- In Reference to Manchikanti et al's Criticism of ACOEM Guidelines PAIN PHYSICIAN 2008; 11 (4): 567-568
Abuse of prescription and over-the-counter medications
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN BOARD OF FAMILY MEDICINE
2008; 21 (1): 45-54
The nonmedical use of prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medications implies that the user is using them for reasons other than those indicated in the prescribing literature or on the box label. The abuse of these medications is a national issue. Intentional drug abuse of prescribed and OTC medicines has climbed steadily. Data from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health demonstrated that 6.4 million (2.6%) people aged 12 or older had used prescription drugs for nonmedical reasons during the past month. Of these, 4.7 million used pain relievers, 1.8 million used tranquilizers, and 1.1 million used stimulants. The nonmedical use of prescription drugs in the past month among young adults aged 18 to 25 increased from 5.4% in 2002 to 6.3% in 2005, primarily because of an increase in the abusive use of pain relievers. Physicians need to watch for prescription and OTC medication abuse. Treatment strategies include (1) inquiring about prescription, OTC, and herbal drug use at the initial examination (even though many individuals are drug-abuse savvy, some are naive and do not realize that OTC medications can be problematic); (2) inquiring about drug use during office visits; (3) providing disposal containers that patients can use to dispose of their unused or unneeded prescription or OTC medications; (4) treating pain aggressively and appropriately; (5) practicing careful record keeping of prescription refills and controls over prescription blanks; (6) referring patients who are addicted to medications to 12-step programs such as Alcoholic Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Pills Anonymous; and (7) considering detoxification.
View details for DOI 10.3122/jabfm.2008.01.070071
View details for Web of Science ID 000252132700008
View details for PubMedID 18178702
Pharmacologic therapies for complex regional pain syndrome.
Current pain and headache reports
2007; 11 (1): 38-43
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) remains a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. There are few large-scale, randomized trials of pharmacologic agents, and most published studies are small, uncontrolled, or presented only in abstract form at meetings. The most commonly used agents, such as anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and opiates, have been found to be useful for other neuropathic pain conditions in large-scale trials but have not been adequately studied in CRPS. Systemic steroids delivered by multiple routes continue to be used, with some good evidence for short-term administration. N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists have recently gained in popularity, without evidence from well-controlled trials. Bisphosphonates have been well studied and offer promise. In addition, there has been interest in thalidomide; however, we are still awaiting well-controlled trials. This article presents an overview of the available data regarding pharmacologic therapies for CRPS. These agents should be used in conjunction with a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach aimed at functional restoration and improved quality of life.
View details for PubMedID 17214920