Bachelor of Science, University of Rochester (2009)
Doctor of Philosophy, Emory University (2014)
Michael Snyder, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
The three-dimensional arrangement of the human genome comprises a complex network of structural and regulatory chromatin loops important for coordinating changes in transcription during human development. To better understand the mechanisms underlying context-specific 3D chromatin structure and transcription during cellular differentiation, we generated comprehensive in situ Hi-C maps of DNA loops in human monocytes and differentiated macrophages. We demonstrate that dynamic looping events are regulatory rather than structural in nature and uncover widespread coordination of dynamic enhancer activity at preformed and acquired DNA loops. Enhancer-bound loop formation and enhancer activation of preformed loops together form multi-loop activation hubs at key macrophage genes. Activation hubs connect 3.4 enhancers per promoter and exhibit a strong enrichment for activator protein 1 (AP-1)-binding events, suggesting that multi-loop activation hubs involving cell-type-specific transcription factors represent an important class of regulatory chromatin structures for the spatiotemporal control of transcription.
View details for PubMedID 28890333
The human genome is hierarchically organized into local and long-range structures that help shape cell-type-specific transcription patterns. Transfer RNA (tRNA) genes (tDNAs), which are transcribed by RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) and encode RNA molecules responsible for translation, are dispersed throughout the genome and, in many cases, linearly organized into genomic clusters with other tDNAs. Whether the location and three-dimensional organization of tDNAs contribute to the activity of these genes has remained difficult to address, due in part to unique challenges related to tRNA sequencing. We therefore devised integrated tDNA expression profiling, a method that combines RNAPIII mapping with biotin-capture of nascent tRNAs. We apply this method to the study of dynamic tRNA gene regulation during macrophage development and further integrate these data with high-resolution maps of 3D chromatin structure.Integrated tDNA expression profiling reveals domain-level and loop-based organization of tRNA gene transcription during cellular differentiation. tRNA genes connected by DNA loops, which are proximal to CTCF binding sites and expressed at elevated levels compared to non-loop tDNAs, change coordinately with tDNAs and protein-coding genes at distal ends of interactions mapped by in situ Hi-C. We find that downregulated tRNA genes are specifically marked by enhanced promoter-proximal binding of MAF1, a transcriptional repressor of RNAPIII activity, altogether revealing multiple levels of tDNA regulation during cellular differentiation.We present evidence of both local and coordinated long-range regulation of human tDNA expression, suggesting the location and organization of tRNA genes contribute to dynamic tDNA activity during macrophage development.
View details for PubMedID 28931413
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5607496
The accurate and efficient transfer of genetic information into amino acid sequences is carried out through codon-anticodon interactions between mRNA and tRNA, respectively. In this way, tRNAs function at the interface between gene expression and protein synthesis. Whether tRNA levels are dynamically regulated and to what degree tRNA abundance influences the cellular proteome remains largely unexplored. Here we profile tRNA, transcript and protein levels in Drosophila Kc167 cells, a plasmatocyte cell line that, upon treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone, differentiates into macrophages. We find that high abundance tRNAs associate with codons that are overrepresented in the Kc167 cell proteome, whereas tRNAs that are in low supply associate with codons that are underrepresented. Ecdysone-induced differentiation of Kc167 cells leads to changes in mRNA codon usage in a manner consistent with the developmental progression of the cell. At both early and late time points, ecdysone treatment concomitantly increases the abundance of tRNAThr(CGU), which decodes a differentiation-associated codon that becomes enriched in the macrophage proteome. These results together suggest that tRNA levels may provide a meaningful regulatory mechanism for defining the cellular proteomic landscape.
View details for DOI 10.1261/rna.052126.115
View details for Web of Science ID 000361557600010
View details for PubMedID 26289344
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4574756
The transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways transduce extracellular signals into tissue-specific transcriptional responses. During this process, signaling effector Smad proteins translocate into the nucleus to direct changes in transcription, but how and where they localize to DNA remain important questions. We have mapped Drosophila TGF-? signaling factors Mad, dSmad2, Medea, and Schnurri genome-wide in Kc cells and find that numerous sites for these factors overlap with the architectural protein CTCF. Depletion of CTCF by RNAi results in the disappearance of a subset of Smad sites, suggesting Smad proteins localize to CTCF binding sites in a CTCF-dependent manner. Sensitive Smad binding sites are enriched at low occupancy CTCF peaks within topological domains, rather than at the physical domain boundaries where CTCF may function as an insulator. In response to Decapentaplegic, CTCF binding is not significantly altered, whereas Mad, Medea, and Schnurri are redirected from CTCF to non-CTCF binding sites. These results suggest that CTCF participates in the recruitment of Smad proteins to a subset of genomic sites and in the redistribution of these proteins in response to BMP signaling.
View details for DOI 10.1080/15384101.2015.1053670
View details for Web of Science ID 000360295400026
View details for PubMedID 26125535
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4613847
Chromosome conformation capture studies suggest that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structures called topologically associating domains. The borders of these domains are highly enriched for architectural proteins with characterized roles in insulator function. However, a majority of architectural protein binding sites localize within topological domains, suggesting sites associated with domain borders represent a functionally different subclass of these regulatory elements. How topologically associating domains are established and what differentiates border-associated from non-border architectural protein binding sites remain unanswered questions.By mapping the genome-wide target sites for several Drosophila architectural proteins, including previously uncharacterized profiles for TFIIIC and SMC-containing condensin complexes, we uncover an extensive pattern of colocalization in which architectural proteins establish dense clusters at the borders of topological domains. Reporter-based enhancer-blocking insulator activity as well as endogenous domain border strength scale with the occupancy level of architectural protein binding sites, suggesting co-binding by architectural proteins underlies the functional potential of these loci. Analyses in mouse and human stem cells suggest that clustering of architectural proteins is a general feature of genome organization, and conserved architectural protein binding sites may underlie the tissue-invariant nature of topologically associating domains observed in mammals.We identify a spectrum of architectural protein occupancy that scales with the topological structure of chromosomes and the regulatory potential of these elements. Whereas high occupancy architectural protein binding sites associate with robust partitioning of topologically associating domains and robust insulator function, low occupancy sites appear reserved for gene-specific regulation within topological domains.
View details for DOI 10.1186/gb-2014-15-5-r82
View details for Web of Science ID 000341269300001
View details for PubMedID 24981874
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4226948
Insulators mediate inter- and intrachromosomal contacts to regulate enhancer-promoter interactions and establish chromosome domains. The mechanisms by which insulator activity can be regulated to orchestrate changes in the function and three-dimensional arrangement of the genome remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila insulator proteins are poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated and that mutation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp) gene impairs their function. This modification is not essential for DNA occupancy of insulator DNA-binding proteins dCTCF and Su(Hw). However, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of K566 in CP190 promotes protein-protein interactions with other insulator proteins, association with the nuclear lamina, and insulator activity in vivo. Consistent with these findings, the nuclear clustering of CP190 complexes is disrupted in Parp mutant cells. Importantly, poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation facilitates intrachromosomal interactions between insulator sites measured by 4C. These data suggest that the role of insulators in organizing the three-dimensional architecture of the genome may be modulated by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2013.08.052
View details for Web of Science ID 000324916700016
View details for PubMedID 24055367
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3816015
Several multiprotein DNA complexes capable of insulator activity have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, yet only CTCF, a highly conserved zinc finger protein, and the transcription factor TFIIIC have been shown to function in mammals. CTCF is involved in diverse nuclear activities, and recent studies suggest that the proteins with which it associates and the DNA sequences that it targets may underlie these various roles. Here we show that the Drosophila homolog of CTCF (dCTCF) aligns in the genome with other Drosophila insulator proteins such as Suppressor of Hairy wing [SU(HW)] and Boundary Element Associated Factor of 32 kDa (BEAF-32) at the borders of H3K27me3 domains, which are also enriched for associated insulator proteins and additional cofactors. RNAi depletion of dCTCF and combinatorial knockdown of gene expression for other Drosophila insulator proteins leads to a reduction in H3K27me3 levels within repressed domains, suggesting that insulators are important for the maintenance of appropriate repressive chromatin structure in Polycomb (Pc) domains. These results shed new insights into the roles of insulators in chromatin domain organization and support recent models suggesting that insulators underlie interactions important for Pc-mediated repression. We reveal an important relationship between dCTCF and other Drosophila insulator proteins and speculate that vertebrate CTCF may also align with other nuclear proteins to accomplish similar functions.
View details for DOI 10.1101/gr.136788.111
View details for Web of Science ID 000310584400010
View details for PubMedID 22722341
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3483547
Insulators are multiprotein-DNA complexes thought to affect gene expression by mediating inter- and intrachromosomal interactions. Drosophila insulators contain specific DNA-binding proteins plus common components, such as CP190, that facilitate these interactions. Here, we examine changes in the distribution of Drosophila insulator proteins during the heat-shock and ecdysone responses. We find that CP190 recruitment to insulator sites is the main regulatable step in controlling insulator function during heat shock. In contrast, both CP190 and DNA-binding protein recruitment are regulated during the ecdysone response. CP190 is necessary to stabilize specific chromatin loops and for proper activation of transcription of genes regulated by this hormone. These findings suggest that cells may regulate recruitment of insulator proteins to DNA to activate insulator activity at specific sites and create distinct patterns of nuclear organization that are necessary to achieve proper gene expression in response to different stimuli.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.07.035
View details for Web of Science ID 000295771200007
View details for PubMedID 21981916
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3190163
Recent advances have improved our ability to generate cardiomyocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory networks underlying early stages (ie, from mesoderm to cardiac mesoderm) of cardiomyocyte differentiation remains limited.To characterize transcriptome and chromatin accessibility during early cardiomyocyte differentiation from hiPSCs and hESCs.We profiled the temporal changes in transcriptome and chromatin accessibility at genome-wide levels during cardiomyocyte differentiation derived from 2 hiPSC lines and 2 hESC lines at 4 stages: pluripotent stem cells, mesoderm, cardiac mesoderm, and differentiated cardiomyocytes. Overall, RNA sequencing analysis revealed that transcriptomes during early cardiomyocyte differentiation were highly concordant between hiPSCs and hESCs, and clustering of 4 cell lines within each time point demonstrated that changes in genome-wide chromatin accessibility were similar across hiPSC and hESC cell lines. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) identified several modules that were strongly correlated with different stages of cardiomyocyte differentiation. Several novel genes were identified with high weighted connectivity within modules and exhibited coexpression patterns with other genes, including noncoding RNA LINC01124 and uncharacterized RNA AK127400 in the module related to the mesoderm stage; E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) in the module correlated with postcardiac mesoderm. We further demonstrated that ZEB1 is required for early cardiomyocyte differentiation. In addition, based on integrative analysis of both WGCNA and transcription factor motif enrichment analysis, we determined numerous transcription factors likely to play important roles at different stages during cardiomyocyte differentiation, such as T and eomesodermin (EOMES; mesoderm), lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) and mesoderm posterior BHLH transcription factor 1 (MESP1; from mesoderm to cardiac mesoderm), meis homeobox 1 (MEIS1) and GATA-binding protein 4 (GATA4) (postcardiac mesoderm), JUN and FOS families, and MEIS2 (cardiomyocyte).Both hiPSCs and hESCs share similar transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying early cardiac differentiation, and our results have revealed transcriptional regulatory networks and new factors (eg, ZEB1) controlling early stages of cardiomyocyte differentiation.
View details for PubMedID 28663367
Nup98 is a glycine-leucine-phenylalanine-glycine (GLFG) repeat-containing nucleoporin that, in addition to nuclear transport, contributes to multiple aspects of gene regulation. Previous studies revealed its dynamic localization within intranuclear structures known as GLFG bodies. Here we show that the mammalian Nup107-160 complex (Y-complex), a major scaffold module of the nuclear pore, together with its partner Elys, colocalizes with Nup98 in GLFG bodies. The frequency and size of GLFG bodies vary among HeLa sublines, and we find that an increased level of Nup98 is associated with the presence of bodies. Recruitment of the Y-complex and Elys into GLFG bodies requires the C-terminal domain of Nup98. During cell division, Y-Nup-containing GLFG bodies are disassembled in mitotic prophase, significantly ahead of nuclear pore disassembly. FRAP studies revealed that, unlike at nuclear pores, the Y-complex shuttles into and out of GLFG bodies. Finally, we show that within the nucleoplasm, a fraction of Nup107, a key component of the Y-complex, displays reduced mobility, suggesting interaction with other nuclear components. Together our data uncover a previously neglected intranuclear pool of the Y-complex that may underscore a yet-uncharacterized function of these nucleoporins inside the nucleus, even in cells that contain no detectable GLFG bodies.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E15-02-0060
View details for Web of Science ID 000357037300017
View details for PubMedID 25904327
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4462950
Pluripotent stem cells transition between distinct naive and primed states that are controlled by overlapping sets of master regulatory transcription factors. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Buecker et al. (2014) and Factor et al. (2014) demonstrate that alternate enhancer usage, regulated by state-specific binding partners of master regulators, defines these pluripotent state transitions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2014.05.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000341248500002
View details for PubMedID 24905156
Brd4 is a double bromodomain protein that has been shown to interact with acetylated histones to regulate transcription by recruiting Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b to the promoter region. Brd4 is also involved in gene bookmarking during mitosis and is a therapeutic target for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. The Drosophila melanogaster Brd4 homologue is called Fs(1)h and, like its vertebrate counterpart, encodes different isoforms. We have used ChIP-seq to examine the genome-wide distribution of Fs(1)h isoforms. We are able to distinguish the Fs(1)h-L and Fs(1)h-S binding profiles and discriminate between the genomic locations of the two isoforms. Fs(1)h-S is present at enhancers and promoters and its amount parallels transcription levels. Correlations between the distribution of Fs(1)h-S and various forms of acetylated histones H3 and H4 suggest a preference for binding to H3K9acS10ph. Surprisingly, Fs(1)h-L is located at sites in the genome where multiple insulator proteins are also present. The results suggest that Fs(1)h-S may be responsible for the classical role assigned to this protein, whereas Fs(1)h-L may have a new and unexpected role in chromatin architecture by working in conjunction with insulator proteins to mediate intra- or inter-chromosome interactions.
View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkt722
View details for Web of Science ID 000326746400016
View details for PubMedID 23945939
DREF was first characterized for its role in the regulation of transcription of genes encoding proteins involved in DNA replication and found to interact with sequences similar to the DNA recognition motif of the BEAF-32 insulator protein. Insulators are DNA-protein complexes that mediate intra- and inter-chromosome interactions. Several DNA-binding insulator proteins have been described in Drosophila, including BEAF-32, dCTCF and Su(Hw). Here we find that DREF and BEAF-32 co-localize at the same genomic sites, but their enrichment shows an inverse correlation. Furthermore, DREF co-localizes in the genome with other insulator proteins, suggesting that the function of this protein may require components of Drosophila insulators. This is supported by the finding that mutations in insulator proteins modulate DREF-induced cell proliferation. DREF persists bound to chromatin during mitosis at a subset of sites where it also co-localizes with dCTCF, BEAF-32 and CP190. These sites are highly enriched for sites where Orc2 and Mcm2 are present during interphase and at the borders of topological domains of chromosomes defined by Hi-C. The results suggest that DREF and insulator proteins may help maintain chromosome organization during the cell cycle and mark a subset of genomic sites for the assembly of pre-replication complexes and gene bookmarking during the M/G1 transition.
View details for DOI 10.4161/cc.24742
View details for Web of Science ID 000323311200021
View details for PubMedID 23624840
Eukaryotic genomes are intricately arranged into highly organized yet dynamic structures that underlie patterns of gene expression and cellular identity. The recent adaptation of novel genomic strategies for assaying nuclear architecture has significantly extended and accelerated our ability to query the nature of genome organization and the players involved. In particular, recent explorations of physical arrangements and chromatin landscapes in higher eukaryotes have demonstrated that chromatin insulators, which mediate functional interactions between regulatory elements, appear to play an important role in these processes. Here we reflect on current findings and our rapidly expanding understanding of insulators and their role in nuclear architecture and genome function.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gde.2012.11.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000319957500019
View details for PubMedID 23298659
Spatiotemporal changes in nuclear lamina composition underlie cell-type-specific chromatin organization and cell fate, suggesting that the lamina forms a dynamic framework critical for genome function, cellular identity, and developmental potential.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2013.02.052
View details for Web of Science ID 000316192500003
View details for PubMedID 23498930
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4018449
Recent findings provide evidence that tDNAs function as chromatin insulators from yeast to humans. TFIIIC, a transcription factor that interacts with the B-box in tDNAs as well as thousands of ETC sites in the genome, is responsible for insulator function. Though tDNAs are capable of enhancer-blocking and barrier activities for which insulators are defined, new insights into the relationship between insulators and chromatin structure suggest that TFIIIC serves a complex role in genome organization. We review the role of tRNA genes and TFIIIC as chromatin insulators, and highlight recent findings that have broadened our understanding of insulators in genome biology.
View details for DOI 10.4161/trns.21579
View details for PubMedID 22889843
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3630181
Transcription regulation is mediated by enhancers that bind sequence-specific transcription factors, which in turn interact with the promoters of the genes they control. Here, we show that the JIL-1 kinase is present at both enhancers and promoters of ecdysone-induced Drosophila genes, where it phosphorylates the Ser10 and Ser28 residues of histone H3. JIL-1 is also required for CREB binding protein (CBP)-mediated acetylation of Lys27, a well-characterized mark of active enhancers. The presence of these proteins at enhancers and promoters of ecdysone-induced genes results in the establishment of the H3K9acS10ph and H3K27acS28ph marks at both regulatory sequences. These modifications are necessary for the recruitment of 14-3-3, a scaffolding protein capable of facilitating interactions between two simultaneously bound proteins. Chromatin conformation capture assays indicate that interaction between the enhancer and the promoter is dependent on the presence of JIL-1, 14-3-3, and CBP. Genome-wide analyses extend these conclusions to most Drosophila genes, showing that the presence of JIL-1, H3K9acS10ph, and H3K27acS28ph is a general feature of enhancers and promoters in this organism.
View details for DOI 10.1101/gr.136929.111
View details for Web of Science ID 000304728100009
View details for PubMedID 22508764
Long-range interactions between transcription regulatory elements play an important role in gene activation, epigenetic silencing, and chromatin organization. Transcriptional activation or repression of developmentally regulated genes is often accomplished through tissue-specific chromatin architecture and dynamic localization between active transcription factories and repressive Polycomb bodies. However, the mechanisms underlying the structural organization of chromatin and the coordination of physical interactions are not fully understood. Insulators and Polycomb group proteins form highly conserved multiprotein complexes that mediate functional long-range interactions and have proposed roles in nuclear organization. In this review, we explore recent findings that have broadened our understanding of the function of these proteins and provide an integrative model for the roles of insulators in nuclear organization.
View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-101011-155824
View details for Web of Science ID 000310224200008
View details for PubMedID 22905954