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  • Human hepatic organoids for the analysis of human genetic diseases. JCI insight Guan, Y., Xu, D., Garfin, P. M., Ehmer, U., Hurwitz, M., Enns, G., Michie, S., Wu, M., Zheng, M., Nishimura, T., Sage, J., Peltz, G. 2017; 2 (17)

    Abstract

    We developed an in vitro model system where induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differentiate into 3-dimensional human hepatic organoids (HOs) through stages that resemble human liver during its embryonic development. The HOs consist of hepatocytes, and cholangiocytes, which are organized into epithelia that surround the lumina of bile duct-like structures. The organoids provide a potentially new model for liver regenerative processes, and were used to characterize the effect of different JAG1 mutations that cause: (a) Alagille syndrome (ALGS), a genetic disorder where NOTCH signaling pathway mutations impair bile duct formation, which has substantial variability in its associated clinical features; and (b) Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), which is the most common form of a complex congenital heart disease, and is associated with several different heritable disorders. Our results demonstrate how an iPSC-based organoid system can be used with genome editing technologies to characterize the pathogenetic effect of human genetic disease-causing mutations.

    View details for PubMedID 28878125

  • Treating Liver Fibrosis: (Re)Programmed to Succeed. Cell stem cell Guan, Y., Xu, D., Peltz, G. 2016; 18 (6): 683?84

    Abstract

    Two papers (Rezvani et al., 2016; Song et al., 2016) in this issue of Cell Stem Cell use transcription-factor-mediated reprogramming to convert liver myofibroblasts into hepatocyte-like cells in mice. Moreover, murine models of fibrotic and cholestatic liver injury were used to demonstrate that this approach has potential for treatment of liver cirrhosis.

    View details for PubMedID 27257752

  • Chimeric TK-NOG Mice: A Predictive Model for Cholestatic Human Liver Toxicity. journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics Xu, D., Wu, M., Nishimura, S., Nishimura, T., Michie, S. A., Zheng, M., Yang, Z., Yates, A. J., Day, J. S., Hillgren, K. M., Takeda, S. T., Guan, Y., Guo, Y., Peltz, G. 2015; 352 (2): 274-280

    Abstract

    Due to the substantial interspecies differences in drug metabolism and disposition, drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in humans is often not predicted by studies performed in animal species. For example, a drug (bosentan) used to treat pulmonary artery hypertension caused unexpected cholestatic liver toxicity in humans, which was not predicted by preclinical toxicology studies in multiple animal species. In this study, we demonstrate that NOG mice expressing a thymidine kinase transgene (TK-NOG) with humanized livers have a humanized profile of biliary excretion of a test (cefmetazole) drug, which was shown by an in situ perfusion study to result from interspecies differences in the rate of biliary transport and in liver retention of this drug. We also found that readily detectable cholestatic liver injury develops in TK-NOG mice with humanized livers after 1 week of treatment with bosentan (160, 32, or 6 mg/kg per day by mouth), whereas liver toxicity did not develop in control mice after 1 month of treatment. The laboratory and histologic features of bosentan-induced liver toxicity in humanized mice mirrored that of human subjects. Because DILI has become a significant public health problem, drug safety could be improved if preclinical toxicology studies were performed using humanized TK-NOG.

    View details for DOI 10.1124/jpet.114.220798

    View details for PubMedID 25424997

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4293443

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