Honors & Awards

  • First Place in the CTVIE19 Grand Challenge, The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (2019)
  • Ballard Seashore Dissertation Fellowship, University of Iowa (2019)
  • China National Scholarship (acceptance rate 0.2%), Ministry of Education of the People?s Republic of China (2012)
  • First Prize, Jiangsu Province Undergraduate Electronic Design Contest (TI Cup), Jiangsu Provincial Department of Education, Jiangsu Province, China (2012)
  • First Prize, Jiangsu Province Undergraduate Mathematics Contest, Jiangsu Provincial Department of Education, Jiangsu Province, China (2012)
  • First Prize, National Senior High School Mathematics Contest (acceptance rate 0.04%), Jiangsu Mathematical Society, Jiangsu Province, China (2009)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Iowa, Electrical and Computer Engineering (2019)
  • Master of Science, University of Iowa, Mathematics (2018)
  • Master of Science, University of Iowa, Electrical and Computer Engineering (2016)
  • Bachelor of Engineering, Soochow University, Electronics and Information Engineering (2014)

Stanford Advisors

Research & Scholarship


All Publications

  • Quantifying Regional Lung Deformation Using Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: A Comparison of Conventional and Oscillatory Ventilation FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY Herrmann, J., Gerard, S. E., Shao, W., Hawley, M. L., Reinhardt, J. M., Christensen, G. E., Hoffman, E. A., Kaczka, D. W. 2020; 11: 14


    Mechanical ventilation strategies that reduce the heterogeneity of regional lung stress and strain may reduce the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In this study, we used registration of four-dimensional computed tomographic (4DCT) images to assess regional lung aeration and deformation in 10 pigs under baseline conditions and following acute lung injury induced with oleic acid. CT images were obtained via dynamic axial imaging (Siemens SOMATOM Force) during conventional pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), as well as high-frequency and multi-frequency oscillatory ventilation modalities (HFOV and MFOV, respectively). Our results demonstrate that oscillatory modalities reduce intratidal strain throughout the lung in comparison to conventional ventilation, as well as the spatial gradients of dynamic strain along the dorsal-ventral axis. Harmonic distortion of parenchymal deformation was observed during HFOV with a single discrete sinusoid delivered at the airway opening, suggesting inherent mechanical nonlinearity of the lung tissues. MFOV may therefore provide improved lung-protective ventilation by reducing strain magnitudes and spatial gradients of strain compared to either CMV or HFOV.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fphys.2020.00014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000518925200001

    View details for PubMedID 32153417

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7044245

  • Radiation Dose Response Model for Ventilation Change Using All Phases of 4DCT Wallat, E., Flakus, M., Wuschner, A., Shao, W., Gerard, S., Patton, T., Christensen, G., Reinhardt, J., Baschnagel, A., Bayouth, J. WILEY. 2019: E352
  • Improving the Accuracy of 4DCT-Based Ventilation Measurements Using Multiple Phases Flakus, M., Wuschner, A., Wallat, E., Shao, W., Gerard, S., Christensen, G., Reinhardt, J., Bayouth, J. WILEY. 2019: E378
  • Longitudinal Changes in Lung Tissue Elasticity Following Radiation Therapy Bayouth, J., Wallat, E., Wuschner, A., Flakus, M., Patton, T., Shao, W., Gerard, S., Reinhardt, J., Christensen, G., Baschnagel, A. WILEY. 2019: E378
  • Deep Neural Networks and Kernel Density Estimation for Detecting Human Activity Patterns from Geo-Tagged Images: A Case Study of Birdwatching on Flickr ISPRS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEO-INFORMATION Koylu, C., Zhao, C., Shao, W. 2019; 8 (1)
  • Multi-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation Minimizes Spatial Gradients of Regional Strain Using 4D CT Image Registration in Porcine Lung Injury Herrmann, J., Gerard, S. E., Shao, W., Reinhardt, J. M., Christensen, G. E., Hoffman, E. A., Hawley, M. L., Kaczka, D. W. AMER THORACIC SOC. 2019
  • Nondestructive Measurement of Conformal Coating Thickness on Printed Circuit Board With Ultra-High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography IEEE ACCESS Shao, X., Chen, X., Yu, X., Hu, Y., Liu, L., Shi, F., Shao, W., Mo, J. 2019; 7: 18138?45
  • Quantifying ventilation change due to radiation therapy using 4DCT Jacobian calculations MEDICAL PHYSICS Patton, T. J., Gerard, S. E., Shao, W., Christensen, G. E., Reinhardt, J. M., Bayouth, J. E. 2018; 45 (10): 4483?92


    Regional ventilation and its response to radiation dose can be estimated using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and image registration. This study investigated the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on ventilation and the dependence of radiation-induced ventilation change on pre-RT ventilation derived from 4DCT.Three 4DCT scans were acquired from each of 12 subjects: two scans before RT and one scan 3 months after RT. The 4DCT datasets were used to generate the pre-RT and post-RT ventilation maps by registering the inhale phase image to the exhale phase image and computing the Jacobian determinant of the resulting transformation. The ventilation change between pre-RT and post-RT was calculated by taking a ratio of the post-RT Jacobian map to the pre-RT Jacobian map. The voxel-wise ventilation change between pre- and post-RT was investigated as a function of dose and pre-RT ventilation.Lung regions receiving over 20 Gy exhibited a significant decrease in function (3.3%, P < 0.01) compared to those receiving less than 20 Gy. When the voxels were stratified into high and low pre-RT function by thresholding the Jacobian map at 10% volume expansion (Jacobian = 1.1), high-function voxels exhibited 4.8% reduction in function for voxels receiving over 20 Gy, a significantly greater decline (P = 0.037) than the 2.4% reduction in function for low-function voxels. Ventilation decreased linearly with dose in both high-function and low-function regions. High-function regions showed a significantly larger decline in ventilation (P ? 0.001) as dose increased (1.4% ventilation reduction/10 Gy) compared to low-function regions (0.3% ventilation reduction/10 Gy). With further stratification of pre-RT ventilation, voxels exhibited increasing dose-dependent ventilation reduction with increasing pre-RT ventilation, with the largest pre-RT Jacobian bin (pre-RT Jacobian between 1.5 and 1.6) exhibiting a ventilation reduction of 4.8% per 10 Gy.Significant ventilation reductions were measured after radiation therapy treatments, and were dependent on the dose delivered to the tissue and the pre-RT ventilation of the tissue. For a fixed radiation dose, lung tissue with high pre-RT ventilation experienced larger decreases in post-RT ventilation than lung tissue with low pre-RT ventilation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mp.13105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000446995000031

    View details for PubMedID 30047588

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6220845

  • Sensitivity analysis of Jacobian determinant used in treatment planning for lung cancer Shao, W., Gerard, S. E., Pan, Y., Patton, T. J., Reinhardt, J. M., Durumeric, O. C., Bayouth, J. E., Christensen, G. E., Angelini, E. D., Landman, B. A. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2018

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2293920

    View details for Web of Science ID 000435027500041

  • Population Shape Collapse in Large Deformation Registration of MR Brain Images Shao, W., Christensen, G. E., Johnson, H. J., Song, J. H., Durumeric, O. C., Johnson, C. P., Shaffer, J. J., Magnotta, V. A., Fiedorowicz, J. G., Wemmie, J. A., IEEE IEEE. 2016: 549?57

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