Doctor of Philosophy, Stanford University, CANBI-PHD (2020)
BS, UCLA, Biochemistry (2013)
Crystal Mackall, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
V-domain immunoglobulin (Ig) suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) is an immune checkpoint that maintains peripheral T cell quiescence and inhibits anti-tumor immune responses. VISTA functions by dampening the interaction between myeloid cells and T cells, orthogonal to PD-1 and other checkpoints of the tumor-T cell signaling axis. Here, we report the use of yeast surface display to engineer an anti-VISTA antibody that binds with high affinity to mouse, human, and cynomolgus monkey VISTA. Our anti-VISTA antibody (SG7) inhibits VISTA function and blocks purported interactions with both PSGL-1 and VSIG3proteins. SG7 binds a unique epitope on the surface of VISTA, which partially overlaps with other clinically relevant antibodies. As a monotherapy, and to a greater extent as a combination with anti-PD1, SG7 slows tumor growth in multiple syngeneic mouse models. SG7 is a promising clinical candidate that can be tested in fully immunocompetent mouse models and its binding epitope can be used for future campaigns to develop species cross-reactive inhibitors of VISTA.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-71519-4
View details for PubMedID 32938950
Dysregulated matriptase activity has been established as a key contributor to cancer progression through its activation of growth factors, including the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Despite its critical role and prevalence in many human cancers, limitations to developing an effective matriptase inhibitor include weak binding affinity, poor selectivity, and short circulating half-life. We applied rational and combinatorial approaches to engineer a potent inhibitor based on the hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type-1 (HAI-1), a natural matriptase inhibitor. The first Kunitz domain (KD1) of HAI-1 has been well established as a minimal matriptase-binding and inhibition domain, whereas the second Kunitz domain (KD2) is inactive and involved in negative regulation. Here, we replaced the inactive KD2 domain of HAI-1 with an engineered chimeric variant of KD2/KD1 domains and fused the resulting construct to an antibody Fc domain to increase valency and circulating serum half-life. The final protein variant contains four stoichiometric binding sites that we showed were needed to effectively inhibit matriptase with a Ki of 70 ± 5 pm, an increase of 120-fold compared with the natural HAI-1 inhibitor, to our knowledge making it one of the most potent matriptase inhibitors identified to date. Furthermore, the engineered inhibitor demonstrates a protease selectivity profile similar to that of wildtype KD1 but distinct from that of HAI-1. It also inhibits activation of the natural pro-HGF substrate and matriptase expressed on cancer cells with at least an order of magnitude greater efficacy than KD1.
View details for PubMedID 29386351
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5892588
Dysregulated activity of the protease matriptase is a key contributor to aggressive tumor growth, cancer metastasis, and osteoarthritis. Methods for the detection and quantification of matriptase activity and inhibition would be useful tools. To address this need, we developed a matriptase-sensitive protein biosensor based on a dimerization-dependent red fluorescent protein (ddRFP) reporter system. In this platform, two adjoining protein domains, connected by a protease-labile linker, produce fluorescence when assembled and are nonfluorescent when the linker is cleaved by matriptase. A panel of ddRFP-based matriptase biosensor designs was created that contained different linker lengths between the protein domains. These constructs were characterized for linker-specific cleavage, matriptase activity, and matriptase selectivity; a biosensor containing a RSKLRVGGH linker (termed B4) was expressed at high yields and displayed both high catalytic efficiency and matriptase specificity. This biosensor detects matriptase inhibition by soluble and yeast cell surface expressed inhibitor domains with up to a 5-fold dynamic range and also detects matriptase activity expressed by human cancer cell lines. In addition to matriptase, we highlight a strategy that can be used to create effective biosensors for quantifying activity and inhibition of other proteases of interest.
View details for PubMedID 29125730
Determining the equilibrium-binding affinity (Kd) of two interacting proteins is essential not only for the biochemical study of protein signaling and function but also for the engineering of improved protein and enzyme variants. One common technique for measuring protein-binding affinities uses flow cytometry to analyze ligand binding to proteins presented on the surface of a cell. However, cell-binding assays require specific considerations to accurately quantify the binding affinity of a protein-protein interaction. Here we will cover the basic assumptions in designing a cell-based binding assay, including the relevant equations and theory behind determining binding affinities. Further, two major considerations in measuring binding affinities-time to equilibrium and ligand depletion-will be discussed. As these conditions have the potential to greatly alter the Kd, methods through which to avoid or minimize them will be provided. We then outline detailed protocols for performing direct- and competitive-binding assays against proteins displayed on the surface of yeast or mammalian cells that can be used to derive accurate Kd values. Finally, a comparison of cell-based binding assays to other types of binding assays will be presented.
View details for DOI 10.1016/bs.mie.2016.05.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000383905300003
View details for PubMedID 27586327
Endothelium in embryonic hematopoietic tissues generates hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells; however, it is unknown how its unique potential is specified. We show that transcription factor Scl/Tal1 is essential for both establishing the hematopoietic transcriptional program in hemogenic endothelium and preventing its misspecification to a cardiomyogenic fate. Scl(-/-) embryos activated a cardiac transcriptional program in yolk sac endothelium, leading to the emergence of CD31+Pdgfr?+ cardiogenic precursors that generated spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. Ectopic cardiogenesis was also observed in Scl(-/-) hearts, where the disorganized endocardium precociously differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Induction of mosaic deletion of Scl in Scl(fl/fl)Rosa26Cre-ER(T2) embryos revealed a cell-intrinsic, temporal requirement for Scl to prevent cardiomyogenesis from endothelium. Scl(-/-) endothelium also upregulated the expression of Wnt antagonists, which promoted rapid cardiomyocyte differentiation of ectopic cardiogenic cells. These results reveal unexpected plasticity in embryonic endothelium such that loss of a single master regulator can induce ectopic cardiomyogenesis from endothelial cells.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2012.06.026
View details for Web of Science ID 000307301400017
View details for PubMedID 22863011
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3624753