Quaternary Ammonium Compound Disinfectants Reduce Lupus-Associated Splenomegaly by Targeting Neutrophil Migration and T-Cell Fate
FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
2020; 11: 575179
Pregnancy and lactation interfere with the response of autoimmunity to modulation of gut microbiota
2019; 7: 105
Hypersensitivity reactions and immune dysregulation have been reported with the use of quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants (QACs). We hypothesized that QAC exposure would exacerbate autoimmunity associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). Surprisingly, however, we found that compared to QAC-free mice, ambient exposure of lupus-prone mice to QACs led to smaller spleens with no change in circulating autoantibodies or the severity of glomerulonephritis. This suggests that QACs may have immunosuppressive effects on lupus. Using a microfluidic device, we showed that ambient exposure to QACs reduced directional migration of bone marrow-derived neutrophils toward an inflammatory chemoattractant ex vivo. Consistent with this, we found decreased infiltration of neutrophils into the spleen. While bone marrow-derived neutrophils appeared to exhibit a pro-inflammatory profile, upregulated expression of PD-L1 was observed on neutrophils that infiltrated the spleen, which in turn interacted with PD-1 on T cells and modulated their fate. Specifically, QAC exposure hindered activation of splenic T cells and increased apoptosis of effector T-cell populations. Collectively, these results suggest that ambient QAC exposure decreases lupus-associated splenomegaly likely through neutrophil-mediated toning of T-cell activation and/or apoptosis. However, our findings also indicate that even ambient exposure could alter immune cell phenotypes, functions, and their fate. Further investigations on how QACs affect immunity under steady-state conditions are warranted.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2020.575179
View details for Web of Science ID 000584499300001
View details for PubMedID 33193366
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7609861
Role of Lactobacillus reuteri in Human Health and Diseases
FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY
2018; 9: 757
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota exists in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). Lupus patients who experienced pregnancy usually had more severe disease flares post-delivery. However, the possible role of gut microbiota in the link between pregnancy and exacerbation of lupus remains to be explored.In the classical lupus mouse model MRL/lpr, we compared the structures of gut microbiota in pregnant and lactating individuals vs. age-matched na´ve mice. Consistent with studies on non-lupus mice, both pregnancy and lactation significantly changed the composition and diversity of gut microbiota. Strikingly, modulation of gut microbiota using the same strategy resulted in different disease outcomes in postpartum (abbreviated as "PP," meaning that the mice had undergone pregnancy and lactation) vs. control (na´ve; i.e., without pregnancy or lactation) MRL/lpr females; while vancomycin treatment attenuated lupus in na´ve mice, it did not do so, or even exacerbated lupus, in PP mice. Lactobacillus animalis flourished in the gut upon vancomycin treatment, and direct administration of L. animalis via oral gavage recapitulated the differential effects of vancomycin in PP vs. control mice. An enzyme called indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase was significantly inhibited by L. animalis; however, this inhibition was only apparent in PP mice, which explained, at least partially, the lack of beneficial response to vancomycin in these mice. The differential production of immunosuppressive IL-10 and proinflammatory IFN? in PP vs. control mice further explained why the disease phenotypes varied between the two types of mice bearing the same gut microbiota remodeling strategy.These results suggest that pregnancy and lactation interfere with the response of autoimmunity to modulation of gut microbiota. Further studies are necessary to better understand the complex relationship between pregnancy and lupus.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s40168-019-0720-8
View details for Web of Science ID 000475858800001
View details for PubMedID 31311609
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6635999
Antibiotics ameliorate lupus-like symptoms in mice
2017; 7: 13675
Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is a well-studied probiotic bacterium that can colonize a large number of mammals. In humans, L. reuteri is found in different body sites, including the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, skin, and breast milk. The abundance of L. reuteri varies among different individuals. Several beneficial effects of L. reuteri have been noted. First, L. reuteri can produce antimicrobial molecules, such as organic acids, ethanol, and reuterin. Due to its antimicrobial activity, L. reuteri is able to inhibit the colonization of pathogenic microbes and remodel the commensal microbiota composition in the host. Second, L. reuteri can benefit the host immune system. For instance, some L. reuteri strains can reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines while promoting regulatory T cell development and function. Third, bearing the ability to strengthen the intestinal barrier, the colonization of L. reuteri may decrease the microbial translocation from the gut lumen to the tissues. Microbial translocation across the intestinal epithelium has been hypothesized as an initiator of inflammation. Therefore, inflammatory diseases, including those located in the gut as well as in remote tissues, may be ameliorated by increasing the colonization of L. reuteri. Notably, the decrease in the abundance of L. reuteri in humans in the past decades is correlated with an increase in the incidences of inflammatory diseases over the same period of time. Direct supplementation or prebiotic modulation of L. reuteri may be an attractive preventive and/or therapeutic avenue against inflammatory diseases.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00757
View details for Web of Science ID 000430401000001
View details for PubMedID 29725324
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5917019
Control of lupus nephritis by changes of gut microbiota
2017; 5: 73
Gut microbiota and the immune system interact to maintain tissue homeostasis, but whether this interaction is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is unclear. Here we report that oral antibiotics given during active disease removed harmful bacteria from the gut microbiota and attenuated SLE-like disease in lupus-prone mice. Using MRL/lpr mice, we showed that antibiotics given after disease onset ameliorated systemic autoimmunity and kidney histopathology. They decreased IL-17-producing cells and increased the level of circulating IL-10. In addition, antibiotics removed Lachnospiraceae and increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp., two groups of bacteria previously shown to be associated with deteriorated or improved symptoms in MRL/lpr mice, respectively. Moreover, we showed that the attenuated disease phenotype could be recapitulated with a single antibiotic vancomycin, which reshaped the gut microbiota and changed microbial functional pathways in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, vancomycin treatment increased the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium, thus preventing the translocation of lipopolysaccharide, a cell wall component of Gram-negative Proteobacteria and known inducer of lupus in mice, into the circulation. These results suggest that mixed antibiotics or a single antibiotic vancomycin ameliorate SLE-like disease in MRL/lpr mice by changing the composition of gut microbiota.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-14223-0
View details for Web of Science ID 000413357500041
View details for PubMedID 29057975
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5651817
Leaky Gut As a Danger Signal for Autoimmune Diseases
FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
2017; 8: 598
Systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by persistent inflammation, is a complex autoimmune disorder with no known cure. Immunosuppressants used in treatment put patients at a higher risk of infections. New knowledge of disease modulators, such as symbiotic bacteria, can enable fine-tuning of parts of the immune system, rather than suppressing it altogether.Dysbiosis of gut microbiota promotes autoimmune disorders that damage extraintestinal organs. Here we report a role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction in lupus. Using a classical model of lupus nephritis, MRL/lpr, we found a marked depletion of Lactobacillales in the gut microbiota. Increasing Lactobacillales in the gut improved renal function of these mice and prolonged their survival. We used a mixture of 5 Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus oris, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus gasseri), but L. reuteri and an uncultured Lactobacillus sp. accounted for most of the observed effects. Further studies revealed that MRL/lpr mice possessed a "leaky" gut, which was reversed by increased Lactobacillus colonization. Lactobacillus treatment contributed to an anti-inflammatory environment by decreasing IL-6 and increasing IL-10 production in the gut. In the circulation, Lactobacillus treatment increased IL-10 and decreased IgG2a that is considered to be a major immune deposit in the kidney of MRL/lpr mice. Inside the kidney, Lactobacillus treatment also skewed the Treg-Th17 balance towards a Treg phenotype. These beneficial effects were present in female and castrated male mice, but not in intact males, suggesting that the gut microbiota controls lupus nephritis in a sex hormone-dependent manner.This work demonstrates essential mechanisms on how changes of the gut microbiota regulate lupus-associated immune responses in mice. Future studies are warranted to determine if these results can be replicated in human subjects.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s40168-017-0300-8
View details for Web of Science ID 000405193600001
View details for PubMedID 28697806
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5505136
SLE: Another Autoimmune Disorder influenced by Microbes and Diet?
FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
2015; 6: 608
The intestinal epithelial lining, together with factors secreted from it, forms a barrier that separates the host from the environment. In pathologic conditions, the permeability of the epithelial lining may be compromised allowing the passage of toxins, antigens, and bacteria in the lumen to enter the blood stream creating a "leaky gut." In individuals with a genetic predisposition, a leaky gut may allow environmental factors to enter the body and trigger the initiation and development of autoimmune disease. Growing evidence shows that the gut microbiota is important in supporting the epithelial barrier and therefore plays a key role in the regulation of environmental factors that enter the body. Several recent reports have shown that probiotics can reverse the leaky gut by enhancing the production of tight junction proteins; however, additional and longer term studies are still required. Conversely, pathogenic bacteria that can facilitate a leaky gut and induce autoimmune symptoms can be ameliorated with the use of antibiotic treatment. Therefore, it is hypothesized that modulating the gut microbiota can serve as a potential method for regulating intestinal permeability and may help to alter the course of autoimmune diseases in susceptible individuals.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00598
View details for Web of Science ID 000401873100001
View details for PubMedID 28588585
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5440529
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disease. Despite years of study, the etiology of SLE is still unclear. Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the disease mechanisms. In the past decade, a growing body of evidence has indicated an important role of gut microbes in the development of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. However, such knowledge on SLE is little, though we have already known that environmental factors can trigger the development of lupus. Several recent studies have suggested that alterations of the gut microbial composition may be correlated with SLE disease manifestations, while the exact roles of either symbiotic or pathogenic microbes in this disease remain to be explored. Elucidation of the roles of gut microbes?-?as well as the roles of diet that can modulate the composition of gut microbes?-?in SLE will shed light on how this autoimmune disorder develops, and provide opportunities for improved biomarkers of the disease and the potential to probe new therapies. In this review, we aim to compile the available evidence on the contributions of diet and gut microbes to SLE occurrence and pathogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00608
View details for Web of Science ID 000366480000001
View details for PubMedID 26648937
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4663251