Bio

Bio


Dr. Keith D. Sudheimer is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. He is the director of the Affective Research Collaborative (ARC) lab at Stanford. Dr. Sudheimer is a neuroscientist and expert in neuroimaging and neuroendocrinology. His research is focused on understanding the functioning of the neural networks that control emotion. The goal of ARC-lab research is to develop new evidence-based strategies for treating psychiatric mood and anxiety disorders like depression and anxiety. The research also seeks to develop new strategies for treating emotional disturbances that occur in other conditions, such as age-related cognitive impairments, Alzheimer's, obsessive-compulsive disorder, traumatic brain injury, sepsis, autism-spectrum disorders.

Dr. Sudheimer's work has produced several key advances is the study of Depression.
1) Sadness-related activation of the subgenual cingulate cortex is suppressed by cortisol.
The subgenual cingulate is a brain region that becomes more active when people experience sadness. People experiencing symptoms of depression have hyperactivity in the subgenual cingulate, likely leading to the pathological versions of sadness that they feel. Cortisol is a hormone that responds to stressful events and helps the body cope with stress. People experiencing symptoms of depression have reduced brain sensitivity to cortisol. Dr. Sudheimer was the first to demonstrate that one of the functions of cortisol in the brain is to suppress subgenual cingulate activity, suggesting that reduced brain sensitivity to cortisol is causing hyperactivity in the subgenual cingulate.

2) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation(TMS) aimed at suppressing subgenual cingulate cortex activity is can produce remission in patients experiencing treatment-resistant depression.
The ARC-lab in collaboration with the Brain Stimulation lab (BSL) at Stanford has jointly developed a new strategy for treating depression. TMS uses magnetic stimulation to non-invasively produce brain activity in a targeted neural network. We developed a way to map the personalized neural networks of a patient that have the highest likelihood of suppressing hyperactivity in the subgenual cingulate in patients. Using TMS to strengthen a patient's own capacity to inhibit their subgenual cingulate response, we have developed a breakthrough new way of treating depression.

Academic Appointments


  • Clinical Assistant Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Honors & Awards


  • Chair?s Choice Award, Society for Biological Psychiatry (2015)
  • Fellow, Career Development Institute (2015)
  • Junior Investigator Award, International College of Geriatric Psychopharmacology (2015)
  • Travel Award, Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014)
  • Fellowship, Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers (2013-15)
  • Best Work, Albert J. Silverman Research Conference (2006)
  • Rachel Upjohn Clinical Scholars Award, University of Michigan (2004, 2006)
  • Dean?s Assistantship, Michigan State University (2000-2001)
  • Spartan Academic Excellence Award, Michigan State University (1998, 1999, 2000)

Professional Education


  • Ph.D., University of Michigan, Neuroscience (2009)
  • M.S., University of Michigan, Neuroscience (2005)
  • B.S., Michigan State University, Psychology (2000)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr. Sudeimer leads the Affective Research Collaborative (ARC) lab, which seeks to develop evidence-based strategies for treating mood & anxiety disorders and emotional symptoms in other brain conditions that affect emotional functions.

Publications

All Publications


  • Attenuation of Anti-Suicidal Effects of Ketamine by Opioid Receptor Antagonism Williams, N., Heifets, B., Bentzley, B., Blasey, C., Sudheimer, K., Lyons, D., Schatzberg, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S113
  • The Effects of Cortisol Administration on Emotion, Stress Reactivity, and Brain Activity in Depression Sudheimer, K., Duvio, D., James, D., Heinemeyer, E., Pirog, S., Williams, N., Schatzberg, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S267
  • Functional Impacts of Acute Stress on Negative Affective Circuit Function in Anxiety and Depression Goldstein, A., Tozzi, L., Sudheimer, K., Schatzberg, A., Williams, L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S134
  • Rigorous Translational Models Are Key to Studying Ketamine's Antidepressant Mechanism: Response to Wang and Kaplin. The American journal of psychiatry Heifets, B. D., Williams, N. R., Blasey, C., Sudheimer, K., Rodriguez, C. I., Schatzberg, A. F. 2019; 176 (5): 412

    View details for PubMedID 31039633

  • Rigorous Translational Models Are Key to Studying Ketamine's Antidepressant Mechanism: Response to Wang and Kaplin AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Heifets, B. D., Williams, N. R., Blasey, C., Sudheimer, K., Rodriguez, C. I., Schatzberg, A. F. 2019; 176 (5): 412
  • Interpreting Ketamine's Opioid Receptor Dependent Effect: Response to Sanacora AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Heifets, B. D., Williams, N. R., Blasey, C., Sudheimer, K., Rodriguez, C. I., Schatzberg, A. F. 2019; 176 (3): 249?50
  • Target Population, Dose, and Timing Considerations for Understanding Naltrexone's Subjective Effect: Response to Amiaz AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Heifets, B. D., Williams, N. R., Blasey, C., Sudheimer, K., Rodriguez, C. I., Schatzberg, A. F. 2019; 176 (3): 251?52
  • Target Population, Dose, and Timing Considerations for Understanding Naltrexone's Subjective Effect: Response to Amiaz. The American journal of psychiatry Heifets, B. D., Williams, N. R., Blasey, C., Sudheimer, K., Rodriguez, C. I., Schatzberg, A. F. 2019; 176 (3): 251?52

    View details for PubMedID 30818989

  • Interpreting Ketamine's Opioid Receptor Dependent Effect: Response to Sanacora. The American journal of psychiatry Heifets, B. D., Williams, N. R., Blasey, C., Sudheimer, K., Rodriguez, C. I., Schatzberg, A. F. 2019; 176 (3): 249?50

    View details for PubMedID 30818991

  • Video-Delivered Relaxation Intervention Reduces Late-Life Anxiety: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Gould, C. E., Kok, B. C., Ma, V. K., Wetherell, J. L., Sudheimer, K., Beaudreau, S. A. 2018

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: The study's aim was to demonstrate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 4-week video-delivered relaxation program called Breathing, Relaxation, and Education for Anxiety Treatment in the Home Environment (BREATHE) for reducing anxiety and increasing activity engagement in older adults with anxiety disorders.METHODS: This was an 8-week pilot randomized controlled trial performed as outpatient and self-directed learning at home among 40 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older who met criteria for an anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, or anxiety disorder unspecified). The study looked at the BREATHE intervention compared with a wait list control condition. The primary outcome measure was anxiety symptoms (Geriatric Anxiety Scale). Secondary outcomes included activity engagement (modified Activity Card Sort), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire), and somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptom Scale).RESULTS: In linear mixed-effects models, findings indicated a significant reduction in anxiety symptoms. There was no significant effect of group on activity engagement. Results also showed significant reductions in depressive and somatic symptoms associated with the BREATHE intervention compared with wait list.CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate feasibility and preliminary efficacy for this brief video-delivered relaxation intervention and suggest that older adults can benefit from technology-delivered interventions with minimal provider contact. Although activity engagement did not improve, lessons learned suggest that targeted coaching around activity goals may help target this outcome.

    View details for PubMedID 30765288

  • Attenuation of Antidepressant Effects of Ketamine by Opioid Receptor Antagonism Williams, N. R., Heifets, B. D., Blasey, C., Sudheimer, K., Pannu, J., Pankow, H., Hawkins, J., Birnbaum, J., Lyons, D. M., Rodriguez, C. I., Schatzberg, A. F. AMER PSYCHIATRIC PUBLISHING, INC. 2018: 1205?15
  • Attenuation of Antidepressant Effects of Ketamine by Opioid Receptor Antagonism. The American journal of psychiatry Williams, N. R., Heifets, B. D., Blasey, C., Sudheimer, K., Pannu, J., Pankow, H., Hawkins, J., Birnbaum, J., Lyons, D. M., Rodriguez, C. I., Schatzberg, A. F. 2018: appiajp201818020138

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: In addition to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonism, ketamine produces opioid system activation. The objective of this study was to determine whether opioid receptor antagonism prior to administration of intravenous ketamine attenuates its acute antidepressant or dissociative effects.METHOD: In a proposed double-blind crossover study of 30 adults with treatment-resistant depression, the authors performed a planned interim analysis after studying 14 participants, 12 of whom completed both conditions in randomized order: placebo or 50 mg of naltrexone preceding intravenous infusion of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine. Response was defined as a reduction ?50% in score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score on postinfusion day 1.RESULTS: In the interim analysis, seven of 12 adults with treatment-resistant depression met the response criterion during the ketamine plus placebo condition. Reductions in 6-item and 17-item HAM-D scores among participants in the ketamine plus naltrexone condition were significantly lower than those of participants in the ketamine plus placebo condition on postinfusion days 1 and 3. Secondary analysis of all participants who completed the placebo and naltrexone conditions, regardless of the robustness of response to ketamine, showed similar results. There were no differences in ketamine-induced dissociation between conditions. Because naltrexone dramatically blocked the antidepressant but not the dissociative effects of ketamine, the trial was halted at the interim analysis.CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that ketamine's acute antidepressant effect requires opioid system activation. The dissociative effects of ketamine are not mediated by the opioid system, and they do not appear sufficient without the opioid effect to produce the acute antidepressant effects of ketamine in adults with treatment-resistant depression.

    View details for PubMedID 30153752

  • High-Dose Spaced Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as a Rapid-Acting Anti- Depressant in Highly Refractory Depression Williams, N., Sudheimer, K., Bentzley, B., Pannu, J., Stimpson, K., Duvio, D., Cherian, K., Hawkins, J., Scherrer, K., Vyssoki, B., DeSouza, D., Raj, K., Keller, J., Schatzberg, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: S191
  • High-Dose Theta-Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Modulates Heart Rate Variability Pannu, J., Kallioniemi, E., Gulser, M., Stimpson, K., DeSouza, D., Sudheimer, K., Williams, N. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: S189
  • KETAMINE'S ANTIDEPRESSANT EFFECT IS BLOCKED BY A MU-OPIOID RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST IN HUMANS AND MICE Heifets, B. D., Williams, N., Sudheimer, K., Pankow, H., Blasey, C., Lyons, D., Schatzberg, A. F. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2018: 343
  • High-dose spaced theta-burst TMS as a rapid-acting antidepressant in highly refractory depression. Brain : a journal of neurology Williams, N. R., Sudheimer, K. D., Bentzley, B. S., Pannu, J., Stimpson, K. H., Duvio, D., Cherian, K., Hawkins, J., Scherrer, K. H., Vyssoki, B., DeSouza, D., Raj, K. S., Keller, J., Schatzberg, A. F. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 29415152

  • Modulation of the Neural Circuitry Underlying Trait Hypnotizability With Spaced Continuous Theta-Burst Stimulation Williams, N., Sudheimer, K., Stimpson, K., Duvio, D., Chung, C., DeSouza, D., Jo, B., Williams, L., Yeomans, D., Spiegel, D. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2017: S508?S509
  • Increased Intra-Limbic Functional Connectivity to Insula, Thalamus, Caudate, Putamen, and Cingulate Cortex in Patients With Major Depression Sudheimer, K., Keller, J., Tennakoon, L., Gomez, R., Garrett, A., Schatzberg, A. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2017: S172?S173
  • Resting-state connectivity biomarkers define neurophysiological subtypes of depression NATURE MEDICINE Drysdale, A. T., Grosenick, L., Downar, J., Dunlop, K., Mansouri, F., Meng, Y., Fetcho, R. N., Zebley, B., Oathes, D. J., Etkin, A., Schatzberg, A. F., Sudheimer, K., Keller, J., Mayberg, H. S., Gunning, F. M., Alexopoulos, G. S., Fox, M. D., Pascual-Leone, A., Voss, H. U., Casey, B. J., Dubin, M. J., Liston, C. 2017; 23 (1): 28-38

    Abstract

    Biomarkers have transformed modern medicine but remain largely elusive in psychiatry, partly because there is a weak correspondence between diagnostic labels and their neurobiological substrates. Like other neuropsychiatric disorders, depression is not a unitary disease, but rather a heterogeneous syndrome that encompasses varied, co-occurring symptoms and divergent responses to treatment. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large multisite sample (n = 1,188), we show here that patients with depression can be subdivided into four neurophysiological subtypes ('biotypes') defined by distinct patterns of dysfunctional connectivity in limbic and frontostriatal networks. Clustering patients on this basis enabled the development of diagnostic classifiers (biomarkers) with high (82-93%) sensitivity and specificity for depression subtypes in multisite validation (n = 711) and out-of-sample replication (n = 477) data sets. These biotypes cannot be differentiated solely on the basis of clinical features, but they are associated with differing clinical-symptom profiles. They also predict responsiveness to transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy (n = 154). Our results define novel subtypes of depression that transcend current diagnostic boundaries and may be useful for identifying the individuals who are most likely to benefit from targeted neurostimulation therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.4246

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391646800011

    View details for PubMedID 27918562

  • Impact of 5-HTTLPR on hippocampal subregional activation in older adults TRANSLATIONAL PSYCHIATRY Garrett, A., Gupta, S., Reiss, A. L., Waring, J., Sudheimer, K., Anker, L., Sosa, N., Hallmayer, J. F., O'Hara, R. 2015; 5

    Abstract

    Studies have shown that a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) impacts performance on memory-related tasks and the hippocampal structures that subserve these tasks. The short (s) allele of 5-HTTLPR has been linked to greater susceptibility for impaired memory and smaller hippocampal volume compared to the long allele (l). However, previous studies have not examined the associations between 5-HTTLPR allele and activation in subregions of the hippocampus. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation in hippocampal and temporal lobe subregions in 36 elderly non-clinical participants performing a face-name encoding and recognition task. Although there were no significant differences in task performance between s allele carriers and l homozygotes, right CA1 and right parahippocampal activation during recognition errors was significantly greater in individuals bearing the s allele. In an exploratory analysis, we determined that these effects were more pronounced in s allele carriers with the apolipoprotein ?4 allele. Our results suggest that older individuals with the s allele inefficiently allocate neural resources while making errors in recognizing face-name associations, which could negatively impact memory performance during more challenging tasks.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/tp.2015.131

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367663000002

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5068801

  • Decreased hypothalamic functional connectivity with subgenual cortex in psychotic major depression. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology Sudheimer, K., Keller, J., Gomez, R., Tennakoon, L., Reiss, A., Garrett, A., Kenna, H., O'Hara, R., Schatzberg, A. F. 2015; 40 (4): 849-860

    Abstract

    Hypothalamus communication with the rest of the brain and peripheral target tissues is critically important for many physiological and psychological functions. These functions include maintaining neuroendocrine circadian rhythms and managing affective processes. The hypothalamus maintains both direct neural connections within the brain and it also controls a variety of neuroendocrine processes that can influence target tissues throughout the body. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and hyperactivity of the subgenual cortex are both frequently observed in depression. However, many details of how the hypothalamus, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, and the subgenual cingulate interact with each other are unknown. We hypothesized that resting-state functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and the subgenual cortex would be associated with altered circadian rhythm in patients with depression and depressive symptoms. We also hypothesized that this would be most apparent in patients that have major depression with psychotic symptoms, who typically have the most robust HPA-axis dysregulation. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were collected to observe low-frequency resting-state functional connectivity patterns of the hypothalamus in 39 healthy participants, 39 patients with major depression, and 22 patients with major depression with psychotic symptoms. Hourly overnight measures of cortisol secretion and multiple measures of psychiatric symptom severity were also collected on all. Strong hypothalamic functional connectivity with the subgenual cortex was observed in healthy participants. This connectivity was significantly reduced in patients with psychotic major depression. Increased cortisol secretion during the circadian nadir and reduced connectivity were both associated with symptom severity. Reduced connectivity and high cortisol secretion during the circadian nadir are both useful for explaining a significant amount of variance in symptom severity that occurs between healthy participants and depressed patients. However, only cortisol secretion was useful for explaining the severity of symptoms within the depressed groups. This study suggests that the communication between the hypothalamus and the subgenual cortex is disrupted in patients with major depression with psychotic features. It also suggests that these disruptions are associated with increased symptom severity and may be a cause or a consequence of cortisol dysregulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/npp.2014.259

    View details for PubMedID 25292261

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4330499

  • fMRI Activation During Executive Function Predicts Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Older, Depressed Adults AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Thompson, D. G., Kesler, S. R., Sudheimer, K., Mehta, K. M., Thompson, L. W., Marquett, R. M., Holland, J. M., Reiser, R., Rasgon, N., Schatzberg, A., O'Hara, R. M. 2015; 23 (1): 13-22

    Abstract

    To test our hypothesis that pre-treatment executive function and brain regional activation during executive function would discriminate between responders and non-responders to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in elderly depressed outpatients.Clinical cohort study.University-affiliated hospital.Sixty outpatients (age 59 years and older) completed 12 weeks of CBT between July 2010 and December 2011. Forty-four completed fMRI procedures.The main outcome consisted of a conversion from a clinical diagnosis (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview) of depression to no clinical diagnosis of depression or a significant improvement in diagnostic criteria. Brain activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during the Wisconsin Card Sorting task (WCST) was the primary predictor variable.67% of patients had a positive response to CBT. Decreased activation in the left inferior frontal triangle and right superior frontal gyrus as well as increased activity in the right middle frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus predicted a positive response to CBT. Demographic and neurocognitive measures of WCST performance were not significant predictors of a positive CBT outcome, whereas the measure of WCST-induced activity in the prefrontal cortex was a significant predictor.These data are among the first to suggest that measures of prefrontal brain activation during executive functioning predict response to CBT in older adults. Further exploration of the specific underlying processes that these prefrontal cortical regions are engaging that contributes to better CBT outcomes is warranted in larger, randomized studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jagp.2014.02.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346204400003

    View details for PubMedID 24656506

  • Impact of 5-HTTLPR on hippocampal subregional activation in older adults. Translational psychiatry Garrett, A., Gupta, S., Reiss, A. L., Waring, J., Sudheimer, K., Anker, L., Sosa, N., Hallmayer, J. F., O'Hara, R. 2015; 5: e639

    Abstract

    Studies have shown that a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) impacts performance on memory-related tasks and the hippocampal structures that subserve these tasks. The short (s) allele of 5-HTTLPR has been linked to greater susceptibility for impaired memory and smaller hippocampal volume compared to the long allele (l). However, previous studies have not examined the associations between 5-HTTLPR allele and activation in subregions of the hippocampus. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure activation in hippocampal and temporal lobe subregions in 36 elderly non-clinical participants performing a face-name encoding and recognition task. Although there were no significant differences in task performance between s allele carriers and l homozygotes, right CA1 and right parahippocampal activation during recognition errors was significantly greater in individuals bearing the s allele. In an exploratory analysis, we determined that these effects were more pronounced in s allele carriers with the apolipoprotein ?4 allele. Our results suggest that older individuals with the s allele inefficiently allocate neural resources while making errors in recognizing face-name associations, which could negatively impact memory performance during more challenging tasks.

    View details for PubMedID 26393485

  • Psychosocial predictors of salivary cortisol among older adults with depression. International psychogeriatrics Holland, J. M., Rengifo, J., Currier, J. M., O'Hara, R., Sudheimer, K., Gallagher-Thompson, D. 2014: 1-9

    Abstract

    ABSTRACT Background: Previous studies have identified a number of psychosocial risk factors of dysregulated cortisol (frequently referred to as the "stress hormone") among older adults with depression. However, these studies have typically only examined a handful of risk factors at a time and have sometimes yielded inconsistent results. Method: This study aims to address this gap in the literature by simultaneously examining a range of relevant psychosocial predictors of diurnal cortisol among 54 older adults with a depressive disorder. Salivary cortisol was assessed upon awakening, at 5 PM, and at 9 PM across two consecutive days. Participants also completed measures of global psychosocial stress, current psychiatric symptomatology, pervasive distress (e.g. history of past depression), and protective factors (e.g. social support, resiliency, extent to which one has "made sense" of a significant stressor). Results: High levels of current depressive symptoms, psychiatric comorbidities, past depressive episodes, trait anxiety, and poorer ability to make sense of one's stress were found to be associated with flatter (more abnormal) cortisol slopes. However, when all of these variables were entered simultaneously in a multiple regression analysis, only history of past depression and the degree of sense made of stress emerged as unique predictors of cortisol in the model. Conclusions: These findings have important implications for identifying depressed elderly individuals with dysregulated cortisol patterns who may be most at risk for health complications. Treatments that aim to limit the chronicity of depression and help to increase the sense made of stress could potentially have a positive impact on health.

    View details for PubMedID 24735686

  • Cortisol, cytokines, and hippocampal volume interactions in the elderly. Frontiers in aging neuroscience Sudheimer, K. D., O'Hara, R., Spiegel, D., Powers, B., Kraemer, H. C., Neri, E., Weiner, M., Hardan, A., Hallmayer, J., Dhabhar, F. S. 2014; 6: 153-?

    Abstract

    Separate bodies of literature report that elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cortisol negatively affect hippocampal structure and cognitive functioning, particularly in older adults. Although interactions between cytokines and cortisol occur through a variety of known mechanisms, few studies consider how their interactions affect brain structure. In this preliminary study, we assess the impact of interactions between circulating levels of IL-1Beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and waking cortisol on hippocampal volume. Twenty-eight community-dwelling older adults underwent blood draws for quantification of circulating cytokines and saliva collections to quantify the cortisol awakening response. Hippocampal volume measurements were made using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Elevated levels of waking cortisol in conjunction with higher concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. In addition, independent of cortisol, higher levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were also associated with smaller hippocampal volumes. These data provide preliminary evidence that higher cortisol, in conjunction with higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha, are associated with smaller hippocampal volume in older adults. We suggest that the dynamic balance between the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and inflammation processes may explain hippocampal volume reductions in older adults better than either set of measures do in isolation.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00153

    View details for PubMedID 25071562

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4079951

  • The long-term impact of early adversity on late-life psychiatric disorders. Current psychiatry reports Gershon, A., Sudheimer, K., Tirouvanziam, R., Williams, L. M., O'Hara, R. 2013; 15 (4): 352-?

    Abstract

    Early adversity is a strong and enduring predictor of psychiatric disorders including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse or dependence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate the current research knowledge pertaining to the long-term effects of early adversity on psychiatric disorders, particularly in late life. We explore definitional considerations including key dimensions of the experience such as type, severity, and timing of adversity relative to development. We then review the potential biological and environmental mediators and moderators of the relationships between early adversity and psychiatric disorders. We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11920-013-0352-9

    View details for PubMedID 23443532

  • Exogenous Glucocorticoids Decrease Subgenual Cingulate Activity Evoked by Sadness NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Sudheimer, K. D., Abelson, J. L., Taylor, S. F., Martis, B., Welsh, R. C., Warner, C., Samet, M., Manduzzi, A., Liberzon, I. 2013; 38 (5): 826-845

    Abstract

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol is known to have wide-ranging effects on a variety of physiological systems, including the morphology and physiology of the amygdala and hippocampus. Disruptions of cortisol regulation and signaling are also linked with psychiatric disorders involving emotional disturbances. Although there is much evidence to suggest a relationship between cortisol signaling and the brain physiology underlying emotion, few studies have attempted to test for direct effects of cortisol on the neurophysiology of emotion. We administered exogenous synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone, HCT) using two different dosing regimens (25 mg/day over 4 days, 100 mg single dose), in a double-blind placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI scanning, healthy subjects viewed images designed to induce happy, sad, and neutral emotional states. Subjective emotional reactions were collected for each experimental stimulus after fMRI scanning. Mood ratings were also collected throughout the 4 days of the study. Both dose regimens of HCT resulted in decreased subgenual cingulate activation during sadness conditions. The 25 mg/day regimen also resulted in higher arousal ratings of sad stimuli. No effects of HCT were observed on any mood ratings. Few reliable effects of HCT were observed on brain activity patterns or subjective emotional responses to stimuli that were not sad. The inhibitory effects of cortisol on sadness-induced subgenual cingulate activity may have critical relevance to the pathophysiology of major depression, as both subgenual hyperactivity and decreased sensitivity to cortisol signaling have been documented in patients with depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/npp.2012.249

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316161300012

    View details for PubMedID 23303057

  • The long-term impact of early adversity on late-life psychiatric disorders. Current psychiatry reports Gershon, A., Sudheimer, K., Tirouvanziam, R., Williams, L. M., O'Hara, R. 2013; 15 (4): 352-?

    Abstract

    Early adversity is a strong and enduring predictor of psychiatric disorders including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse or dependence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate the current research knowledge pertaining to the long-term effects of early adversity on psychiatric disorders, particularly in late life. We explore definitional considerations including key dimensions of the experience such as type, severity, and timing of adversity relative to development. We then review the potential biological and environmental mediators and moderators of the relationships between early adversity and psychiatric disorders. We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11920-013-0352-9

    View details for PubMedID 23443532

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