Hematology/Oncology) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital

    Current Research and Scholarly Interests Childhood cancers can be considered aberrations of normal tissue development. We are interested in understanding childhood cancers through the lens of normal development. Further, individual tumors are composed of heterogeneous cell populations, not all cells being equal in their ability to respond to treatment or to repopulate a tumor. Thus, we take single cell approach to determine populations of clinical relevance.

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