Education & Certifications
BA, University of California, Berkeley, Molecular and Cell Biology
Signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical for intestinal homeostasis. To visualize epithelial expression of individual TLRs in vivo, we generated five strains of reporter mice. These mice revealed that TLR expression varied dramatically along the length of the intestine. Indeed, small intestine (SI) IECs expressed low levels of multiple TLRs that were highly expressed by colonic IECs. TLR5 expression was restricted to Paneth cells in the SI epithelium. Intestinal organoid experiments revealed that TLR signaling in Paneth cells or colonic IECs induced a core set of host defense genes, but this set did not include antimicrobial peptides, which instead were induced indirectly by inflammatory cytokines. This comprehensive blueprint of TLR expression and function in IECs reveals unexpected diversity in the responsiveness of IECs to microbial stimuli, and together with the associated reporter strains, provides a resource for further study of innate immunity.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.07.016
View details for Web of Science ID 000444909600021
View details for PubMedID 30170812
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6152941
Cortical gamma oscillations have been implicated in a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and circuit-level phenomena. However, the circuit mechanisms of gamma-band generation and synchronization across cortical space remain uncertain. Using optogenetic patterned illumination in acute brain slices of mouse visual cortex, we define a circuit composed of layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells and somatostatin (SOM) interneurons that phase-locks ensembles across the retinotopic map. The network oscillations generated here emerge from non-periodic stimuli, and are stimulus size-dependent, coherent across cortical space, narrow band (30 Hz), and depend on SOM neuron but not parvalbumin (PV) neuron activity; similar to visually induced gamma oscillations observed in vivo. Gamma oscillations generated in separate cortical locations exhibited high coherence as far apart as 850 ?m, and lateral gamma entrainment depended on SOM neuron activity. These data identify a circuit that is sufficient to mediate long-range gamma-band coherence in the primary visual cortex.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.28569
View details for Web of Science ID 000426060000001
View details for PubMedID 29480803
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5826269