Identification of the Human Skeletal Stem Cell.
2018; 175 (1): 43
Stem cell regulation and hierarchical organization ofhuman skeletal progenitors remain largely unexplored. Here, we report the isolation of a self-renewing and multipotent human skeletal stem cell (hSSC) that generates progenitors of bone, cartilage, and stroma, but not fat. Self-renewing and multipotent hSSCs are present in fetal and adult bones and can also be derived from BMP2-treated human adipose stroma (B-HAS) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Gene expression analysis of individual hSSCs reveals overall similarity between hSSCs obtained from different sources and partially explains skewed differentiation toward cartilage in fetal and iPSC-derived hSSCs. hSSCs undergo local expansion in response to acute skeletal injury. In addition, hSSC-derived stroma can maintain human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) in serum-free culture conditions. Finally, we combine gene expression and epigenetic data of mouse skeletal stem cells (mSSCs) and hSSCs to identify evolutionarily conserved and divergent pathways driving SSC-mediated skeletogenesis. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
View details for PubMedID 30241615
Isolation and functional assessment of mouse skeletal stem cell lineage
2018; 13 (6): 1294?1309
There are limited methods available to study skeletal stem, progenitor, and progeny cell activity in normal and diseased contexts. Most protocols for skeletal stem cell isolation are based on the extent to which cells adhere to plastic or whether they express a limited repertoire of surface markers. Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based approach that does not require in vitro selection and that uses eight surface markers to distinguish and isolate mouse skeletal stem cells (mSSCs); bone, cartilage, and stromal progenitors (mBCSPs); and five downstream differentiated subtypes, including chondroprogenitors, two types of osteoprogenitors, and two types of hematopoiesis-supportive stroma. We provide instructions for the optimal mechanical and chemical digestion of bone and bone marrow, as well as the subsequent flow-cytometry-activated cell sorting (FACS) gating schemes required to maximally yield viable skeletal-lineage cells. We also describe a methodology for renal subcapsular transplantation and in vitro colony-formation assays on the isolated mSSCs. The isolation of mSSCs can be completed in 9 h, with at least 1 h more required for transplantation. Experience with flow cytometry and mouse surgical procedures is recommended before attempting the protocol. Our system has wide applications and has already been used to study skeletal response to fracture, diabetes, and osteoarthritis, as well as hematopoietic stem cell-niche interactions in the bone marrow.
View details for PubMedID 29748647
- Acta2, Tnc, and Col24a1 Expression Are Associated with Abdominal Adhesion Formation ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E128
Single-cell transcriptomics of 20 mouse organs creates a Tabula Muris.
2018; 562 (7727): 367?72
Here we present a compendium of single-cell transcriptomic data from the model organism Mus musculus that comprises more than 100,000 cells from 20 organs and tissues. These data represent a new resource for cell biology, reveal gene expression in poorly characterized cell populations and enable the direct and controlled comparison of gene expression in cell types that are shared between tissues, such as T lymphocytes and endothelial cells from different anatomical locations. Two distinct technical approaches were used for most organs: one approach, microfluidic droplet-based 3'-end counting, enabled the survey of thousands of cells at relatively low coverage, whereas the other, full-length transcript analysis based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting, enabled the characterization of cell types with high sensitivity and coverage. The cumulative data provide the foundation for an atlas of transcriptomic cell biology.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-018-0590-4
View details for PubMedID 30283141
THE EFFECT OF SHORT DURATION ULTRASOUND PULSES ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL MICROBUBBLES AND FIBRIN CLOTS
ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
2015; 41 (10): 2774?82
In previous work, we examined microscale interactions between microbubbles and fibrin clots under exposure to 1 ms ultrasound pulses. This provided direct evidence that microbubbles were capable of deforming clot boundaries and penetrating into clots, while also affecting fluid uptake and inducing fibrin network damage. Here, we investigate the effect of short duration (15 ?s) pulses on microscale bubble-clot interactions as function of bubble diameter (3-9 ?m) and pressure. Individual microbubbles (n = 45) were placed at the clot boundary with optical tweezers and exposed to 1 MHz ultrasound. High-speed (10 kfps) imaging and 2-photon microscopy were performed during and after exposure, respectively. While broadly similar phenomena were observed as in the 1 ms pulse case (i.e., bubble penetration, network damage and fluid uptake), substantial quantitative differences were present. The pressure threshold for bubble penetration was increased from 0.39 MPa to 0.6 MPa, and those bubbles that did enter clots had reduced penetration depths and were associated with less fibrin network damage and nanobead uptake. This appeared to be due in large part to increased bubble shrinkage relative to the 1 ms pulse case. Stroboscopic imaging was performed on a subset of bubbles (n = 11) and indicated that complex bubble oscillations can occur during this process.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2015.05.011
View details for Web of Science ID 000366470400023
View details for PubMedID 26116160
INTERACTIONS BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL ULTRASOUND-STIMULATED MICROBUBBLES AND FIBRIN CLOTS
ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
2014; 40 (9): 2134?50
The use of ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles (USMBs) to promote thrombolysis is well established, but there remains considerable uncertainty about the mechanisms of this process. Here we examine the microscale interactions between individual USMBs and fibrin clots as a function of bubble size, exposure conditions and clot type. Microbubbles (n = 185) were placed adjacent to clot boundaries ("coarse" or "fine") using optical tweezers and exposed to 1-MHz ultrasound as a function of pressure (0.1-0.39 MPa). High-speed (10 kfps) imaging was employed, and clots were subsequently assessed with 2-photon microscopy. For fine clots, 46% of bubbles "embedded" within 10 ?m of the clot boundary at pressures of 0.1 and 0.2 MPa, whereas at 0.39 MPa, 53% of bubbles penetrated and transited into the clots with an incidence inversely related to their diameter. A substantial fraction of penetrating bubbles induced fibrin network damage and promoted the uptake of nanobeads. In coarse clots, penetration occurred more readily and at lower pressures than in fine clots. The results therefore provide direct evidence of therapeutically relevant effects of USMBs and indicate their dependence on size, exposure conditions and clot properties.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2014.03.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000341461100026
View details for PubMedID 24882525