Evidence for altered levels of IgD in the nasal airway mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis
JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
2017; 140 (6): 1562-+
IgD is an enigmatic antibody isotype best known when coexpressed with IgM on naive B cells. However, increased soluble IgD (sIgD) levels and increased IgD+IgM- B-cell populations have been described in the human upper respiratory mucosa.We assessed whether levels of sIgD and IgD+ B cell counts are altered in nasal tissue from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We further characterized IgD+ B-cell populations and explored clinical and local inflammatory factors associated with tissue sIgD levels.sIgD levels were measured by means of ELISA in nasal tissues, nasal lavage fluid, sera, and supernatants of dissociated nasal tissues. IgD+ cells were identified by using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Inflammatory mediator levels in tissues were assessed by using real-time PCR and multiplex immunoassays. Bacterial cultures from the middle meatus were performed. Underlying medical history and medicine use were obtained from medical records.sIgD levels and numbers of IgD+ cells were significantly increased in uncinate tissue (UT) of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) compared with that of control subjects (4-fold, P < .05). IgD+ cells were densely scattered in the periglandular regions of UT from patients with CRSsNP. We also found that IgD+CD19+CD38bright plasmablast numbers were significantly increased in tissues from patients with CRSsNP compared with control tissues (P < .05). Among numerous factors tested, IL-2 levels were increased in UT from patients with CRSsNP and were positively correlated with tissue IgD levels. Additionally, supernatants of IL-2-stimulated dissociated tissue from patients with CRSsNP had significantly increased sIgD levels compared with those in IL-2-stimulated dissociated control tissue ex vivo (P < .05). Tissue from patients with CRS with preoperative antibiotic use or those with pathogenic bacteria showed higher IgD levels compared with tissue from patients without these variables (P < .05).sIgD levels and IgD+CD19+CD38bright plasmablast counts were increased in nasal tissue of patients with CRSsNP. IgD levels were associated with increased IL-2 levels and the presence of pathogenic bacteria. These findings suggest that IgD might contribute to enhancement mucosal immunity or inflammation or respond to bacterial infections in patients with CRS, especially CRSsNP.
View details for PubMedID 28625807
Development of a cost-effective assay for genotyping of HIV-1 non-B subtype for drug resistance
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGICAL METHODS
2014; 199: 102?7
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is the most effective way to control HIV-1 replication in infected patients. Prior to the start of therapy, genotyping of HIV-1 for mutations that confer resistance to potential drug candidates is crucial for it allows formulating an effective regimen. Ineffective drugs are excluded and potentially effective ones are included. A number of diagnostic kits are commercially available for this purpose but are tailored for HIV-1 subtype-B, a strain chiefly found in AIDS patients of Europe and America. However, AIDS patients of South-East Asia including Thailand are predominant infected with HIV-1 subtype non-B. In this study, an inexpensive assay was developed that genotypes HIV-1 non-B for drug resistance and tested it on 99 Thai AIDS patients. Results showed that 98 were infected with HIV-1 subtype non-B (or CRF01_AE) and one with subtype-B. Within the HIV-1 polymerase (pol), reverse transcriptase (RT) gene, the assay identified 18 codon mutations associated with resistance to Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) and 17 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs). Employing a commercially available kit, parallel genotyping of patient samples confirmed results providing validation of the assay. This method approximately costs 100 US dollars compared to $300 for a commercially available test. In Thailand, the burden of cost for treating HIV-infections is high not only for the average citizen but the country's health care systems. Therefore the low cost and yet effective genotyping test for HIV-1 subtype non-B is a practical and viable solution to expensive genotyping platforms.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.01.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000333853500015
View details for PubMedID 24462843
Polyelectrolyte-Coated Gold Magnetic Nanoparticles for Immunoassay Development: Toward Point of Care Diagnostics for Syphilis Screening
2013; 85 (14): 6688?95
Immediate response for disease control relies on simple, inexpensive, and sensitive diagnostic tests, highly sought after for timely and accurate test of various diseases, including infectious diseases. Composite Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest in diagnostic applications due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Here, we developed a simple coating procedure for gold magnetic nanoparticles (GMNs) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). PAA-coated GMNs (PGMNs) were stable and monodispersed and characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible scanning spectrophotometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and Zetasizer methodologies. For diagnostic application, we established a novel lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strip test system where recombinant Treponema pallidum antigens (r-Tp) were conjugated with PGMNs to construct a particle probe for detection of anti-Tp antibodies. Intriguingly, the particle probes specifically identified Tp antibodies with a detection limitation as low as 1 national clinical unit/mL (NCU/mL). An ample pool of 1020 sera samples from three independent hospitals were obtained to assess our PGMNs-based LFIA strips, which exhibited substantially high values of sensitivity and specificity for all clinical tests (higher than 97%) and, therefore, proved to be a suitable approach for syphilis screening at a point-of-care test manner.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ac400517e
View details for Web of Science ID 000322059600023
View details for PubMedID 23735054