Dr. Rajib Ahmed working as a postdoc fellow at Stanford University School of Medicine, Canary Center at Stanford for Cancer Early Detection. His research focus on micro- and nano-technologies based biomedical optical devices.

Rajib received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree at the department of applied physics electronics and communication engineering in 2010 and 2012 with first class honor from University of Dhaka (Bangladesh), and also studied two-year double degree M.Sc. as a Erasmus mundus student at MAsters on Photonic NETworks Engineering (MAPNET) on in Scuola Superiore Sant?Anna (Italy), Aston University (UK), and Technische Univeraitat Berlin (Germany) in 2013-2014. He received his Ph.D. degree on laser based nanofabrication from school of engineering, University of Birmingham (UK) in 2018. Upon the completion of his Ph.D. studies, Rajib started working as a postdoctoral research fellow at Stanford University School of Medicine in 2018.

Rajib has published his research work in the most prestigious journals, including ACS Nano, Scientific Reports, Light: Science & Applications, Advanced Optical Materials, Optics Express, Optics Letter, Nanoscale, RSC Advance. Applied Physics Letter, etc. Besides his research publications, he has contributed to the publication of 4 book chapters. His research findings have been presented in national and international conferences.

Honors & Awards

  • Travel Grant, Summer Session, Non-linear and Quantum Optics, Brazil, São Paulo School of Advanced Science (SPSAS) (2018)
  • School Scholarship, University of Birmingham (2015)
  • Travel Grants, CIOMP and OSA summer session, Optical Engineering, china, OSA Foundation (2013)
  • Travel Grants, Meeting for Young Researcher, Poland, SPIE/OSA Foundation (2013)
  • Erasmus Mundus Scholarship, MAsters on Photonic NETworks Engineering (MAPNET), European Union (2012/2014)
  • Best Presentation Award, CIOMP-OSA Summer Session, Leaser and Their Applications, China, The Optical Society (2011)
  • Travel Grants, CIOMP and OSA summer session, Laser and their Applications, China, The Optical Society (2011)
  • Best Student Paper Award, PHOTNICS 2010 Conference, Guwahati, India, IEEE Photonics Society (2010)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Editorial Board Member, Journal of Integrative Medicine; Int Journal of Electronics and Informatics (IJEI) (2018 - Present)
  • Organizing Committee Member, ICIEV Conference Series (2018 - Present)
  • Reviewer, ACS Materials and Interfaces (2018 - Present)
  • Reviewer, Nature Scientific Report (2018 - Present)
  • Reviewer, MDPI (SENSORS, Micromachines; Materials) (2018 - Present)
  • Reviewer, APL Photonics. (2018 - Present)
  • Reviewer, RSC Advance. (2018 - Present)
  • Reviewer, IEEE(Journal of Lightwave Technology, Electronics Letters) (2017 - Present)
  • Reviewer, Optical and Quantum Electronics (2017 - Present)
  • Reviewer, OSA( Optics Express, Applied Optics, Optics Letters, Optical Materials Express) (2013 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, University Of Birmingham (2018)
  • Master of Science, Aston University, Technische Universität Berlin, Photonic NETworks Engineering (2014)
  • Master of Science, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Photonic NETworks Engineering (2013)
  • Master of Science, University Of Dhaka (2012)
  • Bachelor of Science, University Of Dhaka (2010)


All Publications

  • Holographic Writing of Ink-Based Phase Conjugate Nanostructures via Laser Ablation (vol 7, 10603, 2017) SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Khalid, M., Ahmed, R., Yetisen, A. K., AlQattan, B., Butt, H. 2018; 8: 6363


    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-018-24169-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000430283400005

    View details for PubMedID 29670120

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5906469

  • Highly sensitive selectively coated photonic crystal fiber-based plasmonic sensor OPTICS LETTERS Rifat, A. A., Haider, F., Ahmed, R., Mahdiraji, G., Adikan, F., Miroshnichenko, A. E. 2018; 43 (4): 891?94


    Highly sensitive and miniaturized sensors are highly desirable for real-time analyte/sample detection. In this Letter, we propose a highly sensitive plasmonic sensing scheme with the miniaturized photonic crystal fiber (PCF) attributes. A large cavity is introduced in the first ring of the PCFs for the efficient field excitation of the surface plasmon polariton mode and proficient infiltration of the sensing elements. Due to the irregular air-hole diameter in the first ring, the cavity exhibits the birefringence behavior which enhances the sensing performance. The novel plasmonic material gold has been used considering the chemical stability in an aqueous environment. The guiding properties and the effects of the sensing performance with different parameters have been investigated by the finite element method, and the proposed PCFs have been fabricated using the stack-and-draw fiber drawing method. The proposed sensor performance was investigated based on the wavelength and amplitude sensing techniques and shows the maximum sensitivities of 11,000 nm/RIU and 1,420??RIU-1, respectively. It also shows the maximum sensor resolutions of 9.1×10-6 and 7×10-6??RIU for the wavelength and amplitude sensing schemes, respectively, and the maximum figure of merits of 407. Furthermore, the proposed sensor is able to detect the analyte refractive indices in the range of 1.33-1.42; as a result, it will find the possible applications in the medical diagnostics, biomolecules, organic chemical, and chemical analyte detection.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OL.43.000891

    View details for Web of Science ID 000425123700067

    View details for PubMedID 29444020

  • Functionalized Flexible Soft Polymer Optical Fibers for Laser Photomedicine ADVANCED OPTICAL MATERIALS Jiang, N., Ahmed, R., Rifat, A. A., Guo, J., Yin, Y., Montelongo, Y., Butt, H., Yetisen, A. K. 2018; 6 (3)
  • Flexible corner cube retroreflector array for temperature and strain sensing RSC ADVANCES Khalid, M., Ahmed, R., Yetisen, A. K., Butt, H. 2018; 8 (14): 7588?98


    Optical sensors for detecting temperature and strain play a crucial role in the analysis of environmental conditions and real-time remote sensing. However, the development of a single optical device that can sense temperature and strain simultaneously remains a challenge. Here, a flexible corner cube retroreflector (CCR) array based on passive dual optical sensing (temperature and strain) is demonstrated. A mechanical embossing process was utilised to replicate a three-dimensional (3D) CCR array in a soft flexible polymer film. The fabricated flexible CCR array samples were experimentally characterised through reflection measurements followed by computational modelling. As fabricated samples were illuminated with a monochromatic laser beam (635, 532, and 450 nm), a triangular shape reflection was obtained at the far-field. The fabricated flexible CCR array samples tuned retroreflected light based on external stimuli (temperature and strain as an applied force). For strain and temperature sensing, an applied force and temperature, in the form of weight suspension, and heat flow was applied to alter the replicated CCR surface structure, which in turn changed its optical response. Directional reflection from the heated flexible CCR array surface was also measured with tilt angle variation (max. up to 10°). Soft polymer CCRs may have potential in remote sensing applications, including measuring the temperature in space and in nuclear power stations.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c7ra13284k

    View details for Web of Science ID 000425647000032

    View details for PubMedID 29568510

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5819368

  • Spiral Photonic Crystal Fiber-Based Dual-Polarized Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Hasan, M., Akter, S., Rifat, A. A., Rana, S., Ahmed, K., Ahmed, R., Subbaraman, H., Abbott, D. 2018; 18 (1): 133?40
  • Photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic sensors SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL Rifat, A. A., Ahmed, R., Yetisen, A. K., Butt, H., Sabouri, A., Mandiraji, G., Yun, S., Adikan, F. 2017; 243: 311?25
  • Highly Sensitive D-Shaped Photonic Crystal Fiber-Based Plasmonic Biosensor in Visible to Near-IR IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Rifat, A. A., Ahmed, R., Mahdiraji, G., Adikan, F. 2017; 17 (9): 2776?83
  • High Numerical Aperture Hexagonal Stacked Ring-Based Bidirectional Flexible Polymer Microlens Array ACS NANO Ahmed, R., Yetisen, A. K., Butt, H. 2017; 11 (3): 3155?65


    Flexible imprinted photonic nanostructures that are able to diffract/focus narrow-band light have potential applications in optical lenses, filters, tunable lasers, displays, and biosensing. Nanophotonic structures through holography and roll-to-roll printing may reduce fabrication complexities and expenses and enable mass production. Here, 3D photonic nanostructures of a stacked ring array were imprinted on acrylate polymer (AP) over poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate through holography and lift-off processes to create a microlens array (MLA). The surface structure of the array consisted of circular nonostepped pyramids, and repeated patterns were in hexagonal arrangements. Stacked-ring-based MLA (SMLA) on a flexible AP-PET substrate showed efficient bidirectional light focusing and maximum numerical aperture (NA = 0.60) with a reasonable filling factor. The nanostructures produced a well-ordered hexagonally focused diffraction pattern in the far field, and power intensities were measured through angle-resolved experiments. The variation of nanostep dimensions (width and height) and the number of steps resulted in different photonic bandgaps, and the arrays produced distance-dependent narrow-band light focusing. The validation of the SMLA was demonstrated through the text, image, and hologram projection experiments. It is anticipated that imprinted bidirectional SMLA over flexible substrates may find applications in optical systems, displays, and portable sensors.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.7b00211

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398014900081

    View details for PubMedID 28252935

  • Color-selective holographic retroreflector array for sensing applications LIGHT-SCIENCE & APPLICATIONS Ahmed, R., Yetisen, A. K., Yun, S., Butt, H. 2017; 6
  • Printable ink lenses, diffusers, and 2D gratings NANOSCALE Ahmed, R., Yetisen, A. K., El Khoury, A., Butt, H. 2017; 9 (1): 266?76


    Advances in holography have led to applications including data storage, displays, security labels, and colorimetric sensors. However, existing top-down approaches for the fabrication of holographic devices are complex, expensive, and expertise dependent, limiting their use in practical applications. Here, ink-based holographic devices have been created for a wide range of applications in diffraction optics. A single pulse of a 3.5 ns Nd:YAG laser allowed selective ablation of ink to nanofabricate planar optical devices. The practicality of this method is demonstrated by fabricating ink-based diffraction gratings, 2D holographic patterns, optical diffusers, and Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lenses by using the ink. The fabrication processes were rationally designed using predictive computational modeling and the devices were fabricated within a few minutes demonstrating amenability for large scale printable optics through industrial manufacturing. It is anticipated that ink will be a promising diffraction optical material for the rapid printing of low-cost planar nanophotonic devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c6nr07841a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391739300034

    View details for PubMedID 27906403

  • Phase-conjugated directional diffraction from a retroreflector array hologram RSC ADVANCES Ahmed, R., Rifat, A. A., Hassan, M., Yetisen, A. K., Butt, H. 2017; 7 (41): 25657?64

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c7ra04131d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000401535100059

  • Color-Selective 2.5D Holograms on Large-Area Flexible Substrates for Sensing and Multilevel Security ADVANCED OPTICAL MATERIALS Yetisen, A. K., Butt, H., Mikulchyk, T., Ahmed, R., Montelongo, Y., Humar, M., Jiang, N., Martin, S., Naydenova, I., Yun, S. 2016; 4 (10): 1589?1600
  • Multiwall carbon nanotube microcavity arrays JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Ahmed, R., Rifat, A. A., Yetisen, A. K., Dai, Q., Yun, S., Butt, H. 2016; 119 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4944318

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373383300005

  • Highly sensitive multi-core flat fiber surface plasmon resonance refractive index sensor OPTICS EXPRESS Rifat, A. A., Mandiraji, G. A., Sua, Y., Ahmed, R., Shee, Y. G., Adikan, F. 2016; 24 (3): 2485?95


    A simple multi-core flat fiber (MCFF) based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor operating in telecommunication wavelengths is proposed for refractive index sensing. Chemically stable gold (Au) and titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) layers are used outside the fiber structure to realize a simple detection mechanism. The modeled sensor shows average wavelength interrogation sensitivity of 9,600 nm/RIU (Refractive Index Unit) and maximum sensitivity of 23,000 nm/RIU in the sensing range of 1.46-1.485 and 1.47-1.475, respectively. Moreover, the refractive index resolution of 4.35 × 10(-6) is demonstrated. Additionally, proposed sensor had shown the maximum amplitude interrogation sensitivity of 820 RIU(-1), with the sensor resolution of 1.22 × 10(-5) RIU. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed sensor achieved the highest wavelength interrogation sensitivity among the reported fiber based SPR sensors. Finally we anticipate that, this novel and highly sensitive MCFF SPR sensor will find the potential applications in real time remote sensing and monitoring, ultimately enabling inexpensive and accurate chemical and biochemical analytes detection.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.24.002485

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371427100060

    View details for PubMedID 26906823

  • Copper-Graphene-Based Photonic Crystal Fiber Plasmonic Biosensor IEEE PHOTONICS JOURNAL Rifat, A. A., Mahdiraji, G., Ahmed, R., Chow, D. M., Sua, Y. M., Shee, Y. G., Adikan, F. 2016; 8 (1)
  • Optical microring resonator based corrosion sensing RSC ADVANCES Ahmed, R., Rifat, A. A., Yetisen, A. K., Salem, M., Yun, S., Butt, H. 2016; 6 (61): 56127?33

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c6ra11538a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378275400055

  • Holographic direct pulsed laser writing of two-dimensional nanostructures RSC ADVANCES AlQattan, B., Butt, H., Sabouri, A., Yetisen, A. K., Ahmed, R., Mahmoodi, N. 2016; 6 (112): 111269?75


    The development of accurate and rapid techniques to produce nanophotonic structures is essential in data storage, sensors, and spectroscopy. Existing bottom-up and top-down approaches to fabricate nanophotonic devices are high cost and time consuming, limiting their mass manufacturing and practical applications. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to rapidly create 25-40 nm thick 1/2D Au-Ti nanopatterns using holographic direct laser interference patterning (DLIP). Pulses of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) in holographic Denisyuk reflection mode were used to create ablative interference fringes. The constructive interference antinode regions of the standing wave selectively ablated a Au-Ti layer in localized regions to controllably form nanogratings. Varying the laser exposure parameters allowed for rapid patterning of 2D square and rectangular arrays within seconds. Controlling the distances between the laser source, recording medium, and the object, allowed for achieving a 2D spatial grating periodicity of 640 nm × 640 nm. Diffracted and transmitted light spectra of 2D nanostructure arrays were analyzed using angle-resolved measurements and spectroscopy.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c6ra22241b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389463600088

    View details for PubMedID 28066547

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5171911

  • Surface Plasmon Resonance Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor: A Practical Sensing Approach IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Rifat, A. A., Mahdiraji, G., Sua, Y. M., Shee, Y. G., Ahmed, R., Chow, D. M., Adikan, F. 2015; 27 (15): 1628?31
  • Photonic Crystal Fiber-Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor with Selective Analyte Channels and Graphene-Silver Deposited Core SENSORS Rifat, A. A., Mahdiraji, G., Chow, D. M., Shee, Y., Ahmed, R., Adikan, F. 2015; 15 (5): 11499?510


    We propose a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with selectively filled analyte channels. Silver is used as the plasmonic material to accurately detect the analytes and is coated with a thin graphene layer to prevent oxidation. The liquid-filled cores are placed near to the metallic channel for easy excitation of free electrons to produce surface plasmon waves (SPWs). Surface plasmons along the metal surface are excited with a leaky Gaussian-like core guided mode. Numerical investigations of the fiber's properties and sensing performance are performed using the finite element method (FEM). The proposed sensor shows maximum amplitude sensitivity of 418 Refractive Index Units (RIU-1) with resolution as high as 2.4 × 10(-5) RIU. Using the wavelength interrogation method, a maximum refractive index (RI) sensitivity of 3000 nm/RIU in the sensing range of 1.46-1.49 is achieved. The proposed sensor is suitable for detecting various high RI chemicals, biochemical and organic chemical analytes. Additionally, the effects of fiber structural parameters on the properties of plasmonic excitation are investigated and optimized for sensing performance as well as reducing the sensor's footprint.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/s150511499

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357183100099

    View details for PubMedID 25996510

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4481892

  • Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Butt, H., Yetisen, A. K., Ahmed, R., Yun, S., Dai, Q. 2015; 106 (12)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4916236

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351876700008

  • SOI Waveguide-Based Biochemical Sensors Computational Photonic Sensors Rifat, A. Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019. 2019; M. F. O. Hameed and S. Obayya: 423?448
  • Microstructured Optical Fiber-Based Plasmonic Sensors Computational Photonic Sensors Rifat, A. Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019. 2019; M. F. O. Hameed and S. Obayya: 203?232
  • Development of Photonic Crystal Fiber-Based Gas/Chemical Sensors Computational Photonic Sensors Rifat, A. Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019. 2019; M. F. O. Hameed and S. Obayya: 287?317
  • Bio-Inspired Optical Spectroscopy Advances in Biophotonics AHMED, R. N., et al
  • Highly Sensitive Plasmonic Metasensor with Wide Detection Range Frontiers in Optics (FiO) Rifat, A., et al
  • Design & analysis on silicon based optical micro-ring resonator sensor device for biomedical applications at ?m wavelength CIOMP-OSA Summer Session: Lasers and Their Applications Ahmed, R., , et al
  • Design of Dispersion Manage, Low Confinement Loss and High Nonlinearity Photonic Crystal Fiber for Communication Applications The 6th ANU/SEED-Net Regional Conference on Electrical Engineering Ahmmed, R., et al
  • Design of Ultra-flattened Zero Dispersion Shifted Photonic Crystal Fibers with Lower Confinement Loss for Telecommunication Applications CIOMP-OSA Summer Session on Optical Engineering, Design and Manufacturing Ahmed, R., et al
  • Design and Simulation of Duel-Concentric-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber for Dispersion Compensation CIOMP-OSA Summer Session on Optical Engineering, Design and Manufacturing Ahmmed, R., Ahmed, R., et al
  • Morpho butterfly-inspired optical diffraction, diffusion, and bio-chemical sensing Morpho butterfly-inspired optical diffraction, diffusion, and bio-chemical sensing AHMED, R. N., et al 2018; 8 (48): 27111-27118

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c8ra04382e

  • Bio-inspired optical spectroscopy Advance Biophotonics Ahmed, R., et al 2018
  • Photonic crystal fiber-based plasmonic biosensor with external sensing approach (vol 12, 012503, 2017) JOURNAL OF NANOPHOTONICS Rifat, A. A., Hasan, M., Ahmed, R., Butt, H. 2018; 12 (1)
  • Holographic Writing of Ink-Based Phase Conjugate Nanostructures via Laser Ablation SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Khalid, M., Ahmed, R., Yetisen, A. K., AlQattan, B., Butt, H. 2017; 7: 10603


    The optical phase conjugation (OPC) through photonic nanostructures in coherent optics involves the utilization of a nonlinear optical mechanism through real-time processing of electromagnetic fields. Their applications include spectroscopy, optical tomography, wavefront sensing, and imaging. The development of functional and personalized holographic devices in the visible and near-infrared spectrum can be improved by introducing cost-effective, rapid, and high-throughput fabrication techniques and low-cost recording media. Here, we develop flat and thin phase-conjugate nanostructures on low-cost ink coated glass substrates through a facile and flexible single pulsed nanosecond laser based reflection holography and a cornercube retroreflector (CCR). Fabricated one/two-dimensional (1D/2D) nanostructures exhibited far-field phase-conjugated patterns through wavefront reconstruction by means of diffraction. The optical phase conjugation property had correlation with the laser light (energy) and structural parameters (width, height and exposure angle) variation. The phase conjugated diffraction property from the recorded nanostructures was verified through spectral measurements, far-field diffraction experiments, and thermal imaging. Furthermore, a comparison between the conventional and phase-conjugated nanostructures showed two-fold increase in diffracted light intensity under monochromatic light illumination. It is anticipated that low-cost ink based holographic phase-conjugate nanostructures may have applications in flexible and printable displays, polarization-selective flat waveplates, and adaptive diffraction optics.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-10790-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000409439900021

    View details for PubMedID 28878232

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5587581

  • Finite element analysis of nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of various materials WORLD JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING Ren, J., Ahmed, R., Butt, H. 2017; 14 (6): 489?96
  • Multimode waveguide based directional coupler OPTICS COMMUNICATIONS Ahmed, R., Rifat, A. A., Sabouri, A., Al-Qattan, B., Essa, K., Butt, H. 2016; 370: 183?91
  • A simple photonic crystal fiber based plasmonic biosensor International OSA Network of Students Ahmmed, R., Ahmed, R., et al 2016
  • Computational Modelling of Nanophotonic Optical Devices 7th Annual BBEAR PGR Conference Ahmed, R., et al 2016
  • Holographic Ink-based optical device Photon 16 Ahmed, R., et al 2016
  • Mode-multiplexed waveguide sensor JOURNAL OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AND APPLICATIONS Ahmed, R., Rifat, A. A., Yetisen, A. K., Yun, S., Khan, S., Butt, H. 2016; 30 (4): 444?55
  • Optimum design of a nearly zero ultra-flattened dispersion with lower confinement loss photonic crystal fibers for communication systems International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research Ahmmed , R., Ahmed, R., et al 2013; 4 (1)
  • Design, simulation & optimization of 2D photonic crystal power splitter Optics and Photonics Journal Ahmed, R., et al 2013; 3 (02)
  • Electrical and dielectric properties analysis of vanadium penta-oxide (V 2 O 5) doped Ni?Zn ferrite samples The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology Ahad, A., Ahmed, R., et al 2013; 14 (1)
  • Design of Large Negative Dispersion and Modal Analysis for Hexagonal, Square, FCC and BCC Photonic Crystal Fibers Ahmmed, R., Ahmed, R., Razzak, S., IEEE IEEE. 2013
  • Design, Analysis and Performance Study of a Hybrid PV-Diesel-Wind System for a Village Gopal Nagar in Comilla Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Hoque, M., Bhuiyan, I., Ahmed, R., et al 2012; 12 (5)
  • Design & Analysis of Optical Lenses by using 2D Photonic Crystals for Sub-wavelength Focusing International Journal of Advance Computer Science and Application Ahmed, R., et al 2012; 3 (12)
  • A Text Dependent Speaker Recognition using Vector Quantization Dhaka Univ. J. Eng. & Tech. Ahmed, R., et al 2011; 1 (2): 1-6
  • Effect of Lattice Constant and Air Hole Diameter on the Mode Profile in Triangular and Square Lattice Photonic Crystal Fiber at THz Regime Faruk, M., ul Aftab, M., Ahmed, R., Hussain, B., Islam, M., Alam, S., Ao, S. I., Douglas, C., Grundfest, W. S., Burgstone, J. INT ASSOC ENGINEERS-IAENG. 2010: 1109-+

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