Postoperative Outcomes of Children With Tetralogy of Fallot, Pulmonary Atresia, and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals Undergoing Reconstruction of Occluded Pulmonary Artery Branches
ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY
2016; 101 (6): 2329-2334
Reperfusion pulmonary edema in children with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries undergoing unifocalization procedures: A pilot study examining potential pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical significance
JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY
2014; 148 (4): 1560-1565
Patients with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals (TOF/PA/MAPCAs) undergoing unifocalization surgery are at risk for prolonged postoperative respiratory failure. We sought to understand whether patients undergoing reconstruction and incorporation of occluded pulmonary arterial branches were at risk for worse postoperative outcomes.We performed a retrospective chart review to identify patients who underwent unifocalization or unifocalization revision with incorporation of occluded pulmonary artery branches. Patients with and without occluded branches were compared, with a focus on clinical outcomes.We studied 92 patients who underwent unifocalization procedures between 2010 and 2014, 17 (18%) of whom underwent reconstruction of occluded pulmonary artery branches. Patients with occluded vessels were more likely to require staged unifocalization procedures, although more than two thirds of this cohort eventually underwent complete intracardiac repair. Durations of mechanical ventilation, intensive care, hospital stay, and the need for early reoperation were similar between the two groups.Occluded pulmonary arterial branches can be safely recruited into the pulmonary vasculature in patients with TOF/PA/MAPCAs without a significant difference in postoperative outcomes compared with patients who did not have an occluded branch. Incorporation of occluded branches may also facilitate ultimate complete intracardiac repair in this complex population of patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.12.049
View details for PubMedID 26947013
Postoperative respiratory failure in children with tetralogy of fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals: a pilot study.
Pediatric critical care medicine
2013; 14 (4): 384-389
Children with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), pulmonary atresia (PA), and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs) are at risk for reperfusion pulmonary edema (RPE) after unifocalization procedures to reconstruct the central pulmonary arteries. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of RPE, describe the clinical course of patients with RPE, and explore the mechanism of RPE in this population by measuring plasma biomarkers of alveolar epithelial and endothelial injury and lung inflammation.Levels of plasma receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured at baseline and postoperative day (POD) 0, 1, and 2 after unifocalization. A pediatric radiologist reviewed chest radiographs from the same time points and scored each lung segment for the degree of pulmonary edema. A pediatric interventional cardiologist reviewed the preoperative angiograms for each patient and determined the degree of stenosis for each aortopulmonary collateral vessel. RPE was defined as localized pulmonary edema with a pulmonary edema score of at least 2 occurring in the lung segment demonstrating the greatest degree of angiographic stenosis within the first 48 hours after surgery and with resolution by discharge.Thirty-five patients who underwent 37 unifocalization procedures were enrolled, and 32 patients were included in the analysis. Of these, 16 of 32 (50%) demonstrated evidence of RPE based on our defined criteria. There was no significant difference in RAGE (P=.60), ICAM-1 (P=.34), or IL-6 (P=.31) levels between those with and without RPE at any time point. The mean duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with RPE versus those without was not significantly different (5.1±4.2 vs 5.6±4.5 days, respectively; P=.57).Fifty percent of children with TOF/PA/MAPCAs undergoing unifocalization surgery developed RPE. Levels of plasma biomarkers of alveolar epithelial and endothelial injury and lung inflammation were not increased in patients with RPE compared with those without RPE. The presence of RPE did not affect the duration of respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation. The process of RPE is clinically self-limited and seems unlikely to be associated with vascular changes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.01.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000342896200077
Survival after extreme left atrial hypertension and pulmonary hemorrhage in an infant supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory atrial flutter
PEDIATRIC CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
2011; 12 (3): E149-E152
: Children with tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collaterals (TOF/PA/MAPCAs), who undergo unifocalization surgery are at risk for prolonged postoperative respiratory failure. We sought to identify risk factors that are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation in this population.: We collected preoperative and operative data from medical records and postoperative data prospectively. Mechanical ventilation beyond postoperative day 5, which was greater than the 50th percentile for the subjects enrolled, was considered prolonged. Risk factors were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, independent samples t test, Fisher's exact test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Enrollment occurred over a 20-month period between May 2009 and January 2011.: Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (Palo Alto, CA).: All patients with TOF/PA/MAPCAs presenting for unifocalization or pulmonary artery revision procedures were eligible, including those with additional structural cardiac abnormalities requiring surgical intervention. We excluded patients with single-ventricle cardiac anatomy and preoperative respiratory failure or infection.: We enrolled 35 consecutive patients undergoing 37 procedures over the study period. One patient was excluded for single-ventricle anatomy. There were 12 cases (32%) of prolonged mechanical ventilation. Delayed sternal closure was the only risk factor associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (p = 0.01). Age, weight, cardiopulmonary bypass time, 22q11 microdeletion, postoperative fluid balance, bronchospasm, and nonrespiratory infection were not significantly associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Respiratory complications occurred in both groups, and patients with pneumonia were more likely to have a prolonged course (p = 0.03). There was no significant association between the type of surgery performed and duration of mechanical ventilation.: Prolonged postoperative respiratory failure in children undergoing surgery for TOF/PA/MAPCAs was independently associated with delayed sternal closure. Respiratory complications occur after unifocalization surgery, and pneumonia is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Our pilot study suggests that clinical features common in this patient population, such as bronchospasm and 22q11 microdeletion, were not associated with more postoperative respiratory failure.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0b013e318272062b
View details for PubMedID 23439458
We report here the survival of an infant who developed extreme left atrial hypertension and severe pulmonary hemorrhage while supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory atrial flutter. The patient recovered after decompression of the left heart and catheter ablation of the atrioventricular node.Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (Stanford, CA).Chart review.Recovery of lung function is possible despite systemic-level left atrial pressure resulting in pulmonary hemorrhage and complete solidification of lung parenchyma on gross inspection. Resolution of pulmonary hemorrhage despite anticoagulation while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can occur after relief of left atrial hypertension.
View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181e8b3e5
View details for PubMedID 20693934