Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Cardiology
  • Heart Failure
  • Heart Transplantation
  • Mechanical Circulatory Support

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Senior Fellowship, Stanford University, Pediatric Heart Failure/Transplant (2015)
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics (2014)
  • Fellowship, Stanford University, Pediatric Cardiology (2014)
  • Chief Residency, UCSF, Pediatrics (2011)
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2010)
  • Residency, UCSF, Pediatrics (2010)
  • MD, UCSF (2006)
  • MPH, UC Berkeley, Epidemiology and Biostatistics (2005)
  • Bachelor of Arts, Stanford University (2001)

Publications

All Publications


  • Impact of ventricular assist device placement on longitudinal renal function in children with end-stage heart failure. journal of heart and lung transplantation May, L. J., Montez-Rath, M. E., Yeh, J., Axelrod, D. M., Chen, S., Maeda, K., Almond, C. S., Rosenthal, D. N., Hollander, S. A., Sutherland, S. M. 2016; 35 (4): 449-456

    Abstract

    Although ventricular assist devices (VADs) restore hemodynamics in those with heart failure, reversibility of end-organ dysfunction with VAD support is not well characterized. Renal function often improves in adults after VAD placement, but this has not been comprehensively explored in children.Sixty-three children on VAD support were studied. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was determined by the Schwartz method. Generalized linear mixed-effects models compared the pre-VAD and post-VAD eGFR for the cohort and sub-groups with and without pre-VAD renal dysfunction (pre-VAD eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)).The pre-VAD eGFR across the cohort was 84.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (interquartile range [IQR] 62.3-122.7), and 55.6% (34 of 63) had pre-VAD renal dysfunction. AKI affected 60.3% (38 of 63), with similar rates in those with and without pre-existing renal dysfunction. Within the cohort, the nadir eGFR occurred 1 day post-operatively (62.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 51.2-88.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2); p < 0.001). By Day 5, however, the eGFR exceeded the baseline (99.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2); IQR, 59.3-146.7 ml/min/1.73 m(2); p = 0.03) and remained significantly higher through the first post-operative week. After adjusting for age, gender, and AKI, the eGFR continued to increase throughout the entire 180-day study period (? = 0.0025; 95% confidence interval, 0.0015-0.0036; p < 0.001). Patients with pre-VAD renal dysfunction experienced the greatest improvement in the eGFR (? = 0.0051 vs ? = 0.0013, p < 0.001).Renal dysfunction is prevalent in children with heart failure undergoing VAD placement. Although peri-operative AKI is common, renal function improves substantially in the first post-operative week and for months thereafter. This is particularly pronounced in those with pre-VAD renal impairment, suggesting that VADs may facilitate recovery and maintenance of kidney function in children with advanced heart failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2015.10.039

    View details for PubMedID 26653933

  • Outpatient Outcomes of Pediatric Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices. ASAIO journal Chen, S., Lin, A., Liu, E., Gowan, M., May, L. J., Doan, L. N., Almond, C. S., Maeda, K., Reinhartz, O., Hollander, S. A., Rosenthal, D. N. 2016; 62 (2): 163-168

    Abstract

    Outpatient experience of children supported with continuous flow ventricular assist devices (CFVAD) is limited. We reviewed our experience with children discharged with CF-VAD support.All pediatric patients <18 years old with CF-VADs implanted at our institution were included. Discharge criteria included a stable medication regimen, completion of a VAD education program and standardized rehabilitation plan, and presence of a caregiver. Hospital re-admissions (excluding scheduled admissions) were reviewed. Adverse events were defined by INTERMACS criteria.Of 17 patients with CF-VADs, 8(47%) were discharged from the hospital (1 Heartware HVAD, 7 Heartmate II). Median age was 15.3(range 9.6-17.1) years and weight was 50.6(33.6-141) kg. Device strategies were destination therapy (n=4) and bridge to transplant (n=4). Patients spent a median 49(26-107) days hospitalized post-implant and had 2(1-5) hospital re-admissions. Total support duration was 3154 patient-days, with 2413 as outpatient. Most frequent adverse events were device malfunction and arrhythmias. There was one death due to pump thrombosis, and no bleeding or stroke events. Overall adverse event rate was 15.22 per 100-patient-months.Early experience suggests that children with CF-VADs can be safely discharged. Device malfunction and arrhythmia were the most common adverse events but were recognized quickly with structured outpatient surveillance.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000324

    View details for PubMedID 26720740

  • Electrocardiographic repolarization abnormalities and increased risk of life-threatening arrhythmias in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. Heart rhythm : the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society Chen, S., Motonaga, K. S., Hollander, S. A., Almond, C. S., Rosenthal, D. N., Kaufman, B. D., May, L. J., Avasarala, K., Dao, D. T., Dubin, A. M., Ceresnak, S. R. 2016; 13 (6): 1289-96

    Abstract

    Life-threatening arrhythmia events (LTEs) occur in ~5% of children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). While prolonged QRS duration has been shown to be associated with LTEs, electrocardiographic (ECG) repolarization findings have not been examined.We sought to determine the associations between ECG repolarization abnormalities and LTEs in children with DCM.A single-center retrospective review of children with DCM was performed. LTEs were defined as documented ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation requiring medical intervention. Three pediatric cardiologists, blinded to clinical events, evaluated ECGs obtained at the time of initial referral. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate time to LTEs.A total of 137 patients (mean age 7.8 ± 6.7 years; 75(55%) male patients) with DCM (mean ejection fraction 35% ± 16%) were included; 67 patients (49%) had a corrected JT (JTc) interval of ?340 ms, 72 (53%) had a corrected QT (QTc) interval of ?450 ms, and 41 (30%) had abnormal T waves. LTEs occurred in 15 patients at a median of 12 months (interquartile range 3-36 months) after the initial ECG. Patients with LTEs had a longer JTc interval (371 ± 77 ms vs 342 ± 41 ms; P = .02) and a longer QTc interval (488 ± 96 ms vs 453 ± 44 ms; P = .01). In survival analysis, a JTc interval of ?390 ms (hazard ratio [HR] 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-14.83; P = .03), a QTc interval of ?510 ms (HR 6.95; 95% CI 1.53-31.49; P = .01), abnormal T-wave inversion (HR 11.62; 95% CI 2.75-49.00; P = .001), and ST-segment depression (HR 6.91; 95% CI 1.25-38.27; P = .03) were associated with an increased risk of LTEs, even after adjusting for QRS duration and amiodarone use.Repolarization abnormalities are common in children with DCM. Certain ECG repolarization abnormalities, such as significantly prolonged JTc and QTc intervals, may be useful in identifying patients at risk of LTEs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2016.02.014

    View details for PubMedID 26945851

  • A novel pediatric treatment intensity score: development and feasibility in heart failure patients with ventricular assist devices JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION May, L. J., Ploutz, M., Hollander, S. A., Reinhartz, O., Almond, C. S., Chen, S., Maeda, K., Kaufman, B. D., Yeh, J., Rosenthal, D. N. 2015; 34 (4): 509-515

    Abstract

    The evolution of pharmacologic therapies and mechanical support including ventricular assist devices (VADs) has broadened the scope of care available to children with advanced heart failure. At the present time, there are only limited means of quantifying disease severity or the concomitant morbidity for this population. This study describes the development of a novel pediatric treatment intensity score (TIS), designed to quantify the burden of illness and clinical trajectory in children on VAD support.There were 5 clinical domains assessed: nutrition, respiratory support, activity level, cardiovascular medications, and care environment. A scale was developed through expert consensus. Higher scores indicate greater morbidity as reflected by intensity of medical management. To evaluate feasibility and face validity, the TIS was applied retrospectively to a subset of pediatric inpatients with VADs. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess limits of agreement.The study comprised 39 patients with 42 implantations. Bland-Altman interobserver and intraobserver comparisons showed good agreement (mean differences in scores of 0.02, limits of agreement ±0.12). Trends in TIS were concordant with the overall clinical impression of improvement. Scores remained ?0.6 preceding VAD implantation and peaked at 0.71 3 days after VAD implantation.We describe a pediatric VAD scoring tool, to assess global patient morbidity and clinical recovery. We demonstrate feasibility of using this TIS in a test population of inpatients on VAD support.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2014.10.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353251200006

  • Quality of life and metrics of achievement in long-term adult survivors of pediatric heart transplant PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION Hollander, S. A., Chen, S., Luikart, H., Burge, M., Hollander, A. M., Rosenthal, D. N., Maeda, K., Hunt, S. A., Bernstein, D. 2015; 19 (1): 76-81

    Abstract

    Many children who undergo heart transplantation will survive into adulthood. We sought to examine the QOL and capacity for achievement in long-term adult survivors of pediatric heart transplantation. Adults >18 yr of age who received transplants as children (?18 yr old) and had survived for at least 10 yr post-transplant completed two self-report questionnaires: (i) Ferrans & Powers QLI, in which life satisfaction is reported as an overall score and in four subscale domains and is then indexed from 0 (very dissatisfied) to 1 (very satisfied); and (ii) a "Metrics of Life Achievement" questionnaire regarding income, education, relationships, housing status, and access to health care. A total of 20 subjects completed the survey. The overall mean QLI score was 0.77 ± 0.16. Subjects were most satisfied in the family domain (0.84 ± 0.21) and least satisfied in the psychological/spiritual domain (0.7 ± 0.28). Satisfaction in the domains of health/functioning and socioeconomic were intermediate at 0.78 and 0.76, respectively. Most respondents had graduated from high school, reported a median annual income >$50 000/yr, and lived independently. Adult survivors of pediatric heart transplant report a good QOL and demonstrate the ability to obtain an education, work, and live independently.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12384

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346915200021

  • Reliability of echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular systolic function in potential pediatric heart transplant donors JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Chen, S., Tierney, E. S., Khush, K. K., John Nguyen, J., Goldstein, B. A., May, L. J., Hollander, S. A., Kaufman, B. D., Rosenthal, D. N. 2015; 34 (1): 100-106

    Abstract

    Echocardiogram reports, but not images, are usually available for the evaluation of potential donor hearts. To assess the reliability of local reports of potential pediatric heart donors, we compared echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular (LV) systolic function between local hospitals and a central echocardiography laboratory.We identified all potential donors aged <18 years managed by the California Transplant Donor Network from 2009 to 2013. Echocardiograms and reports were obtained from local hospitals. All studies were reviewed in a central laboratory by an experienced pediatric cardiologist blinded to local reports. Local and central measurements of fractional shortening (FS) were compared using the Bland-Altman method (mean difference ± 2 standard deviations). LV function was categorized based on FS as normal or mild, moderately, or severely depressed.There were 70 studies from 59 donors with local and central measurements of FS. The mean difference between local and central FS was 3.9 ± 9.0. The limits of agreement ranged from -14.2 to 22. Twenty-five studies had discordant measurements of LV function, with 17 discordant by 1 category and 8 by 2 or more categories. Of 55 studies categorized as normal by local measurement, 6 were moderately to severely depressed by central review. Of 15 studies categorized as depressed by local measurement, 3 were normal by central review.Local and central measurements of LV systolic function were discordant in 36% of studies. Given such discordance, efforts to obtain and view actual echocardiographic images should be part of the standard evaluation of potential pediatric heart donors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2014.08.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000348273400012

  • Feasibility of Neonatal Pulse Wave Velocity and Association with Maternal Hemoglobin A(1c) NEONATOLOGY Chen, S., Chetty, S., Lowenthal, A., Evans, J. M., Vu, C., Stauffer, K. J., Lyell, D., Tierney, E. S. 2015; 107 (1): 20-26

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000366467

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346246300004

  • HLA desensitization with bortezomib in a highly sensitized pediatric patient PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION May, L. J., Yeh, J., Maeda, K., Tyan, D. B., Chen, S., Kaufman, B. D., Bernstein, D., Rosenthal, D. N., Hollander, S. A. 2014; 18 (8): E280-E282

    View details for DOI 10.1111/petr.12347

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344360500006

  • Successful Bridge to Transplant with a Continuous Flow Ventricular Assist Device in a Single Ventricle Patient with an Aortopulmonary Shunt ASAIO JOURNAL Lal, A. K., Chen, S., Maeda, K., McCammond, A., Rosenthal, D. N., Reinhartz, O., Yeh, J. 2014; 60 (1): 119-121

    Abstract

    Ventricular assist devices are frequently used to bridge pediatric patients to cardiac transplantation; however, experience in single ventricle patients with aortopulmonary shunts remains limited. This case report addresses the challenge of balancing pulmonary and systemic circulation with a focus on the role of continuous versus pulsatile ventricular assist device support.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329368600021

  • How useful are B-type natriuretic peptide measurements for monitoring changes in patent ductus arteriosus shunt magnitude? JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Chen, S., Tacy, T., Clyman, R. 2010; 30 (12): 780-785

    Abstract

    Although B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations seem to be useful for detecting the presence of patent ductus arteriosus, there is no information about their usefulness for monitoring changes in PDA shunt magnitude.We performed a retrospective analysis of paired BNP-echocardiogram measurements (obtained from infants (24 to 32 weeks gestation) with clinical suspicion of PDA).Individual BNP concentrations (n=146, from 88 infants) were significantly related to shunt magnitude at the time of measurement and had good discriminating power for detecting a moderate-or-large shunt (area under receiver-operator characteristic curves (ROC-AUC)=0.85). In total, 36 infants had serial BNP-echocardiogram pairs (n=91) measured during their hospitalization. Changes (either increases or decreases) in BNP concentrations over time had only fair discriminating power (ROC-AUC=0.76) for detecting increases or decreases, respectively, in shunt magnitude.The high degree of variability in the BNP measurements made them less useful for monitoring changes in magnitude.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2010.47

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284693200004

    View details for PubMedID 20376057

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