Clinical Focus

  • Pediatrics, General
  • Pediatrics

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine Registrar (1996) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1996)
  • Medical Education:University Of Virginia (1993) VA
  • Internship:Stanford University Medical Center (1994) CA

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

My interest is in the care and evaluation of newborns. In particular, I have been focusing on improving the educational experience for our residents and students in the nursery regarding the examination and management of term or near-term infants.


2018-19 Courses


All Publications

  • Identification of neonatal haemolysis: an approach to predischarge management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia ACTA PAEDIATRICA Bhutani, V. K., Srinivas, S., Cuadrado, M. E., Aby, J. L., Wong, R. J., Stevenson, D. K. 2016; 105 (5): E189-E194


    Relative contributions of increased production [by end-tidal carbon monoxide concentrations (ETCOc)] and decreased elimination of bilirubin to predischarge hour-specific total bilirubin (TB) levels were assessed in healthy late-preterm and term newborns. Secondly, we report predischarge ETCOc ranges to guide clinical management of hyperbilirubinemia.TB and ETCOc (?3 timepoints) determinations of newborns aged between six hours and <6 days (n = 79) were stratified by postnatal age epochs. Hyperbilirubinemia risk was assessed by plotting TB values as a function of ETCOc.Stratifications of ETCOc (in ppm, mean, median and interquartile ranges) by postnatal age epochs (0-24, 24-48 and 48-72) were as follows: 2.0, 1.9, 1.8-2.2 (n = 11); 1.6, 1.5, 1.1-2.0 (n = 58); and 2.0, 1.8, 1.6-2.3 (n = 9), respectively. Infants with ETCOc ? 2.5 were at high risk, between 1.5 and 2.5 at moderate risk and ?1.5 were at low risk. Risk due to haemolysis alone was not independent (p < 0.01). For infants with TB >75th percentile (n = 31), 23% had ETCO ?1.5, and 77% had ETCOc > 1.5 (p < 0.00003).Near-simultaneous ETCOc and TB measurements in infants with TB >75th percentile accurately identify haemolytic hyperbilirubinemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apa.13341

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373921200001

  • Evaluation of a new end-tidal carbon monoxide monitor from the bench tothe bedside ACTA PAEDIATRICA Cuadrado, M. E., Bhutani, V. K., Aby, J. L., Vreman, H. J., Wong, R. J., Stevenson, D. K. 2015; 104 (6): E279-E282

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apa.12938

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354528100008

  • Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) on the anterior chest wall of a newborn. Pediatric dermatology Aby, J. L., Patel, M., Sundram, U., Benjamin, L. T. 2014; 31 (1): e36-7


    Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pde.12159

    View details for PubMedID 23679208

  • The Newborn Book: Significance of Physical Findings in the Neonate Aby, J. L. Book Villages. 2014
  • Development of the breast milk expression experience measure. Maternal and child nutrition Flaherman, V. J., Gay, B., Scott, C., Aby, J., Stewart, A. L., Lee, K. A. 2013; 9 (3): 425-430


    Exclusive breastfeeding provides optimal nutrition through 6 months. Recent research has shown that milk expression may affect breastfeeding duration. A woman's experience with milk expression might mediate the effect of milk expression on breastfeeding duration. The objective of this study was to develop a measure to evaluate women's experiences of expressing milk. Based on the available literature, we developed a brief measure of the Breast Milk Expression Experience (BMEE) assessing three dimensions: (1) social support for milk expression; (2) ease of learning how to express milk; and (3) personal experiences of milk expression. All items used 1-5 Likert scales, with higher scores indicating better experiences. We administered the items immediately after expression to 68 mothers who expressed milk post-partum. We evaluated this measure for reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Mothers completing the BMEE were 57% primiparous with 75% vaginal births. The BMEE demonstrated appropriate reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.703 for the summary index and 0.719-0.763 for social support, learning experience and personal experience subscales. The BMEE also indicated good predictive validity; of the six mothers who had a mean score <3 on the 11-item scale post-partum, two (33.3%) were expressing breast milk at 1 month, compared with 37 (80.4%) of the 46 mothers who had a mean score ?3 on the 11-item scale post-partum (P?=?0.012). The BMEE is a promising measure of milk expression experience in this population. Use of this measure may allow improved understanding of women's experiences expressing milk.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00390.x

    View details for PubMedID 22236401

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3350756

  • Effect of Early Limited Formula on Duration and Exclusivity of Breastfeeding in At-Risk Infants: An RCT PEDIATRICS Flaherman, V. J., Aby, J., Burgos, A. E., Lee, K. A., Cabana, M. D., Newman, T. B. 2013; 131 (6): 1059-1065


    Recent public health efforts focus on reducing formula use for breastfed infants during the birth hospitalization. No previous randomized trials report the effects of brief early formula use. The objective of the study was to determine if small formula volumes before the onset of mature milk production might reduce formula use at 1 week and improve breastfeeding at 3 months for newborns at risk for breastfeeding problems.We randomly assigned 40 exclusively breastfeeding term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, who had lost ?5% birth weight to early limited formula (ELF) intervention (10 mL formula by syringe after each breastfeeding and discontinued when mature milk production began) or control (continued exclusive breastfeeding). Our outcomes were breastfeeding and formula use at 1 week and 1, 2, and 3 months.Among infants randomly assigned to ELF during the birth hospitalization, 2 (10%) of 20 used formula at 1 week of age, compared with 9 (47%) of 19 control infants assigned during the birth hospitalization to continue exclusive breastfeeding (P = .01). At 3 months, 15 (79%) of 19 infants assigned to ELF during the birth hospitalization were breastfeeding exclusively, compared with 8 (42%) of 19 controls (P = .02).Early limited formula may reduce longer-term formula use at 1 week and increase breastfeeding at 3 months for some infants. ELF may be a successful temporary coping strategy for mothers to support breastfeeding newborns with early weight loss. ELF has the potential for increasing rates of longer-term breastfeeding without supplementation based on findings from this RCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2012-2809

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322840200048

    View details for PubMedID 23669513

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3666109

  • Ankyloglossia - Incidence and associated feeding difficulties 14th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Pediatric-Otolaryngology Messner, A. H., Lalakea, M. L., Aby, J., MacMahon, J., Bair, E. AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 2000: 36?39


    To determine the incidence of ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) in the well-baby population, and to determine whether patients with ankyloglossia experience breastfeeding difficulties.Prospective controlled study.Tertiary care children's hospital.A total of 1041 neonates in the well-baby nursery were screened for ankyloglossia. Those positively identified were invited to participate in the study. Mothers of newborns with ankyloglossia and mothers of a matched control group of unaffected newborns were contacted by telephone on a monthly basis for 6 months after their children were discharged from the hospital to determine the presence of breastfeeding difficulties.Incidence of ankyloglossia, percentage of infants successfully breastfed, and incidence of breastfeeding difficulties.Fifty newborns were identified with ankyloglossia, for an incidence of 4.8% The male-female ratio was 2.6:1.0. Of the 36 mothers of affected infants who were followed up and who intended to breastfeed, 30 (83%) successfully breastfed their infants for at least 2 months, compared with 33 (92%) of the 36 mothers of infants in the matched control group (P = .29). Breastfeeding difficulties were experienced by 9 (25%) of the mothers of infants with ankyloglossia compared with 1 (3%) of the control mothers (P<.01).Ankyloglossia, which is a relatively common finding in the newborn population, adversely affects breastfeeding in selected infants.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084630700006

    View details for PubMedID 10628708

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