CaaX-Like Protease of Cyanobacterial Origin Is Required for Complex Plastid Biogenesis in Malaria Parasites.
2020; 11 (5)
Plasmodium parasites and related apicomplexans contain an essential "complex plastid" organelle of secondary endosymbiotic origin, the apicoplast. Biogenesis of this complex plastid poses a unique challenge requiring evolution of new cellular machinery. We previously conducted a mutagenesis screen for essential apicoplast biogenesis genes to discover organellar pathways with evolutionary and biomedical significance. Here we validate and characterize a gene candidate from our screen, Pf3D7_0913500. Using a conditional knockdown strain, we show that Pf3D7_0913500 depletion causes growth inhibition that is rescued by the sole essential product of the apicoplast, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), and results in apicoplast loss. Because Pf3D7_0913500 had no previous functional annotation, we name it apicoplast-minus IPP-rescued 4 (AMR4). AMR4 has an annotated CaaX protease and bacteriocin processing (CPBP) domain, which in eukaryotes typically indicates a role in CaaX postprenylation processing. Indeed, AMR4 is the only putative CaaX-like protease in Plasmodium parasites which are known to require protein prenylation, and we confirm that the conserved catalytic residue of AMR4 (E352) is required for its apicoplast function. However, we unexpectedly find that AMR4 does not act in a CaaX postprenylation processing pathway in Plasmodium falciparum Instead, we find that AMR4 is imported into the apicoplast and is derived from a cyanobacterial CPBP gene which was retained through both primary and secondary endosymbiosis. Our findings suggest that AMR4 is not a true CaaX protease, but instead it performs a conserved, uncharacterized chloroplast function that has been retained for complex plastid biogenesis.IMPORTANCE Plasmodium parasites, which cause malaria, and related apicomplexans are important human and veterinary pathogens. These parasites represent a highly divergent and understudied branch of eukaryotes, and as such often defy the expectations set by model organisms. One striking example of unique apicomplexan biology is the apicoplast, an essential but nonphotosynthetic plastid derived from an unusual secondary (eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbiosis. Endosymbioses are a major driver of cellular innovation, and apicoplast biogenesis pathways represent a hot spot for molecular evolution. We previously conducted an unbiased screen for apicoplast biogenesis genes in P. falciparum to uncover these essential and innovative pathways. Here, we validate a novel gene candidate from our screen and show that its role in apicoplast biogenesis does not match its functional annotation predicted by model eukaryotes. Our findings suggest that an uncharacterized chloroplast maintenance pathway has been reused for complex plastid biogenesis in this divergent branch of pathogens.
View details for DOI 10.1128/mBio.01492-20
View details for PubMedID 33024034
A mutagenesis screen for essential plastid biogenesis genes in human malaria parasites.
2019; 17 (2): e3000136
Endosymbiosis has driven major molecular and cellular innovations. Plasmodium spp. parasites that cause malaria contain an essential, non-photosynthetic plastid-the apicoplast-which originated from a secondary (eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbiosis. To discover organellar pathways with evolutionary and biomedical significance, we performed a mutagenesis screen for essential genes required for apicoplast biogenesis in Plasmodium falciparum. Apicoplast(-) mutants were isolated using a chemical rescue that permits conditional disruption of the apicoplast and a new fluorescent reporter for organelle loss. Five candidate genes were validated (out of 12 identified), including a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM)-barrel protein that likely derived from a core metabolic enzyme but evolved a new activity. Our results demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first forward genetic screen to assign essential cellular functions to unannotated P. falciparum genes. A putative TIM-barrel enzyme and other newly identified apicoplast biogenesis proteins open opportunities to discover new mechanisms of organelle biogenesis, molecular evolution underlying eukaryotic diversity, and drug targets against multiple parasitic diseases.
View details for PubMedID 30726238
Processive flow by biased polymerization mediates the slow axonal transport of actin.
The Journal of cell biology
Classic pulse-chase studies have shown that actin is conveyed in slow axonal transport, but the mechanistic basis for this movement is unknown. Recently, we reported that axonal actin was surprisingly dynamic, with focal assembly/disassembly events ("actin hotspots") and elongating polymers along the axon shaft ("actin trails"). Using a combination of live imaging, superresolution microscopy, and modeling, in this study, we explore how these dynamic structures can lead to processive transport of actin. We found relatively more actin trails elongated anterogradely as well as an overall slow, anterogradely biased flow of actin in axon shafts. Starting with first principles of monomer/filament assembly and incorporating imaging data, we generated a quantitative model simulating axonal hotspots and trails. Our simulations predict that the axonal actin dynamics indeed lead to a slow anterogradely biased flow of the population. Collectively, the data point to a surprising scenario where local assembly and biased polymerization generate the slow axonal transport of actin without involvement of microtubules (MTs) or MT-based motors. Mechanistically distinct from polymer sliding, this might be a general strategy to convey highly dynamic cytoskeletal cargoes.
View details for PubMedID 30401699
A dynamic formin-dependent deep F-actin network in axons.
The Journal of cell biology
2015; 210 (3): 401?17
Although actin at neuronal growth cones is well-studied, much less is known about actin organization and dynamics along axon shafts and presynaptic boutons. Using probes that selectively label filamentous-actin (F-actin), we found focal "actin hotspots" along axons-spaced ?3-4 µm apart-where actin undergoes continuous assembly/disassembly. These foci are a nidus for vigorous actin polymerization, generating long filaments spurting bidirectionally along axons-a phenomenon we call "actin trails." Super-resolution microscopy reveals intra-axonal deep actin filaments in addition to the subplasmalemmal "actin rings" described recently. F-actin hotspots colocalize with stationary axonal endosomes, and blocking vesicle transport diminishes the actin trails, suggesting mechanistic links between vesicles and F-actin kinetics. Actin trails are formin-but not Arp2/3-dependent and help enrich actin at presynaptic boutons. Finally, formin inhibition dramatically disrupts synaptic recycling. Collectively, available data suggest a two-tier F-actin organization in axons, with stable "actin rings" providing mechanical support to the plasma membrane and dynamic "actin trails" generating a flexible cytoskeletal network with putative physiological roles.
View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.201506110
View details for PubMedID 26216902
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4523607
?-synuclein multimers cluster synaptic vesicles and attenuate recycling.
Current biology : CB
2014; 24 (19): 2319?26
The normal functions and pathologic facets of the small presynaptic protein ?-synuclein (?-syn) are of exceptional interest. In previous studies, we found that ?-syn attenuates synaptic exo/endocytosis; however, underlying mechanisms remain unknown. More recent evidence suggests that ?-syn exists as metastable multimers and not solely as a natively unfolded monomer. However, conformations of ?-syn at synapses--its physiologic locale--are unclear, and potential implications of such higher-order conformations to synaptic function are unknown. Exploring ?-syn conformations and synaptic function in neurons, we found that ?-syn promptly organizes into physiological multimers at synapses. Furthermore, our experiments indicate that ?-syn multimers cluster synaptic vesicles and restrict their motility, suggesting a novel role for these higher-order structures. Supporting this, ?-syn mutations that disrupt multimerization also fail to restrict synaptic vesicle motility or attenuate exo/endocytosis. We propose a model in which ?-syn multimers cluster synaptic vesicles, restricting their trafficking and recycling, and consequently attenuate neurotransmitter release.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2014.08.027
View details for PubMedID 25264250
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4190006
Fast vesicle transport is required for the slow axonal transport of synapsin.
journal of neuroscience
2013; 33 (39): 15362-15375
Although it is known that cytosolic/soluble proteins synthesized in cell bodies are transported at much lower overall velocities than vesicles in fast axonal transport, the fundamental basis for this slow movement is unknown. Recently, we found that cytosolic proteins in axons of mouse cultured neurons are conveyed in a manner that superficially resembles diffusion, but with a slow anterograde bias that is energy- and motor-dependent (Scott et al., 2011). Here we show that slow axonal transport of synapsin, a prototypical member of this rate class, is dependent upon fast vesicle transport. Despite the distinct overall dynamics of slow and fast transport, experimentally induced and intrinsic variations in vesicle transport have analogous effects on slow transport of synapsin as well. Dynamic cotransport of vesicles and synapsin particles is also seen in axons, consistent with a model where higher-order assemblies of synapsin are conveyed by transient and probabilistic associations with vesicles moving in fast axonal transport. We posit that such dynamic associations generate the slow overall anterogradely biased flow of the population ("dynamic-recruitment model"). Our studies uncover the underlying kinetic basis for a classic cytosolic/soluble protein moving in slow axonal transport and reveal previously unknown links between slow and fast transport, offering a clearer conceptual picture of this curious phenomenon.
View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1148-13.2013
View details for PubMedID 24068803
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3782618
Activity-Induced Convergence of APP and BACE-1 in Acidic Microdomains via an Endocytosis-Dependent Pathway
2013; 79 (3): 447-460
The convergence of APP (substrate) and BACE-1 (enzyme) is a rate-limiting, obligatory event triggering the amyloidogenic pathway-a key step in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, as both APP/BACE-1 are highly expressed in brain, mechanisms precluding their unabated convergence are unclear. Exploring dynamic localization of APP/BACE-1 in cultured hippocampal neurons, we found that after synthesis via the secretory pathway, dendritic APP/BACE-1-containing vesicles are largely segregated in physiologic states. While BACE-1 is sorted into acidic recycling endosomes, APP is conveyed in Golgi-derived vesicles. However, upon activity induction-a known trigger of the amyloidogenic pathway-APP is routed into BACE-1-positive recycling endosomes via a clathrin-dependent mechanism. A partitioning/convergence of APP/BACE-1 vesicles is also apparent in control/AD brains, respectively. Considering BACE-1 is optimally active in an acidic environment, our experiments suggest that neurons have evolved trafficking strategies that normally limit APP/BACE-1 proximity and also uncover a pathway routing APP into BACE-1-containing organelles, triggering amyloidogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.05.035
View details for Web of Science ID 000323085100007
View details for PubMedID 23931995
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3741682
- The Slow Axonal Transport of Alpha-Synuclein-Mechanistic Commonalities Amongst Diverse Cytosolic Cargoes (vol 69, pg 506, 2012) CYTOSKELETON 2013; 70 (4): 240-240
Early and Selective Impairments in Axonal Transport Kinetics of Synaptic Cargoes Induced by Soluble Amyloid beta-Protein Oligomers
2012; 13 (5): 681-693
The downstream targets of amyloid ? (A?)-oligomers remain elusive. One hypothesis is that A?-oligomers interrupt axonal transport. Although previous studies have demonstrated A?-induced transport blockade, early effects of low-n soluble A?-oligomers on axonal transport remain unclear. Furthermore, the cargo selectivity for such deficits (if any) or the specific effects of A? on the motility kinetics of transported cargoes are also unknown. Toward this, we visualized axonal transport of vesicles in cultured hippocampal neurons treated with picomolar (pm) levels of cell-derived soluble A?-oligomers. We examined select cargoes thought to move as distinct organelles and established imaging parameters that allow organelle tracking with consistency and high fidelity - analyzing all data in a blinded fashion. A?-oligomers induced early and selective diminutions in velocities of synaptic cargoes but had no effect on mitochondrial motility, contrary to previous reports. These changes were N-methyl D-aspartate receptor/glycogen synthase kinase-3? dependent and reversible upon washout of the oligomers. Cluster-mode analyses reveal selective attenuations in faster-moving synaptic vesicles, suggesting possible decreases in cargo/motor associations, and biochemical experiments implicate tau phosphorylation in the process. Collectively, the data provide a biological basis for A?-induced axonal transport deficits.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2012.01340.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000302621300006
View details for PubMedID 22309053
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3593673
A simple photoactivation and image analysis module for visualizing and analyzing axonal transport with high temporal resolution
2012; 7 (1): 62-68
We describe a strategy for analyzing axonal transport of cytosolic proteins (CPs) using photoactivatable GFP-PAGFP-with modifications of standard imaging components that can be retroactively fitted to a conventional epifluorescence microscope. The photoactivation and visualization are nearly simultaneous, allowing studies of proteins with rapidly mobile fractions. Cultured hippocampal neurons are transfected with PAGFP-tagged constructs, a discrete protein population within axons is photoactivated, and then the activated population is tracked by live imaging. We show the utility of this method in analyzing axonal transport of CPs that have inherent diffusible pools and distinguish this transport modality from passive diffusion and vesicle transport. The analytical tools used to quantify the motion are also described. Aside from the time needed for preparation of neuronal cultures/transfection, the experiment takes 2-3 h, during which time several axons can be imaged and analyzed. These methods should be easy to adopt by most laboratories and may also be useful for monitoring CP movement in other cell types.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nprot.2011.428
View details for Web of Science ID 000299108900006
View details for PubMedID 22179592
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3568933
Mechanistic Logic Underlying the Axonal Transport of Cytosolic Proteins
2011; 70 (3): 441-454
Proteins vital to presynaptic function are synthesized in the neuronal perikarya and delivered into synapses via two modes of axonal transport. While membrane-anchoring proteins are conveyed in fast axonal transport via motor-driven vesicles, cytosolic proteins travel in slow axonal transport via mechanisms that are poorly understood. We found that in cultured axons, populations of cytosolic proteins tagged to photoactivatable GFP (PAGFP) move with a slow motor-dependent anterograde bias distinct from both vesicular trafficking and diffusion of untagged PAGFP. The overall bias is likely generated by an intricate particle kinetics involving transient assembly and short-range vectorial spurts. In vivo biochemical studies reveal that cytosolic proteins are organized into higher order structures within axon-enriched fractions that are largely segregated from vesicles. Data-driven biophysical modeling best predicts a scenario where soluble molecules dynamically assemble into mobile supramolecular structures. We propose a model where cytosolic proteins are transported by dynamically assembling into multiprotein complexes that are directly/indirectly conveyed by motors.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.03.022
View details for Web of Science ID 000290926100007
View details for PubMedID 21555071
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3096075
A Pathologic Cascade Leading to Synaptic Dysfunction in alpha-Synuclein-Induced Neurodegeneration
JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE
2010; 30 (24): 8083-8095
Several neurodegenerative diseases are typified by intraneuronal alpha-synuclein deposits, synaptic dysfunction, and dementia. While even modest alpha-synuclein elevations can be pathologic, the precise cascade of events induced by excessive alpha-synuclein and eventually culminating in synaptotoxicity is unclear. To elucidate this, we developed a quantitative model system to evaluate evolving alpha-synuclein-induced pathologic events with high spatial and temporal resolution, using cultured neurons from brains of transgenic mice overexpressing fluorescent-human-alpha-synuclein. Transgenic alpha-synuclein was pathologically altered over time and overexpressing neurons showed striking neurotransmitter release deficits and enlarged synaptic vesicles; a phenotype reminiscent of previous animal models lacking critical presynaptic proteins. Indeed, several endogenous presynaptic proteins involved in exocytosis and endocytosis were undetectable in a subset of transgenic boutons ("vacant synapses") with diminished levels in the remainder, suggesting that such diminutions were triggering the overall synaptic pathology. Similar synaptic protein alterations were also retrospectively seen in human pathologic brains, highlighting potential relevance to human disease. Collectively the data suggest a previously unknown cascade of events where pathologic alpha-synuclein leads to a loss of a number of critical presynaptic proteins, thereby inducing functional synaptic deficits.
View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1091-10.2010
View details for Web of Science ID 000278856300004
View details for PubMedID 20554859
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2901533