Doctor of Philosophy, Universitat Graz (2013)
Master of Science, Trent College (2009)
Bachelor of Science, University Of Pune (2008)
Cristina Alvira, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Tie2 promoter-mediated loss of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) in mice leads to osteopetrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Vascular disease is associated with loss of PPAR? in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC), we evaluated the role of PPAR? in PMVEC functions, such as angiogenesis and migration. The role of PPAR? in angiogenesis was evaluated in Tie2CrePPAR?(flox/flox) and wild type (WT) mice, and in mouse and human PMVECs. RNA-sequencing and bioinformatic approaches were utilized to reveal angiogenesis-associated targets for PPAR?. Tie2CrePPAR?(flox/flox) mice showed an impaired angiogenic capacity. Analysis of endothelial progenitor-like cells using bone marrow transplantation combined with evaluation of isolated PMVECs revealed that loss of PPAR? attenuates the migration and angiogenic capacity of mature PMVECs. PPAR?-deficient human PMVECs showed a similar migration defect in culture. Bioinformatic and experimental analyses revealed E2F1 as a novel target of PPAR? in the regulation of PMVEC migration. Disruption of the PPAR?-E2F1 axis was associated with a dysregulated Wnt pathway related to the GSK3? interaction protein. In conclusion, PPAR? plays an important role in sustaining angiogenic potential in mature PMVECs through E2F1-mediated gene regulation.
View details for DOI 10.1242/jcs.169011
View details for Web of Science ID 000370240900006
A significant portion of lung development is completed postnatally during alveolarization, rendering the immature lung vulnerable to inflammatory stimuli that can disrupt lung structure and function. Although the NF-?B pathway has well-recognized pro-inflammatory functions, novel anti-inflammatory and developmental roles for NF-?B have recently been described. Thus, to determine how NF-?B modulates alveolarization during inflammation, we exposed postnatal day 6 mice to vehicle (PBS), systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or the combination of LPS and the global NF-?B pathway inhibitor BAY 11-7082 (LPS + BAY). LPS impaired alveolarization, decreased lung cell proliferation, and reduced epithelial growth factor expression. BAY exaggerated these detrimental effects of LPS, further suppressing proliferation and disrupting pulmonary angiogenesis, an essential component of alveolarization. The more severe pathology induced by LPS + BAY was associated with marked increases in lung and plasma levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Experiments using primary neonatal pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) demonstrated that MIP-2 directly impaired neonatal PEC migration in vitro; and neutralization of MIP-2 in vivo preserved lung cell proliferation and pulmonary angiogenesis and prevented the more severe alveolar disruption induced by the combined treatment of LPS + BAY. Taken together, these studies demonstrate a key anti-inflammatory function of the NF-?B pathway in the early alveolar lung that functions to mitigate the detrimental effects of inflammation on pulmonary angiogenesis and alveolarization. Furthermore, these data suggest that neutralization of MIP-2 may represent a novel therapeutic target that could be beneficial in preserving lung growth in premature infants exposed to inflammatory stress.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajplung.00029.2015
View details for PubMedID 26163511
The dramatic cardiovascular mortality of patients with chronic kidney disease is attributable in a significant proportion to endothelial dysfunction. Cyanate, a reactive species in equilibrium with urea, is formed in excess in chronic kidney disease. Cyanate is thought to have a causal role in promoting cardiovascular disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Immunohistochemical analysis performed in the present study revealed that carbamylated epitopes associate mainly with endothelial cells in human atherosclerotic lesions. Cyanate treatment of human coronary artery endothelial cells reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and increased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression. In mice, administration of cyanate, promoting protein carbamylation at levels observed in uremic patients, attenuated arterial vasorelaxation of aortic rings in response to acetylcholine without affecting the sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation. Total endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production were significantly reduced in aortic tissue of cyanate-treated mice. This coincided with a marked increase of tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 protein levels in aortas of cyanate-treated mice. Thus, cyanate compromises endothelial functionality in vitro and in vivo. This may contribute to the dramatic cardiovascular risk of patients suffering from chronic kidney disease.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ki.2014.218
View details for Web of Science ID 000344446000012
View details for PubMedID 24940796