Exosomes From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Promote Autophagy for Myocardial Repair.
Journal of the American Heart Association
2020; 9 (6): e014345
Sacubitril/Valsartan Improves Cardiac Function and Decreases Myocardial Fibrosis Via Downregulation of Exosomal miR-181a in a Rodent Chronic Myocardial Infarction Model.
Journal of the American Heart Association
Background Induced pluripotent stem cells and their differentiated cardiomyocytes (iCMs) have tremendous potential as patient-specific therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy following myocardial infarctions, but difficulties in viable transplantation limit clinical translation. Exosomes secreted from iCMs (iCM-Ex) can be robustly collected in vitro and injected in lieu of live iCMs as a cell-free therapy for myocardial infarction. Methods and Results iCM-Ex were precipitated from iCM supernatant and characterized by protein marker expression, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and functionalized nanogold transmission electron microscopy. iCM-Ex were then used in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic injuries. Cardiac function in vivo was evaluated by left ventricular ejection fraction and myocardial viability measurements by magnetic resonance imaging. Cardioprotective mechanisms were studied by JC-1 (tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide) assay, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, transmission electron microscopy, and immunoblotting. iCM-Ex measured 140nm and expressed CD63 and CD9. iCM and iCM-Ex microRNA profiles had significant overlap, indicating that exosomal content was reflective of the parent cell. Mice treated with iCM-Ex demonstrated significant cardiac improvement post-myocardial infarction, with significantly reduced apoptosis and fibrosis. In vitro iCM apoptosis was significantly reduced by hypoxia and exosome biogenesis inhibition and restored by treatment with iCM-Ex or rapamycin. Autophagosome production and autophagy flux was upregulated in iCM-Ex groups in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions iCM-Ex improve post-myocardial infarction cardiac function by regulating autophagy in hypoxic cardiomyoytes, enabling a cell-free, patient-specific therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy.
View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.119.014345
View details for PubMedID 32131688
Genome-wide profiling and differential expression of microRNA in rat pluripotent stem cells.
2017; 7 (1): 2787
Background Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles that function as intercellular messengers and effectors. Exosomal cargo contains regulatory small molecules, including miRNAs, mRNAs, lncRNAs, and small peptides that can be modulated by different pathological stimuli to the cells. One of the main mechanisms of action of drug therapy may be the altered production and/or content of the exosomes. Methods and Results We studied the effects on exosome production and content by neprilysin inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers, sacubitril/valsartan and valsartan alone, using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes under normoxic and hypoxic injury model in vitro, and assessed for physiologic correlation using an ischemic myocardial injury rodent model in vivo. We demonstrated that the treatment with sacubitril/valsartan and valsartan alone resulted in the increased production of exosomes by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in vitro in both conditions as well as in the rat plasma in vivo. Next-generation sequencing of these exosomes exhibited downregulation of the expression of rno-miR-181a in the sacubitril/valsartan treatment group. In vivo studies employing chronic rodent myocardial injury model demonstrated that miR-181a antagomir has a beneficial effect on cardiac function. Subsequently, immunohistochemical and molecular studies suggested that the downregulation of miR-181a resulted in the attenuation of myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy, restoring the injured rodent heart after myocardial infarction. Conclusions We demonstrate that an additional mechanism of action of the pleiotropic effects of sacubitril/valsartan may be mediated by the modulation of the miRNA expression level in the exosome payload.
View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.119.015640
View details for PubMedID 32538237
Transcriptome Characteristics and X-Chromosome Inactivation Status in Cultured Rat Pluripotent Stem Cells
STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT
2015; 24 (24): 2912-2924
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small noncoding RNAs that plays an important role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Much evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in regulating the human and mouse pluripotency. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, miRNAs in the pluripotent stem cells of one of the most commonly used model organisms - the Rattus norvegicus have not been studied. In the present study, we performed deep sequencing of small RNA molecules in the embryonic fibroblasts, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells of laboratory rats. Bioinformatics analysis revealed 674 known miRNAs and 394 novel miRNA candidates in all of the samples. Expression of known pluripotency-associated miRNAs, such as the miR-290-295 and miR-183-96-182 clusters as well as members of the miR-200 family, was detected in rat pluripotent stem cells. Analysis of the targets of differentially expressed known and novel miRNAs showed their involvement in the regulation of pluripotency and the reprogramming process in rats. Bioinformatics and systems biology approaches identified potential pathways that are regulated by these miRNAs. This study contributes to our understanding of miRNAs in the regulation of pluripotency and cell reprogramming in the laboratory rat.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-02632-0
View details for PubMedID 28584262
Dynamics of the Two Heterochromatin Types during Imprinted X Chromosome Inactivation in Vole Microtus levis
2014; 9 (2)
Rat pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as mouse and human ones have a great potential for studying mammalian early development, disease modeling, and evaluation of regenerative medicine approaches. However, data on pluripotency realization and self-renewal maintenance in rat cells are still very limited, and differentiation protocols of rat ESCs (rESCs) and iPSCs to study development and obtain specific cell types for biomedical applications are poorly developed. In this study, the RNA-Seq technique was first used for detailed transcriptome characterization in rat pluripotent cells. The rESC and iPSC transcriptomes demonstrated a high similarity and were significantly different from those in differentiated cells. Additionally, we have shown that reprogramming of rat somatic cells to a pluripotent state was accompanied by X-chromosome reactivation. There were two active X chromosomes in XX rESCs and iPSCs, which is one of the key attributes of the pluripotent state. Differentiation of both rESCs and iPSCs led to X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). The dynamics of XCI in differentiating rat cells was very similar to that in mice. Two types of facultative heterochromatin described in various mammalian species were revealed on the rat inactive X chromosome. To explore XCI dynamics, we established a new monolayer differentiation protocol for rESCs and iPSCs that may be applied to study different biological processes and optimized for directed derivation of specific cell types.
View details for DOI 10.1089/scd.2015.0204
View details for Web of Science ID 000366599600007
View details for PubMedID 26418521
"Epigenetic Memory" Phenomenon in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
2013; 5 (4): 15-21
In rodent female mammals, there are two forms of X-inactivation - imprinted and random which take place in extraembryonic and embryonic tissues, respectively. The inactive X-chromosome during random X-inactivation was shown to contain two types of facultative heterochromatin that alternate and do not overlap. However, chromatin structure of the inactive X-chromosome during imprinted X-inactivation, especially at early stages, is still not well understood. In this work, we studied chromatin modifications associated with the inactive X-chromosome at different stages of imprinted X-inactivation in a rodent, Microtus levis. It has been found that imprinted X-inactivation in vole occurs in a species-specific manner in two steps. The inactive X-chromosome at early stages of imprinted X-inactivation is characterized by accumulation of H3K9me3, HP1, H4K20me3, and uH2A, resembling to some extent the pattern of repressive chromatin modifications of meiotic sex chromatin. Later, the inactive X-chromosome recruits trimethylated H3K27 and acquires the two types of heterochromatin associated with random X-inactivation.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0088256
View details for Web of Science ID 000336971300073
View details for PubMedID 24505450
[Meiotic inactivation of sex chromosomes in mammals].
2010; 46 (4): 437-447
To date biomedicine and pharmacology have required generating new and more consummate models. One of the most perspective trends in this field is using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSC application requires careful high-throughput analysis at the molecular, epigenetic, and functional levels. The methods used have revealed that the expression pattern of genes and microRNA, DNA methylation, as well as the set and pattern of covalent histone modifications in iPSCs, are very similar to those in embryonic stem cells. Nevertheless, iPSCs have been shown to possess some specific features that can be acquired during the reprogramming process or are remnants of epigenomes and transcriptomes of the donor tissue. These residual signatures of epigenomes and transcriptomes of the somatic tissue of origin were termed "epigenetic memory." In this review, we discuss the "epigenetic memory" phenomenon in the context of the reprogramming process, its influence on iPSC properties, and the possibilities of its application in cell technologies.
View details for Web of Science ID 000334292800002
View details for PubMedID 24455179
During meiosis, heteromorphic mammalian X and Y chromosomes in males undergo transcription silencing and form a compact structure, the XY body, containing specific modifications of the chromatin. In this review, we consider the dynamics of sex chromosome inactivation and discuss the suggestion that the paternally inherited X chromosome preserve inactivated state in zygote. This state results from meiotic silencing and is prone to imprinted inactivation, which his observed in mammalian females at early embryogenetic stages.
View details for PubMedID 20536013