Bachelor of Science, University of California Davis (2004)
Doctor of Philosophy, University of California San Francisco (2012)
Matthew Bogyo, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
When Toxoplasma gondii egresses from the host cell, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GAPDH1), which is primary a glycolysis enzyme but actually a quintessential multifunctional protein, translocates to the unique cortical membrane skeleton. Here, we report the 2.25 ┼ resolution crystal structure of the GAPDH1 holoenzyme in a quaternary complex providing the basis for the molecular dissection of GAPDH1 structure-function relationships Knockdown of GAPDH1 expression and catalytic site disruption validate the essentiality of GAPDH1 in intracellular replication but we confirmed that glycolysis is not strictly essential. We identify, for the first time, S-loop phosphorylation as a novel, critical regulator of enzymatic activity that is consistent with the notion that the S-loop is critical for cofactor binding, allosteric activation and oligomerization. We show that neither enzymatic activity nor phosphorylation state correlate with the ability to translocate to the cortex. However, we demonstrate that association of GAPDH1 with the cortex is mediated by the N-terminus, likely palmitoylation. Overall, glycolysis and cortical translocation are functionally decoupled by post-translational modifications.
View details for DOI 10.1111/mmi.13577
View details for PubMedID 27859784
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5296235
The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Compounds that target the proteasome are potentially valuable tools for the treatment of pathogens that depend on proteasome function for survival and replication. In particular, proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at all stages of its life cycle. Most compounds that have been tested against the parasite also inhibit the mammalian proteasome, resulting in toxicity that precludes their use as therapeutic agents. Therefore, better definition of the substrate specificity and structural properties of the Plasmodium proteasome could enable the development of compounds with sufficient selectivity to allow their use as anti-malarial agents. To accomplish this goal, here we use a substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and P. falciparum proteasome. We design inhibitors based on amino-acid preferences specific to the parasite proteasome, and find that they preferentially inhibit the ?2-subunit. We determine the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to the inhibitor using cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 ┼. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparum ?2 active site and provide valuable information about active-site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, consistent with the recent finding that the proteasome is important for stress pathways associated with resistance of artemisinin family anti-malarials, we observe growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this ?2-selective inhibitor in artemisinin-sensitive and -resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrate that a parasite-selective inhibitor could be used to attenuate parasite growth in vivo without appreciable toxicity to the host. Thus, the Plasmodium proteasome is a chemically tractable target that could be exploited by next-generation anti-malarial agents.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature16936
View details for Web of Science ID 000369916700042
View details for PubMedID 26863983
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as palmitoylation are critical for the lytic cycle of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. While palmitoylation is involved in invasion, motility, and cell morphology, the proteins that utilize this PTM remain largely unknown. Using a chemical proteomic approach, we report a comprehensive analysis of palmitoylated proteins in T. gondii, identifying a total of 282 proteins, including cytosolic, membrane-associated, and transmembrane proteins. From this large set of palmitoylated targets, we validate palmitoylation of proteins involved in motility (myosin light chain 1, myosin A), cell morphology (PhIL1), and host cell invasion (apical membrane antigen 1, AMA1). Further studies reveal that blocking AMA1 palmitoylation enhances the release of AMA1 and other invasion-related proteins from apical secretory organelles, suggesting a previously unrecognized role for AMA1. These findings suggest that palmitoylation is ubiquitous throughout the T. gondii proteome and reveal insights into the biology of this important human pathogen.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chom.2015.09.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000365111600018
View details for PubMedID 26468752