Clinical Focus

  • Critical Care Medicine

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Critical Care Medicine (2015)
  • Fellowship: University of California - San Francisco (2014) CA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2013)
  • Residency: University of California - San Francisco (2012) CA
  • Medical Education: University of California - San Francisco (2008) CA
  • MS, University of California-Berkeley, School of Public Health, Health & Medical Sciences (2006)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Emergency critical care & resuscitation, ARDS, sepsis

Clinical Trials

  • ARrest RESpiraTory Failure From PNEUMONIA Recruiting

    This research study seeks to establish the effectiveness of a combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a beta agonist compared to placebo for the prevention of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in hospitalized patients with pneumonia and hypoxemia.

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  • Crystalloid Liberal or Vasopressors Early Resuscitation in Sepsis Recruiting

    Multicenter, prospective, phase 3 randomized non-blinded interventional trial of fluid treatment strategies in the first 24 hours for patients with sepsis-induced hypotension. The aim of the study is to determine the impact of a restrictive fluids strategy (vasopressors first followed by rescue fluids) as compared to a liberal fluid strategy (fluids first followed by rescue vasopressors) on 90-day in-hospital mortality in patients with sepsis-induced hypotension.

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  • Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells For Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Recruiting

    This is a Phase 1, open label, dose escalation, multi-center clinical trial of Allogeneic Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) for the treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The purpose of this study is to assess the safety of hMSCs in patients with ARDS.

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  • Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells For Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (START) Recruiting

    This was a Phase 2a, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a single dose of Allogeneic Bone Marrow-derived Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (hMSCs) infusion in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS).

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  • Outcomes Related to COVID-19 Treated With Hydroxychloroquine Among In-patients With Symptomatic Disease Recruiting

    ORCHID is a multicenter, blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial evaluating hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Patients, treating clinicians, and study personnel will all be blinded to study group assignment.

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  • Vitamin C, Thiamine, and Steroids in Sepsis Not Recruiting

    The VItamin C, Thiamine And Steroids in Sepsis (VICTAS) Study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, adaptive randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the efficacy of the combined use of vitamin C, thiamine and corticosteroids versus indistinguishable placebos for patients with sepsis. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of combination therapy using vitamin C, thiamine and corticosteroids in reducing mortality and improving organ function in critically ill patients with sepsis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Rosen Mann, 408-460-5885.

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  • Vitamin D to Improve Outcomes by Leveraging Early Treatment Not Recruiting

    Vitamin D deficiency is a common, potentially reversible contributor to morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of early vitamin D3 supplementation in critically ill, vitamin D-deficient patients who were at high risk for death. Patients screened as vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL) were randomized. Randomization occurred within 12 hours after the decision to admit the patient to an intensive care unit. Eligible patients received a single enteral dose of 540,000 IU of vitamin D3 or matched placebo. The primary end point was 90-day all-cause, all-location mortality.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Emergency Critical Care Intervention Study, Stanford University

    We are studying the effects of ICU-trained RNs and MDs on outcomes for critically ill patients in the Emergency Department.


    Stanford University Hospital


    • Tsuyoshi Mitarai, Clinical Associate Professor, Emergency Medicine
    • Michael Kohn, Clinical Professor, Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine
    • Kian Niknam, Research Data Analyst I, Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine
    • Alfredo Urdaneta, Clinical Assistant Professor, Emergency Medicine
  • Stanford ICU Biobank


    Stanford, CA


Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Critical Care Medicine (Fellowship Program)


All Publications

  • Cytokine profile in plasma of severe COVID-19 does not differ from ARDS and sepsis. JCI insight Wilson, J. G., Simpson, L. J., Ferreira, A., Rustagi, A., Roque, J. A., Asuni, A., Ranganath, T., Grant, P. M., Subramanian, A. K., Rosenberg-Hasson, Y., Maecker, H., Holmes, S., Levitt, J. E., Blish, C., Rogers, A. J. 2020


    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with poor outcomes among COVID-19 patients. It is unknown, however, how these levels compare to those observed in critically ill patients with ARDS or sepsis due to other causes.METHODS: We used a luminex assay to determine expression of 76 cytokines from plasma of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and banked plasma samples from ARDS and sepsis patients. Our analysis focused on detecting statistical differences in levels of 6 cytokines associated with cytokine storm (IL-1b, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNFalpha) between patients with moderate COVID-19, severe COVID-19, and ARDS or sepsis.RESULTS: 15 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 9 of whom were critically ill, were compared to critically ill patients with ARDS (n = 12) or sepsis (n = 16). There were no statistically significant differences in baseline levels of IL-1b, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNFalpha between patients with COVID-19 and critically ill controls with ARDS or sepsis.CONCLUSIONS: Levels of inflammatory cytokines were not higher in severe COVID-19 patients than in moderate COVID-19 or critically ill patients with ARDS or sepsis in this small cohort. Broad use of immunosuppressive therapies in ARDS has failed in numerous Phase 3 studies; use of these therapies in unselected patients with COVID-19 may be unwarranted.FUNDING: A.J.R.: Stanford ICU Biobank NHLBI K23 HL125663. C.A.B.: Burroughs Wellcome Fund Investigators in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases #1016687; NIH/NIAID U19AI057229-16 (PI MM Davis); Stanford Maternal Child Health Research Institute; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.140289

    View details for PubMedID 32706339

  • Characteristics of Adult Outpatients and Inpatients with COVID-19-11 Academic Medical Centers, United States, March-May 2020 MMWR-MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT Tenforde, M. W., Rose, E., Lindsell, C. J., Shapiro, N., Files, D., Gibbs, K. W., Prekker, M. E., Steingrub, J. S., Smithline, H. A., Gong, M. N., Aboodi, M. S., Exline, M. C., Henning, D. J., Wilson, J. G., Khan, A., Qadir, N., Stubblefield, W. B., Patel, M. M., Self, W. H., Feldstein, L. R., CDC COVID-19 Response Team 2020; 69 (26): 841?46


    Descriptions of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the United States have focused primarily on hospitalized patients. Reports documenting exposures to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, have generally been described within congregate settings, such as meat and poultry processing plants (1) and long-term care facilities (2). Understanding individual behaviors and demographic characteristics of patients with COVID-19 and risks for severe illness requiring hospitalization can inform efforts to reduce transmission. During April 15-May 24, 2020, telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of adults aged ?18 years who had positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results for SARS-CoV-2 in outpatient and inpatient settings at 11 U.S. academic medical centers in nine states. Respondents were contacted 14-21 days after SARS-CoV-2 testing and asked about their demographic characteristics, underlying chronic conditions, symptoms experienced on the date of testing, and potential exposures to SARS-CoV-2 during the 2 weeks before illness onset (or the date of testing among those who did not report symptoms at the time of testing). Among 350 interviewed patients (271 [77%] outpatients and 79 [23%] inpatients), inpatients were older, more likely to be Hispanic and to report dyspnea than outpatients. Fewer inpatients (39%, 20 of 51) reported a return to baseline level of health at 14-21 days than did outpatients (64%, 150 of 233) (p = 0.001). Overall, approximately one half (46%) of patients reported known close contact with someone with COVID-19 during the preceding 2 weeks. This was most commonly a family member (45%) or a work colleague (34%). Approximately two thirds (64%, 212 of 333) of participants were employed; only 35 of 209 (17%) were able to telework. These findings highlight the need for screening, case investigation, contact tracing, and isolation of infected persons to control transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection during periods of community transmission. The need for enhanced measures to ensure workplace safety, including ensuring social distancing and more widespread use of cloth face coverings, are warranted (3).

    View details for Web of Science ID 000545314500007

    View details for PubMedID 32614810

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7332092

  • ARDS Subphenotypes: Understanding a Heterogeneous Syndrome. Critical care (London, England) Wilson, J. G., Calfee, C. S. 2020; 24 (1): 102


    This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2020. Other selected articles can be found online at Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13054-020-2778-x

    View details for PubMedID 32204722

  • Symptom Duration and Risk Factors for Delayed Return to Usual Health Among Outpatients with COVID-19 in a Multistate Health Care Systems Network - United States, March-June 2020. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report Tenforde, M. W., Kim, S. S., Lindsell, C. J., Billig Rose, E., Shapiro, N. I., Files, D. C., Gibbs, K. W., Erickson, H. L., Steingrub, J. S., Smithline, H. A., Gong, M. N., Aboodi, M. S., Exline, M. C., Henning, D. J., Wilson, J. G., Khan, A., Qadir, N., Brown, S. M., Peltan, I. D., Rice, T. W., Hager, D. N., Ginde, A. A., Stubblefield, W. B., Patel, M. M., Self, W. H., Feldstein, L. R. 2020; 69 (30): 993?98


    Prolonged symptom duration and disability are common in adults hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Characterizing return to baseline health among outpatients with milder COVID-19 illness is important for understanding the full spectrum of COVID-19-associated illness and tailoring public health messaging, interventions, and policy. During April 15-June 25, 2020, telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of adults aged ?18 years who had a first positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, at an outpatient visit at one of 14 U.S. academic health care systems in 13 states. Interviews were conducted 14-21 days after the test date. Respondents were asked about demographic characteristics, baseline chronic medical conditions, symptoms present at the time of testing, whether those symptoms had resolved by the interview date, and whether they had returned to their usual state of health at the time of interview. Among 292 respondents, 94% (274) reported experiencing one or more symptoms at the time of testing; 35% of these symptomatic respondents reported not having returned to their usual state of health by the date of the interview (median = 16 days from testing date), including 26% among those aged 18-34 years, 32% among those aged 35-49 years, and 47% among those aged ?50 years. Among respondents reporting cough, fatigue, or shortness of breath at the time of testing, 43%, 35%, and 29%, respectively, continued to experience these symptoms at the time of the interview. These findings indicate that COVID-19 can result in prolonged illness even among persons with milder outpatient illness, including young adults. Effective public health messaging targeting these groups is warranted. Preventative measures, including social distancing, frequent handwashing, and the consistent and correct use of face coverings in public, should be strongly encouraged to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2.

    View details for DOI 10.15585/mmwr.mm6930e1

    View details for PubMedID 32730238

  • Treatment with allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells for moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (START study): a randomised phase 2a safety trial LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE Matthay, M. A., Calfee, C. S., Zhuo, H., Thompson, B., Wilson, J. G., Levitt, J. E., Rogers, A. J., Gotts, J. E., Wiener-Kronish, J. P., Bajwa, E. K., Donahoe, M. P., McVerry, B. J., Ortiz, L. A., Exline, M., Christman, J. W., Abbott, J., Delucchi, K. L., Caballero, L., McMillan, M., McKenna, D. H., Liu, K. D. 2019; 7 (2): 154?62
  • A Metagenomic Comparison of Tracheal Aspirate and Mini-Bronchial Alveolar Lavage for Assessment of Respiratory Microbiota. American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology Kalantar, K. L., Moazed, F., Christenson, S. C., Wilson, J., Deiss, T., Belzer, A., Vessel, K., Caldera, S., Jauregui, A., Bolourchi, S., DeRisi, J. L., Calfee, C. S., Langelier, C. 2019


    Accurate and informative microbiologic testing is essential for guiding diagnosis and management of pneumonia in critically ill patients. Sampling of tracheal aspirate (TA) is less invasive compared to mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mBAL) and is now recommended as a frontline diagnostic approach in mechanically ventilated patients, despite the historical belief that TA was suboptimal due to contamination from oral microbes. Advancements in metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) now permit assessment of airway microbiota without a need for culture, and as such provide an opportunity to examine differences between mBAL and TA at a resolution previously unachievable. Here, we engaged shotgun mNGS to quantitatively assess the airway microbiome in matched mBAL and TA specimens from a prospective cohort of critically ill adults. We observed moderate differences betweensampletypes across all subjects, however we found significant compositional similarity in subjects with bacterial pneumonia, whose microbial communities were characterized by a dominant pathogen. In addition, we found that both mBAL and TA were similar in terms of microbialrelative abundance, abundance of oropharyngeal taxa, and microbial diversity. Our findings suggest that TA sampling provides a similar assessment of airway microbiota as more invasive testing by mBAL, and that this similarity is most significant in the setting of bacterial pneumonia.

    View details for PubMedID 30652494

  • Integrating host response and unbiased microbe detection for lower respiratory tract infection diagnosis in critically ill adults PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Langelier, C., Kalantar, K. L., Moazed, F., Wilson, M. R., Crawford, E. D., Deiss, T., Belzer, A., Bolourchi, S., Caldera, S., Fung, M., Jauregui, A., Malcolm, K., Lyden, A., Khan, L., Vessel, K., Quan, J., Zinter, M., Chiu, C. Y., Chow, E. D., Wilson, J., Miller, S., Matthay, M. A., Pollard, K. S., Christenson, S., Calfee, C. S., DeRisi, J. L. 2018; 115 (52): E12353?E12362
  • Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells for treatment of ARDS: a phase 1 clinical trial. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine Wilson, J. G., Liu, K. D., Zhuo, H., Caballero, L., McMillan, M., Fang, X., Cosgrove, K., Vojnik, R., Calfee, C. S., Lee, J., Rogers, A. J., Levitt, J., Wiener-Kronish, J., Bajwa, E. K., Leavitt, A., McKenna, D., Thompson, B. T., Matthay, M. A. 2015; 3 (1): 24-32


    No effective pharmacotherapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) exists, and mortality remains high. Preclinical studies support the efficacy of mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) in the treatment of lung injury. We aimed to test the safety of a single dose of allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSCs in patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS.The STem cells for ARDS Treatment (START) trial was a multicentre, open-label, dose-escalation, phase 1 clinical trial. Patients were enrolled in the intensive care units at University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA, and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA, between July 8, 2013, and Jan 13, 2014. Patients were included if they had moderate-to-severe ARDS as defined by the acute onset of the need for positive pressure ventilation by an endotracheal or tracheal tube, a PaO2:FiO2 less than 200 mm Hg with at least 8 cm H2O positive end-expiratory airway pressure (PEEP), and bilateral infiltrates consistent with pulmonary oedema on frontal chest radiograph. The first three patients were treated with low dose MSCs (1 million cells/kg predicted bodyweight [PBW]), the next three patients received intermediate dose MSCs (5 million cells/kg PBW), and the final three patients received high dose MSCs (10 million cells/kg PBW). Primary outcomes included the incidence of prespecified infusion-associated events and serious adverse events. The trial is registered with, number NCT01775774.No prespecified infusion-associated events or treatment-related adverse events were reported in any of the nine patients. Serious adverse events were subsequently noted in three patients during the weeks after the infusion: one patient died on study day 9, one patient died on study day 31, and one patient was discovered to have multiple embolic infarcts of the spleen, kidneys, and brain that were age-indeterminate, but thought to have occurred before the MSC infusion based on MRI results. None of these severe adverse events were thought to be MSC-related.A single intravenous infusion of allogeneic, bone marrow-derived human MSCs was well tolerated in nine patients with moderate to severe ARDS. Based on this phase 1 experience, we have proceeded to phase 2 testing of MSCs for moderate to severe ARDS with a primary focus on safety and secondary outcomes including respiratory, systemic, and biological endpoints.The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70291-7

    View details for PubMedID 25529339

  • Biomarkers in acute respiratory distress syndrome: from pathobiology to improving patient care EXPERT REVIEW OF RESPIRATORY MEDICINE Walter, J. M., Wilson, J., Ware, L. B. 2014; 8 (5): 573-586


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by alveolar flooding with protein-rich pulmonary edema fluid. Despite an improved understanding of ARDS pathogenesis, our ability to predict the development of ARDS and risk-stratify patients with the disease remains limited. Biomarkers may help identify patients at highest risk of developing ARDS, assess response to therapy, predict outcome, and optimize enrollment in clinical trials. This review begins with a general description of biomarker use in clinical medicine. We then review evidence that supports the value of various ARDS biomarkers organized by the cellular injury processes central to ARDS development: endothelial injury, epithelial injury, disordered inflammation and coagulation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Finally, we summarize the growing contributions of genomic and proteomic research and suggest ways in which the field may evolve in the coming years.

    View details for DOI 10.1586/17476348.2014.924073

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342062700007

    View details for PubMedID 24875533

  • Early High-Dose Vitamin D3 for Critically Ill, Vitamin D-Deficient Patients. The New England journal of medicine National Heart, L., Ginde, A. A., Brower, R. G., Caterino, J. M., Finck, L., Banner-Goodspeed, V. M., Grissom, C. K., Hayden, D., Hough, C. L., Hyzy, R. C., Khan, A., Levitt, J. E., Park, P. K., Ringwood, N., Rivers, E. P., Self, W. H., Shapiro, N. I., Thompson, B. T., Yealy, D. M., Talmor, D. 2019


    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a common, potentially reversible contributor to morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. The potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in acute critical illness require further study.METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of early vitamin D3 supplementation in critically ill, vitamin D-deficient patients who were at high risk for death. Randomization occurred within 12 hours after the decision to admit the patient to an intensive care unit. Eligible patients received a single enteral dose of 540,000 IU of vitamin D3 or matched placebo. The primary end point was 90-day all-cause, all-location mortality.RESULTS: A total of 1360 patients were found to be vitamin D-deficient during point-of-care screening and underwent randomization. Of these patients, 1078 had baseline vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D level, <20 ng per milliliter [50 nmol per liter]) confirmed by subsequent testing and were included in the primary analysis population. The mean day 3 level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 46.9±23.2 ng per milliliter (117±58 nmol per liter) in the vitamin D group and 11.4±5.6 ng per milliliter (28±14 nmol per liter) in the placebo group (difference, 35.5 ng per milliliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31.5 to 39.6). The 90-day mortality was 23.5% in the vitamin D group (125 of 531 patients) and 20.6% in the placebo group (109 of 528 patients) (difference, 2.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.1 to 7.9; P=0.26). There were no clinically important differences between the groups with respect to secondary clinical, physiological, or safety end points. The severity of vitamin D deficiency at baseline did not affect the association between the treatment assignment and mortality.CONCLUSIONS: Early administration of high-dose enteral vitamin D3 did not provide an advantage over placebo with respect to 90-day mortality or other, nonfatal outcomes among critically ill, vitamin D-deficient patients. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; VIOLET number, NCT03096314.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1911124

    View details for PubMedID 31826336

  • End-of-Life Care, Palliative Care Consultation, and Palliative Care Referral in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review. Journal of pain and symptom management Wilson, J. G., English, D. P., Owyang, C. G., Chimelski, E. A., Grudzen, C. R., Wong, H., Aslakson, R. A. 2019


    CONTEXT: There is growing interest in providing palliative care (PC) in the emergency department (ED), but relatively little is known about the efficacy of ED-based PC interventions. A 2016 systematic review on this topic found no evidence that ED-based PC interventions affect patient outcomes or healthcare utilization, but new research has emerged since the publication of that review.OBJECTIVE: This systematic review provides a concise summary of current literature addressing the impact of ED-based PC interventions on patient- or family-reported outcomes, healthcare utilization, and survival.METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and CINAHL from inception until September 1, 2018 and reviewed references. Eligible articles evaluated the effects of PC interventions in the ED on patient- or family-reported outcomes, healthcare utilization, or survival.RESULTS: We screened 3091 abstracts and 98 full text articles with 13 articles selected for final inclusion. Two articles reported the results of a single RCT, while the remaining 11 studies were descriptive or quasi-experimental cohort studies. Over half of the included articles were published after the previous systematic review on this topic. Populations studied included older adults, patients with advanced malignancy, and ED patients screening positive for unmet palliative care needs. Most interventions involved referral to hospice or PC, or PC provided directly in the ED. Compared to usual care, ED-PC interventions improved quality of life, though this improvement was not observed when comparing ED-PC to inpatient-PC. ED-PC interventions expedited PC consultation; most studies reported a concomitant reduction in hospital length-of-stay and increase in hospice utilization, but some data were conflicting. Short-term mortality rates were high across all studies, but ED-PC interventions did not decrease survival time compared to usual care.CONCLUSION: Existing data support that PC in the ED is feasible, may improve quality of life, and does not appear to affect survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.09.020

    View details for PubMedID 31586580

  • Mechanical Ventilation in Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure. Emergency medicine clinics of North America Kapil, S., Wilson, J. G. 2019; 37 (3): 431?44


    Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) is a common challenge in emergency medicine. Patient outcomes depend on interventions performed during preintubation, intubation, and postintubation. The article presents recommendations for evidence-based practice to optimally manage patients with AHRF and the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.emc.2019.04.005

    View details for PubMedID 31262413

  • Critical Care Ultrasound: A Review for Practicing Nephrologists ADVANCES IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE Wilson, J. G., Breyer, K. E. 2016; 23 (3): 141-145


    The use of point-of-care ultrasound in the intensive care unit, both for diagnostic and procedural purposes, has rapidly proliferated, and evidence supporting its use is growing. Conceptually, critical care ultrasound (CCUS) should be considered an extension of the physical examination and should not be considered a replacement for formal echocardiography or radiology-performed ultrasound. Several CCUS applications are of particular relevance to nephrologists, including focused renal ultrasound in patients at high risk for urinary tract obstruction, real-time ultrasound guidance and verification during the placement of central venous catheters, and ultrasound-augmented assessment of shock and volume status. Each of these applications has the capacity to improve outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury. Although robust evidence regarding long-term outcomes is lacking, existing data demonstrate that CCUS has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy, expedite appropriate management, and increase safety for critically ill patients across a spectrum of pathologies.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ackd.2016.01.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375348600004

    View details for PubMedID 27113689

  • Human mesenchymal stem cells reduce the severity of acute lung injury in a sheep model of bacterial pneumonia THORAX Asmussen, S., Ito, H., Traber, D. L., Lee, J. W., Cox, R. A., Hawkins, H. K., McAuley, D. F., McKenna, D. H., Traber, L. D., Zhuo, H., Wilson, J., Herndon, D. N., Prough, D. S., Liu, K. D., Matthay, M. A., Enkhbaatar, P. 2014; 69 (9): 819-825


    Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (hMSCs) improve survival in mouse models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and reduce pulmonary oedema in a perfused human lung preparation injured with Escherichia coli bacteria. We hypothesised that clinical grade hMSCs would reduce the severity of acute lung injury (ALI) and would be safe in a sheep model of ARDS.Adult sheep (30-40?kg) were surgically prepared. After 5 days of recovery, ALI was induced with cotton smoke insufflation, followed by instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5×10(11)?CFU) into both lungs under isoflurane anaesthesia. Following the injury, sheep were ventilated, resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution and studied for 24?h. The sheep were randomly allocated to receive one of the following treatments intravenously over 1?h in one of the following groups: (1) control, PlasmaLyte A, n=8; (2) lower dose hMSCs, 5×10(6)?hMSCs/kg, n=7; and (3) higher-dose hMSCs, 10×10(6)?hMSCs/kg, n=4.By 24?h, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly improved in both hMSC treatment groups compared with the control group (control group: PaO2/FiO2 of 97±15?mm?Hg; lower dose: 288±55?mm?Hg (p=0.003); higher dose: 327±2?mm?Hg (p=0.003)). The median lung water content was lower in the higher-dose hMSC-treated group compared with the control group (higher dose: 5.0?g?wet/g dry [IQR 4.9-5.8] vs control: 6.7?g?wet/g dry [IQR 6.4-7.5] (p=0.01)). The hMSCs had no adverse effects.Human MSCs were well tolerated and improved oxygenation and decreased pulmonary oedema in a sheep model of severe ARDS.NCT01775774 for Phase 1. NCT02097641 for Phase 2.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204980

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340239900009

    View details for PubMedID 24891325

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4284068

  • Design and implementation of the START (STem cells for ARDS Treatment) trial, a phase 1/2 trial of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for the treatment of moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome ANNALS OF INTENSIVE CARE Liu, K. D., Wilson, J. G., Zhuo, H., Caballero, L., McMillan, M. L., Fang, X., Cosgrove, K., Calfee, C. S., Lee, J., Kangelaris, K. N., Gotts, J. E., Rogers, A. J., Levitt, J. E., Wiener-Kronish, J. P., Delucchi, K. L., Leavitt, A. D., McKenna, D. H., Thompson, B. T., Matthay, M. A. 2014; 4


    Ultrasound (US) guidance during central venous catheterization (CVC) reduces complications and improves success rates compared to landmark-guided techniques. A novel "oblique view" (US transducer held at approximately 45° with respect to the target vessel) has been suggested to be superior to the standard short-axis approach usually used during US-guided CVC.The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of posterior vessel wall puncture (PVWP) between the short-axis and oblique-axis approaches to US-guided CVC.This was a prospective observational trial of emergency medicine residents and attending physicians, using gelatin models to simulate short-axis and oblique-axis US-guided CVC. Participants were blinded to the primary outcome of PVWP. Data collected included year in training/practice, number of central lines placed, time to successful "flash," and self-reported confidence of needle tip position using a Likert scale. After CVC simulation, models were deconstructed and inspected for PVWP.The rate of PVWP was 14.7% using short axis vs. 2.9% using oblique axis, resulting in a difference of 11.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] -4.7-28.3%, p = 0.10) and an odds ratio of 0.2 (95% CI 0.004-1.79). This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). Mean time to flash was 11.9 s using short axis, and 15.4 s using oblique axis (p = 0.14). Confidence in needle tip location was 3.63 using short axis, and 4.58 using oblique axis (p < 0.001).We found decreased PVWP using the oblique axis approach, though the difference was not statistically significant, and participants felt more confident in their needle tip location using the oblique axis view. Further research into the potential benefits of the oblique axis approach is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.11.080

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338476500017

    View details for PubMedID 24685453

  • Impaired Visual Fixation at the Age of 2 Years in Children Born Before the Twenty-Eighth Week of Gestation. Antecedents and Correlates in the Multi Center ELGAN Study PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY Phadke, A., Msall, M. E., Droste, P., Allred, E. N., O'Shea, T. M., Kuban, K., Dammann, O., Leviton, A. 2014; 51 (1): 36-42


    Very little is known about the prevalence, antecedents, and correlates of impaired visual fixation in former very preterm newborns.In the multicenter ELGAN study sample of 1057 infants born before the twenty-eighth week of gestation who had a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age, we identified 73 who were unable to follow an object across the midline. We compared them to the 984 infants who could follow an object across the midline.In this sample of very preterm newborns, those who had impaired visual fixation were much more likely than those without impaired visual fixation to have been born after the shortest of gestations (odds ratio, 3.2; 99% confidence interval, 1.4-7.5) and exposed to maternal aspirin (odds ratio, 5.2; 99% confidence interval, 2.2-12). They were also more likely than their peers to have had prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (odds ratio, 4.1; 99% confidence interval, 1.8-9.0). At age 2 years, the children with impaired fixation were more likely than others to be unable to walk (even with assistance) (odds ratio, 7.5; 99% confidence interval, 2.2-26) and have a Mental Development Index more than three standard deviations below the mean of a normative sample (odds ratio, 3.6; 99% confidence interval, 1.4-8.2).Risk factors for brain and retinal damages, such as very low gestational age, appear to be risk factors for impaired visual fixation. This inference is further supported by the co-occurrence at age 2 years of impaired visual fixation, inability to walk, and a very low Mental Development Index.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.03.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338174800008

    View details for PubMedID 24938138

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4062923

  • Evolving practices in critical care and their influence on acute kidney injury CURRENT OPINION IN CRITICAL CARE Wilson, J. G., Butcher, B. W., Liu, K. D. 2013; 19 (6): 523-530


    This review highlights the principal advances in critical care over the past year, and discusses the impact of these advances on the diagnosis and management of acute kidney injury (AKI).Recent literature has focused on assessment of volume status and fluid management, particularly in the setting of respiratory and cardiac failure. Other critical care topics are reviewed using a system-based approach.The incidence of AKI appears to be increasing, and despite advances in the provision of critical care and renal replacement therapies, there has been little improvement in its associated morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, recent advances in critical care will impact the diagnosis and management of AKI, as well as shape the future research agenda. Continued work in the fields of critical care and nephrology will undoubtedly be centered on improved biomarkers for the detection of AKI, specific therapies to mitigate or reverse AKI, and techniques to prevent the development of AKI in the critically ill population.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330358100001

    View details for PubMedID 24240818

  • Cardiac tamponade. The western journal of emergency medicine Wilson, J. G., Epstein, S. M., Wang, R., Kanzaria, H. K. 2013; 14 (2): 152-?

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2012.8.12919

    View details for PubMedID 23599855

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3628467

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