Clinical Scholar, Radiology
INTRODUCTION: Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) are vascular lesions with arteriovenous shunting that may be treated with surgical obliteration or endovascular embolization. Some DAVF, such as anterior cranial fossa DAVF (AC-DAVF) derive their arterial supply from ophthalmic artery branches in nearly all cases, and trans-arterial embolization carries a risk of vision loss. We determined the efficacy and safety of trans-ophthalmic artery embolization of DAVF.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients with DAVF treated by trans-ophthalmic artery embolization from 2012 to 2020. Primary outcome was angiographic cure of the DAVF. Secondary outcomes included vision loss, visual impairment, orbital cranial nerve injury, stroke, modified Rankin Scale at 90-days, and mortality.RESULTS: 12 patients met inclusion criteria (9 males; 3 females). 10 patients had AC-DAVF. Patient age was 59.7±9.5 (mean±SD) years. Patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage (4 patients), headache (4 patients), amaurosis fugax (1 patients), or were incidentally discovered (2 patients). DAVF Cognard grades were: II (1 patient), III (6 patients), and IV (5 patients). DAVF were embolized with Onyx (10 patients), nBCA glue (1 patient), and a combination of coils and Onyx (1 patient). DAVF cure was achieved in 11 patients (92%). No patients experienced vision loss, death, or permanent disability. One patient experienced a minor complication of blurry vision attributed to posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. 90-day mRS was 0 (10 patients) and 1 (2 patients).CONCLUSIONS: Trans-ophthalmic artery embolization is an effective and safe treatment for DAVF.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1591019920969270
View details for PubMedID 33106085
Precise delivery of liquid embolic agents (LEAs) remains a challenge in the endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulae (dAVFs) and cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs). Despite significant advances in the past decade, LEA reflux and catheter navigability remain shortcomings of current endovascular technology, particularly in small and tortuous arteries. The Scepter Mini dual-lumen balloon microcatheter aims to address these issues by decreasing the distal catheter profile (1.6 French) while allowing for a small (2.2 mm diameter) balloon at its tip.We report our initial experience with the Scepter Mini in two patients with anterior cranial fossa dAVFs that were treated with transophthalmic artery embolization.In both patients, the Scepter Mini catheter was able to be safely advanced into the distal ophthalmic artery close to the fistula site, and several centimeters past the origins of the central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries. A single Onyx injection without any reflux resulted in angiographic cure of the dAVF in both cases, and neither patient suffered any vision loss.These initial experiences suggest that the Scepter Mini represents a significant advance in the endovascular treatment of dAVFs and cAVMs and will allow for safer and more efficacious delivery of LEAs into smaller and more distal arteries while diminishing the risk of LEA reflux.
View details for DOI 10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016013
View details for PubMedID 32434799
OBJECTIVE. Preoperative identification of hypervascular meningiomas can potentially detect those that may benefit from presurgical embolization, which may help to minimize intraoperative blood loss. In this study, we investigate if increased blood flow within meningiomas seen on arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI correlates with increased tumor vascularity seen on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective study was performed of 39 meningiomas in 34 patients who underwent ASL MRI and DSA between January 2008 and January 2017. Two raters independently calculated normalized tumor blood flow (TBF) on postprocessed ASL images using ROI analysis. They also recorded the presence or absence of tumor blush on DSA in each case. Interrater agreement was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Performance of ASL MRI to identify tumor blush was determined with area under the ROC curve (AUC). RESULTS. In 27 female and seven male patients (mean age, 62.8 years), mean normalized TBF for meningiomas with tumor blush on DSA was significantly higher than those without tumor blush (p < 0.001). Mean normalized TBF for the group with tumor blush and the group without tumor blush group was 4.7 ± 1.1 and 1.5 ± 1.1, respectively, for rater 1 and 4.9 ± 5.3 and 1.5 ± 1.1, respectively, for rater 2. ICC was excellent (0.91). AUC for using normalized TBF to identify tumor vascularity on DSA was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.91), and a normalized TBF cut point of 2.7 yielded 88% sensitivity and 67% specificity. CONCLUSION. ASL MRI shows potential as a noninvasive screening tool for identifying hypervascular meningiomas.
View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.18.21026
View details for PubMedID 31361532
To describe the occurrence of cystoid macular edema (CME) in the setting of central foveal thickness (CFT) under 250 ?m as measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).Stratus OCT was used to measure CFT in a total of 90 eyes from 46 patients with RP. Cross-sectional OCT images were also evaluated for CME, which was defined as cystoid changes in the macula seen on at least two linear scans.CME was identified in 13 of the 46 patients or in 22 of 90 eyes by OCT. In eyes with macular edema, CFT ranged from 224 to 718 ?m (mean = 339 ± 137 ?m). In eyes without macular edema, CFT ranged from 99 to 273 ?m (mean = 184 ± 40 ?m). Bilateral CME occurred in 9 of 13 patients (69%). CFT was considered "normal" in 7 of the 22 eyes (32%) with CME. Two patients had bilateral CME with normal CFTs, under 250 ?m.We demonstrate the occurrence of CME in RP patients without associated thickening, which has not been described. This concept likely is applicable to other diseases with retinal thinning.
View details for DOI 10.3109/08820538.2012.760614
View details for Web of Science ID 000315463800007
View details for PubMedID 23448561
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5536830
To examine the occurrence and extent of ocular injuries in ATV accidents in southwestern Pennsylvania.This was a retrospective chart review of 37 adults and 43 children at UPMC Mercy Hospital, UMPC Presbyterian Hospital, and Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh Trauma Registry. The Trauma Registry was searched for patients sustaining ocular injuries related to an ATV accident. Records were de-identified by an honest broker and analysed in this study.Eighty percent (80%) of patients suffered orbital fracture; 40% had periorbital ecchymoses, and 25% had lid lacerations. Injuries ranged in severity from subconjunctival haemorrhages to traumatic avulsion of the optic nerves.Ocular trauma frequently accompanies ATV accidents and can have a significant impact on patient outcomes. An educational programme (except 'program' in computers) promoting eye protection could reduce the number of eye injuries associated with these recreational vehicles.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2011.02.015
View details for Web of Science ID 000306666100023
View details for PubMedID 21496818
To report the first described cases of peripheral yellow corneal rings secondary to vitamin supplementation for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).Retrospective single-center case series.The eyes of 4 patients taking vitamin supplementation for ARMD were examined at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Department of Ophthalmology between January 2010 and April 2011.We reviewed the medical records of 4 patients with peripheral corneal rings receiving vitamin supplementation for ARMD.The presence of peripheral yellow corneal rings, skin findings, and serum carotene levels.Each patient had circumferential, yellow, peripheral corneal rings and exhibited subtle yellowing of the skin most notable on the palms. Serum carotene levels were normal in 2 of the 3 patients and markedly elevated in the last patient in whom it was measured.It is unclear at this time how to counsel patients with this ocular finding. We suspect that these rings are more common than generally appreciated because they may have a subtle appearance or be misdiagnosed as arcus senilis. We suggest that a formal study be performed on a cohort of patients taking vitamin supplementation for macular degeneration that specifically screens for yellow rings and measures serum carotene levels when they are identified.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.10.032
View details for Web of Science ID 000303399800018
View details for PubMedID 22330962
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3505612