Doctor of Philosophy, University of Manitoba (2018)
Master of Science, University of Manitoba (2015)
Bachelor of Science, University of Winnipeg (2012)
INTRODUCTION: Children who have a history of involvement in child protection services (CPS) are over-represented in the youth and adult criminal justice systems. There are significant health and socioeconomic implications for individuals involved in either or both CPS and the justice system. Understanding the 'overlap' between these two systems would provide insight into the health and social needs of this population. This protocol describes a research programme on the relationship between the child welfare and the youth justice systems, looking specifically at the population involved in both CPS and the youth justice system. We will examine the characteristics associated with involvement in these systems, justice system trajectories of individuals with a history of CPS involvement and early adult outcomes of children involved in both systems.METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Administrative data sets will be linked at the individual level for three cohorts born 1991, 1994 and 1998 in Manitoba, Canada. Involvement in CPS will be categorised as 'placed in out-of-home care', 'received in-home services, but was not placed in care' or 'no involvement'. Involvement in the youth justice system will be examined through contacts with police between ages 12 and 17 that either led to charges or did not proceed. Individual, maternal and neighbourhood characteristics will be examined to identify individuals at greatest risk of involvement in one or both systems.ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the University of Manitoba Health Research Ethics Board and permission to access data sets has been granted by all data providers. We also received approval for the study from the First Nations Health and Social Secretariat of Manitoba's Health Information Research Governance Committee and the Manitoba Metis Federation. Strategies to disseminate study results will include engagement of stakeholders and policymakers through meetings and workshops, scientific publications and presentations, and social media.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034895
View details for PubMedID 32713845
STUDY QUESTION: Are women who fill a benzodiazepine prescription before conception at increased risk of ectopic pregnancy?SUMMARY ANSWER: Risk of ectopic pregnancy is 50% higher among women who fill a benzodiazepine prescription before conception.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Benzodiazepine use in pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, adverse birth outcomes and adverse child development outcomes.STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Using data from US commercial insurance claims, we performed a cohort study of 1691366 pregnancies between 1 November 2008 and 30 September 2015.PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We identified ectopic pregnancies using diagnosis and procedure codes and used unadjusted and inverse probability of treatment (IPT)-weighted log-binomial models to calculate relative risks (RR) of ectopic pregnancy for pregnant women who did and did not fill any prescriptions for benzodiazepines in the 90days before conception. Two sub-groups of women with specific indications for benzodiazepine use were also examined-women who had a least one diagnosis for anxiety disorder and women who had at least one diagnosis of insomnia in the year before conception.MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Of the 1691366 pregnancies, 1.06% filled at least two benzodiazepine prescriptions totaling at least 10days supply in the 90days before conception. Among women with a benzodiazepine prescription, there was an excess of 80 ectopic pregnancies per 10000 pregnancies, and their IPT-weighted risk of ectopic pregnancies was 1.47 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.63) times greater relative to women without benzodiazepine prescriptions before conception. The IPT-weighted RR between ectopic pregnancy and benzodiazepine use was 1.34 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.53) among women with anxiety disorder diagnoses and 1.28 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.68) among women with an insomnia diagnosis.LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We relied on outpatient prescription data to identify benzodiazepine use before conception, which could result in over- or under-estimation of actual benzodiazepine consumption. We relied on medical claim codes to identify pregnancies and conception date, which may result in misclassification of pregnancy outcomes and gestational length.WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This study found that women who have a benzodiazepine prescription before conception are at an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. This information can help women, and their healthcare providers make more fully informed decisions about benzodiazepine use in their reproductive years.STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Funding for this project was provided by a Banting Postdoctoral Fellowship and a Stanford Maternal and Child Health Research Institute Postdoctoral Award. Data access for this project was provided by the Stanford Center for Population Health Sciences Data Core. The PHS Data Core is supported by a National Institutes of Health National Center for Advancing Translational Science Clinical and Translational Science Award (UL1 TR001085) and internal Stanford funding. The authors have no competing interest.TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.
View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/deaa082
View details for PubMedID 32485732
OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk of ectopic pregnancy among women with and women without antidepressant prescriptions around conception and examine whether this risk differs by prepregnancy depression status.METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of all pregnancies between November 1, 2008, and September 30, 2015, identified in the nationwide (American) IBM MarketScan Databases. At least one day's supply of antidepressants in the 3 weeks after a woman's last menstrual period defined active antidepressant use around conception. At least one depression diagnosis in the year before the last menstrual period defined prepregnancy depression. Relative risk (RR) of ectopic pregnancy was estimated using unadjusted and inverse probability of treatment (IPT)-weighted log-binomial models.RESULTS: Of the 1,703,245 pregnancies, 106,788 (6.3%) women had a prepregnancy depression diagnosis. Among women with a depression diagnosis, 40,287 (37.7%) had an active antidepressant prescription around conception; the IPT-weighted risk of ectopic pregnancy was similar among women who did and did not fill an antidepressant prescription around conception (IPT-weighted RR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10). Overall, the risk of ectopic pregnancy was higher among women who had a prepregnancy depression diagnosis than women who did not have a prepregnancy depression diagnosis (IPT-weighted RR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.15).CONCLUSIONS: This study's findings suggest that women who have a prepregnancy depression diagnosis are at a slightly increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, and among women who have a prepregnancy depression diagnosis, the use of antidepressants around conception does not increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0706743720927829
View details for PubMedID 32436752
BACKGROUND: Using ICD-9 codes underestimates the prevalence of obesity in adults; however, the validity of these codes in studies of pregnancy-related outcomes is not known.OBJECTIVES: To compare classification of maternal obesity based on ICD-9 codes in hospital discharge records versus data from birth certificates in the same women, examine predictors of agreement, and assess how associations between obesity and two birth outcomes differ by source of weight data.METHODS: This population-based study included 2329145 California births between 2007 and 2012. We compared data on obesity from childbirth hospital discharge records (ICD-9 codes for obesity) and birth certificates (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) calculated from weight and height) and identified predictors of agreement between the two sources. Logistic regression models assessed whether the two definitions of obesity resulted in different estimates of the associations of obesity with caesarean birth and large-for-gestational age.RESULTS: Overall, 464754 women (20.0%) had obesity based on their pre-pregnancy BMI while only 100002 (4.3%) had an obesity-related ICD-9 code. The sensitivity of ICD-9-based obesity was low at 16.2%; however, obesity codes were highly specific at 98.7%, with a negative predictive value of 82.5% and a positive predictive value of 75.2%. Among women with obesity identified by the birth certificate, those with pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related complications (eg diabetes and hypertension) were more likely to have an obesity-related diagnosis in their delivery hospital discharge record. Using ICD-9 codes overestimated the association of obesity with caesarean birth and newborn large-for-gestational age.CONCLUSIONS: ICD-9 codes in childbirth discharge records captured only one in five women with pre-pregnancy obesity. Sensitivity varied by maternal characteristics and conditions. This misclassification resulted in bias when examining the association of obesity and pregnancy-related outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1111/ppe.12667
View details for PubMedID 32180247
?The aim of this study is to assess whether the risk of postpartum readmission within 6 weeks of giving birth differs for women who had stillbirths compared with live births.?Using data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in California, we performed a population-based cohort study of 7,398,640 births between 1999 and 2011. We identified diagnoses and procedures associated with the first postpartum hospital readmission that occurred within 6 weeks after giving birth. We used log-binomial models to estimate relative risk (RR) of postpartum readmission for women who had stillbirth compared with live birth deliveries, adjusting for maternal demographic, prepregnancy, pregnancy, and delivery characteristics.?The rate of postpartum readmission was higher among women who had stillbirths compared with women who had live births (206 and 96 per 10,000 births, respectively). After adjusting for maternal demographic and medical characteristics, the risk of postpartum readmission for women who had stillbirths was nearly 1.5 times greater (adjusted RR?=?1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.35-1.60) compared with live births. Among women with stillbirths, the most common indications at readmission were uterine infection or pelvic inflammatory disease, psychiatric conditions, hypertensive disorder, and urinary tract infection.?Based on our findings, women who have stillbirths are at higher risk of postpartum readmissions within 6 weeks of giving birth than women who have live births. Women who have stillbirths may benefit from additional monitoring and counseling after hospital discharge for potential postpartum medical and psychiatric complications.· Women who have stillbirths are at nearly 1.5 times greater risk of postpartum readmission than women who have live births.. · Uterine infections and pelvic inflammatory disease, and psychiatric conditions are the most common reasons for readmission among women who had a stillbirth.. · Women who have stillbirths may benefit from additional monitoring and counseling after hospital discharge for potential postpartum medical and psychiatric complications..
View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0040-1708803
View details for PubMedID 32365389
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and risk of severe maternal morbidity among delivery hospitalization for stillbirth compared with live birth deliveries.METHODS: Using data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in California, we performed a population-based cross-sectional study of 6,459,842 deliveries between 1999 and 2011. We identified severe maternal morbidity using an algorithm comprising diagnoses and procedures developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and used log-binomial regression models to examine the relative risk (RR) of severe maternal morbidity for stillbirth compared with live birth deliveries, adjusting for maternal demographic, medical, and obstetric characteristics. We also examined severe maternal morbidity prevalence by cause of fetal death among stillbirth deliveries.RESULTS: The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity for stillbirth and live birth was 578 and 99 cases per 10,000 deliveries, respectively. After adjusting for maternal demographic, medical, and obstetric characteristics, the risk of severe maternal morbidity among stillbirth deliveries was more than fourfold higher (adjusted RR 4.77; 95% CI 4.53-5.02) compared with live birth deliveries. The severe maternal morbidity prevalence was highest among stillbirths caused by hypertensive disorders and placental conditions (24 and 19 cases/100 deliveries, respectively), and lowest among stillbirths caused by fetal malformations or genetic abnormalities (1 case per 100 deliveries).CONCLUSION: Women who have stillbirths are at substantially higher risk for severe maternal morbidity than women who have live births, regardless of cause of fetal death. The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity varies by cause of fetal death.
View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003370
View details for PubMedID 31306335
BACKGROUND: Prenatal care is one of the most widely used preventive health services; however, use varies substantially. Our objective was to examine prenatal care among women with a history of having a child placed in out-of-home care, and whether their care differed from care among women who did not.METHODS: We used linkable administrative data to create a population-based cohort of women whose first 2 children were born in Manitoba, Canada, between Apr. 1, 1998, and Mar. 1, 2015. We measured the level of prenatal care using the Revised Graduated Prenatal Care Utilization Index, which categorizes care into 5 groups: intensive, adequate, intermediate, inadequate and no care. We compared level of prenatal care for women whose first child was placed in care with level of prenatal care for women who had no contact with care services, using 2 multinomial logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs).RESULTS: In a cohort of 52 438 mothers, 1284 (2.4%) had their first child placed in out-of-home care before conception of their second child. Mothers whose first child was placed in care had much higher rates of inadequate prenatal care during the pregnancy with their second child than mothers whose first child was not placed in care (33.0% v. 13.4%). The odds of having inadequate rather than adequate prenatal care were more than 4 times higher (OR 4.29, 95% CI 3.68 to 5.01) for women who had their first child placed in care than for women who did not have their first child placed in care.INTERPRETATION: Mothers with a history of having a child taken into care by the child protection services system are at higher risk of having inadequate or no prenatal care in a subsequent pregnancy compared with mothers with no history of involvement with child protection services.
View details for PubMedID 30803951
Children born into poverty face many challenges. Exposure to poverty comes in different forms, and children may also transition into or out of poverty. In this study, we examine the relationships among various outcomes and different levels of poverty (household and/or neighborhood poverty) at different points during a child's first 5 years.We used linkable administrative databases, following 46?589 children born in Manitoba, Canada, between 2000 and 2009 to age 7. Poverty is defined as those receiving welfare and those living in low-income neighborhoods. Four outcomes are measured in the first 5 years (placement in out-of-home care, externalizing mental health diagnosis, asthma diagnosis, and hospitalization for injury), with school readiness assessed between ages 5 and 7.Children born into poverty had greater odds of not being ready for school than children not born into poverty (adjusted odds ratio = 1.54, 1.59, 1.26 for children born in household and neighborhood poverty, household poverty only, and neighborhood poverty only, respectively; all significant at P < .05). Similar patterns were seen across outcomes. For those born into neighborhood poverty, the odds of school readiness were higher only if children moved before age 2.The level of poverty (household or neighborhood) and its duration modify the relationship between early poverty and childhood outcomes. Covariate adjustment generally weakens but does not eliminate these relationships.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2018-3426
View details for PubMedID 31110161
BACKGROUND: Children born to adolescent mothers generally perform more poorly on school readiness assessments than their peers born to adult mothers. It is unknown, however, whether this relationship extends to the grandchildren of these adolescent mothers. This paper examines the multi-generational outcomes associated with adolescent motherhood by testing whether the grandchildren of adolescent mothers also have lower school readiness scores than their peers; we further assessed if this relationship was moderated by whether the child's mother was an adolescent mother.METHODS: We used population-based data to conduct the retrospective cohort study of children born in Manitoba, Canada, 2000-2009, whose mothers were born 1979-1997 (n = 11,326). Overall school readiness and readiness on five domains of development were analyzed using logistic regression models.RESULTS: Compared with children whose mothers and grandmothers were both ? 20 at the birth of their first child, those born to grandmothers who were < 20 and mothers who were ? 20 years old at the birth of their first child had 39% greater odds of being not ready for school (95% CI: 1.22-1.60). Children whose grandmothers were ? 20 and mothers were < 20 at the birth of their first child had 25% greater odds of being not ready for school (95% CI: 1.11-1.41), and children born to grandmothers and mothers who were both <20 at the birth of their first child had 35% greater odds of being not ready for school (95% CI: 1.18-1.54).CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a multigenerational effect of adolescent motherhood on school readiness.
View details for PubMedID 30726256
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated prenatal care use among women who use alcohol during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate rates of prenatal care usage of women who have given birth to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of women with children born in Manitoba between Apr. 1, 1984, and Mar. 31, 2012, with follow-up until 2013, using linkable administrative data. The study group included women whose child(ren) was (were) diagnosed with FASD (n = 702) between Apr. 1, 1999, and Mar. 31, 2012, at a centralized diagnostic clinic. The comparison group included women whose child(ren) did not have an FASD diagnosis (n = 2097), exact matched on the index child's birthdate, postal code and socioeconomic status. Adequacy of prenatal care was defined using the Revised Graduated Prenatal Care Utilization Index.RESULTS: Women in the study group had lower socioeconomic status than women in the comparison group and were more likely to have mental disorders and involvement with the child welfare system. Rates of inadequate prenatal care were higher among women in the study group (adjusted relative risk 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08-2.94), as were rates of no prenatal care (adjusted relative risk 3.55, 95% CI 2.42-5.22). In the study group, 41% of women accessed inadequate or no prenatal care, and 59% received intermediate, adequate or intensive prenatal care.INTERPRETATION: Women who give birth to children with FASD have higher rates of inadequate prenatal care and significant social complexities. Socioeconomic disparities in the use of prenatal care should be addressed; multisector interventions are needed that facilitate the uptake of prenatal care by high-risk women who use alcohol.
View details for PubMedID 30755413
We examined whether women experiencing severe maternal morbidity (SMM) are more likely to be treated for a psychiatric illness or be prescribed psychotropic medications in the postpartum year than mothers who did not experience SMM. We also examine the relationship between SMM and specific mental health-related outcomes, and the relationship between specific SMM diagnoses/procedures and postpartum mental-health-related outcomes. The national registers in Sweden were used to create a population-based matched cohort. Every delivery with SMM between July 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012 (n=8558), was matched with two deliveries without SMM (n=17,116). Conditional logistic regression models assessed the relationship between SMM and postpartum mental health-related outcomes. Women who experienced SMM had significantly greater odds of being treated for a psychiatric disorder (aOR 1.22; 95% CI 1.03-1.45) and being prescribed psychotropic medications (aOR 1.40; 95% CI 1.24-1.58) in the postpartum year. Specifically, they had significantly greater odds of being treated for neuroses (aOR 1.35; 95% CI 1.09-1.69) and having a prescription for anxiolytics/hypnotics (aOR 1.36; 95% CI 1.18-1.58) or antidepressants (aOR 1.35; 95% CI 1.17-1.55). Women who were diagnosed with shock or uterine rupture/obstetric laparotomy during delivery had the greatest odds of postpartum mental health-related outcomes. This study identified mothers with SMM as a group at high risk for postpartum mental illness. Postpartum mental health services should be provided to ensure the well-being of these high-risk mothers.
View details for PubMedID 30334101
This study examines whether mothers who had a child taken into care by child protection services have higher mortality rates compared with rates seen in their biological sisters who did not have a child taken into care. We conducted this retrospective cohort study using linkable administrative data from 3,948 mothers whose oldest child was born in Manitoba, Canada, between April 1, 1992, and March 31, 2015. These mothers were from 1,974 families in which one sister had a child taken into care and one sister did not. We computed rate differences and hazard ratios of all-cause, avoidable, and unavoidable mortality. There were an additional 24 deaths per 10,000 person-years among mothers who had had a child taken into care. Mothers who had a child taken into care had higher rates of mortality due to avoidable causes (hazard ratio = 3.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 8.48) and unavoidable causes (hazard ratio = 2.92; 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 8.44). The number of children taken into care did not affect mortality rates among mothers with at least 1 child taken into care. The higher mortality rates-particularly avoidable mortality-among mothers who had a child taken into care indicate a need for more specific interventions for these mothers.
View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kwy062
View details for Web of Science ID 000434091300009
View details for PubMedID 29617918
The objective was to compare mental illness diagnoses and treatment use among mothers who lost custody of their child through involvement with child protection services and those seen in mothers dealing with the death of a child.We studied mental health outcomes of a cohort of women whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2015. Of these women, 5,792 had a child taken into care, and 1,143 mothers experienced the death of a child (<18 y old) before 31 March 2015. Adjusted relative rates (ARR) of 3 mental health diagnoses and 3 mental health treatment use outcomes between these 2 groups were examined.Mothers with a child taken into care had significantly greater ARR of depression (ARR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.82 to 1.98), anxiety (ARR = 2.51; 95% CI, 2.40 to 2.63), substance use (ARR = 8.54; 95% CI, 7.49 to 9.74), physician visits for mental illness (ARR = 3.01; 95% CI, 2.91 to 3.12), and psychotropic medication use (ARR = 4.95; 95% CI, 4.85 to 5.06) in the years after custody loss compared with mothers who experienced the death of a child.Losing custody of a child to child protection services is associated with significantly worse maternal mental health than experiencing the death of a child. Greater acknowledgement and supportive services should be provided to mothers experiencing the loss of a child through the involvement of child protection services.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0706743717738494
View details for Web of Science ID 000430479900008
View details for PubMedID 29082774
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5912297
Mothers have increased mental illness such as anxiety and depression after the death of a child. We examine the duration of this worsening of mental health.The mental health of all mothers who experience the death of an infant (< 1 years old) in Manitoba, Canada between April 1, 1999 and March 31, 2011 (n = 534) is examined in the 4 years leading up to, and the 4 years following, the death of their child. Mental health-related outcomes of these mothers are compared with a matched (3:1) cohort of mothers who did not experience the death of a child (n = 1,602). Three mental health-related outcomes are examined: depression diagnoses, anxiety diagnoses, and use of psychotropic medications.Compared with mothers who did not experience the death of a child, mothers experiencing this event had higher rates of anxiety diagnoses and psychotropic prescriptions starting 6 months before the death. Elevated rates of anxiety continued for the first year and elevated rates of psychotropic prescriptions continued for 6 months after the death of the child. Mothers who experienced the death of a child had higher rates of depression diagnoses in the year after the death. Relative rates (RR) of depression (RR = 4.94), anxiety (RR = 2.21), and psychotropic medication use (RR = 3.18) were highest in the 6 months after the child's death.Elevated rates of depression, anxiety, and psychotropic medication use after the death of a child end within 1 year of the child's death.
View details for DOI 10.1002/da.22729
View details for Web of Science ID 000429322100003
View details for PubMedID 29451948
The objective of this study is to examine suicide attempts and completions among mothers who had a child taken into care by child protection services (CPS). These mothers were compared with their biological sisters who did not have a child taken into care and with mothers who received services from CPS but did not have a child taken into care.A retrospective cohort of mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada, between April 1, 1992, and March 31, 2015, is used. Rates among discordant biological sisters (1872 families) were compared using fixed-effects Poisson regression models, and mothers involved with CPS (children in care [ n = 1872] and received services [ n = 9590]) were compared using a Poisson regression model.Compared with their biological sisters and mothers who received services, the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of death by suicide was greater among mothers whose child was taken into care by CPS (aIRR = 4.46 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39-14.33] and ARR = 3.45 [95% CI, 1.61-7.40], respectively). Incidence rates of suicide attempts were higher among mothers with a child taken into care compared with their sisters (aIRR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.40-3.30) and mothers receiving services (aIRR = 2.82; 95% CI, 2.03-3.92).Mothers who had a child taken into care had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts and completions. When children are taken into care, physician and social workers should inquire about maternal suicidal behaviour and provide appropriate mental health.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0706743717741058
View details for Web of Science ID 000429954500003
View details for PubMedID 29202664
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5846964
The objective of this study is to determine which maternal events and diagnoses in the two years before childbirth are associated with higher risk for having a first child taken into care at birth by child protection services. A population-based retrospective cohort of women whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada between 2002 and 2012 and lived in the province at least two years before the birth of their first child (n=53,565) was created using linkable administrative data. A logistic regression model determined the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of having a child taken into care at birth. Characteristics having the strongest association with a woman's first child being taken into care at birth were mother being in care at the birth of her child (AOR=11.10; 95% CI=8.38-14.71), substance abuse (AOR=8.94; 95% CI=5.08-15.71), schizophrenia (AOR=6.69; 95% CI=3.89-11.52) developmental disability (AOR=6.45; 95% CI=2.69-14.29), and no prenatal care (AOR=5.47; 95% CI=3.56-8.41). Most characteristics of women deemed to be at high risk for having their child taken into care at birth are modifiable or could be mitigated with appropriate services.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.09.033
View details for Web of Science ID 000426538400001
View details for PubMedID 28992512
Separation from one's child can have significant consequences for parental health and well-being. We aimed to investigate whether parents whose children were placed in care had higher rates of avoidable mortality.Data were obtained from the Swedish national registers. Mortality rates among parents whose children were placed in care between 1990 and 2012 (17 503 mothers, 18 298 fathers) were compared with a 1:5 matched cohort of parents whose children were not placed. We computed rate differences and HRs of all-cause and avoidable mortality.Among mothers, deaths due to preventable causes were 3.09 times greater (95%?CI 2.24 to 4.26) and deaths due to amenable causes were 3.04 times greater (95%?CI 2.03 to 4.57) for those whose children were placed in care. Among fathers, death due to preventable causes were 1.64 times greater (95%?CI 1.32 to 2.02) and deaths due to amenable causes were 1.84 times greater (95%?CI 1.33 to 2.55) for those whose children were placed in care. Avoidable mortality rates were higher among mothers whose children were young when placed in care and among parents whose children were all placed in care.Parents who had a child placed in out-of-home care are at higher risk of avoidable mortality. Interventions targeting mothers who had a child aged less than 13 placed in care, and parents whose children were all placed in care could have the greatest impact in reducing avoidable mortality in this population.
View details for DOI 10.1136/jech-2018-210672
View details for PubMedID 30077964
The objective of this study is to examine the intergenerational transmission of out-of-home care. This population-based study used data from the Swedish National Registers and included all children born in Sweden between 1990 and 2012 (followed for up to 13 years), whose parents were both born in Sweden between 1973 and 1980 (278 327 children; 145 935 mothers; 146 896 fathers). Cox regression models are used to obtain crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of OHC placement among children based on parents' history of OHC. Compared with children whose parents both did not have a history of OHC, the risk of being placed in OHC was greater when both parents spent time in OHC (crude HR?=?48.70, 95% CI 41.46-57.21; adjusted HR?=?3.04, 95% CI?=?2.54-3.64), however, children who had only one parent who spent time in care were also at higher risk (mothers only adjusted HR?=?2.37, 95% CI?=?2.08-2.70; fathers only adjusted HR?=?1.33, 95% CI?=?1.13-1.55). The crude rate of placement in OHC was highest for children whose parents were placed in care during adolescence, but after adjusting for social and behavioral covariates, children whose parents were in care in early childhood were at greater risk of OHC than children whose parents were in care in adolescence. To reduce this intergenerational transmission of OHC, more supports should be provided to parents who spent time in OHC to ensure a successful transition to parenthood.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.07.007
View details for PubMedID 30016744
Female family members affect both the likelihood of adolescent pregnancy and the outcome of that pregnancy. We examined the degree to which an older sister's adolescent reproductive outcomes affect her younger sister's reproductive behavior, and whether relationships in adolescent pregnancy among sisters born to adolescent mothers differ from those born to nonadolescent mothers.We followed a birth cohort in Manitoba, Ontario, Canada, to age 20 using linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. The cohort consisted of 12?391 girls born in Manitoba between April 1, 1984, and March 31, 1996, who had 1 older sister. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationships among familial adolescent pregnancy outcomes.Compared with adolescent girls whose older sister did not have an adolescent pregnancy, adolescent girls whose older sister had an adolescent pregnancy were more likely to have a pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.57), regardless of whether that pregnancy was completed (aOR = 2.56) or terminated (aOR = 2.59). Relationships in adolescent pregnancy among sisters were much stronger for those born to nonadolescent mothers (aOR = 3.16 [older sister completed adolescent pregnancy] and 3.18 [older sister terminated adolescent pregnancy]) than to adolescent mothers (aOR = 1.65 [older sister completed adolescent pregnancy] and 1.77 [older sister terminated adolescent pregnancy]). For younger sisters having an adolescent pregnancy, the odds of her completing the pregnancy were reduced if her older sister had terminated an adolescent pregnancy and her mother had not been an adolescent mother (aOR = 0.38).Younger sisters of adolescents who had a pregnancy may benefit from targeted interventions to reduce their likelihood of adolescent pregnancies.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0033354917739583
View details for Web of Science ID 000419471700014
View details for PubMedID 29262270
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5805095
Individuals involved in out-of-home care are at higher risk of death by suicide. We aimed to determine whether parents with two generations of involvement in out-of-home care (themselves as children, and their own children) are at increased risk of death by suicide than parents with no involvement or parents with one generation of involvement in out-of-home care.This population-based cohort study included all individuals born in Sweden between 1973 and 1980 who had at least one child between 1990 and 2012 (n?=?487,948). Women (n?=?259,275) and men (n?=?228,673) were examined separately.When compared with mothers with no involvement in out-of-home care, mothers with two generations of involvement were at more than five times greater risk of death by suicide (aHR?=?5.52; 95% CI 2.91-10.46); mothers with one generation of involvement were also at significantly higher risk of death by suicide (mothers were in care as children: aHR?=?2.35; 95% CI 1.27-4.35; child was placed in care: aHR?=?3.23; 95% CI 1.79-5.83). Involvement in out-of-home care (in either generation) did not affect risk of death by suicide for fathers.Reason for placement in out-of-home care is not known; these reasons could also be associated with risk of death by suicide Conclusion: Mothers with involvement in out-of-home care, either as children or when their child was placed in care, are at significantly higher risk of death by suicide. Mental health services should be provided to individuals involved in out-of-home care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2018.06.022
View details for PubMedID 29936388
To determine if adolescent mothers who were in the care of child protection services (CPS) when they gave birth to their first child are more likely to have that child taken into CPS care before the child's second birthday than adolescent mothers who were not in the care of CPS.Linkable administrative data were used to create a population-based cohort of adolescent mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada between April 1, 1998, and March 31, 2013 (n = 5942). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of having that first child taken into care before their second birthday were compared between mothers who were in care (n = 576) and mothers who were not in care (n = 5366) at the birth of their child by using logistic regression models.Adolescent mothers who were in care had greater odds of having their child taken into care before the child's second birthday (aOR = 7.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.19-9.14). Specifically, their children had higher odds of being taken into care in their first week of life (aOR = 11.64; 95% CI = 8.83-15.34), between 1 week and their first birthday (aOR = 3.63; 95% CI = 2.79-4.71), and between their first and second birthday (aOR = 2.21; 95% CIl = 1.53-3.19).Findings support an intergenerational cycle of involvement with CPS. More and better services are required for adolescent mothers who give birth while in care of CPS.
View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2017-3119
View details for PubMedID 29844137
Objectives This study examines whether mothers involved with child protection services (CPS) at the birth of their first child had higher rates of postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A retrospective cohort of mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada between April 1, 1995 and March 31, 2015 is used. Postpartum depression and anxiety among mothers whose first child was placed in care at birth (n?=?776) was compared with mothers who received services from CPS (but whose children were not placed in care) (n?=?4,270), and a 3:1 matched group of mothers who had no involvement with CPS in the first year of their firstborn's life (n?=?2,328). Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of depression and anxiety diagnoses in the first year postpartum were obtained from logistic regression models. Adjusted rate ratios (ARR) of antidepressant use obtained using Poisson models. Results Mothers whose children were taken into care have greater odds of having a postpartum depression or anxiety diagnosis than mothers receiving services (AOR?=?1.31; 95% CI 1.08-1.59) and those not involved with CPS (AOR?=?2.13; 95% CI 1.67-2.73). Among mothers who had a postpartum depression or anxiety diagnosis, mothers whose children were placed in care had significantly higher rates of antidepressant use than mothers receiving services only (ARR?=?2.00; 1.82, 2.19) and mothers who were not involved with CPS (ARR?=?2.42; 95% CI 1.94-3.51). Conclusions for Practice Targeted programs should be implemented to address postpartum mental illness among mothers who are involved with CPS at the birth of their child.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10995-018-2607-x
View details for PubMedID 30006727
Understanding the processes across childhood and adolescence that affect later life inequalities depends on many variables for a large number of individuals measured over substantial time periods. Linkable administrative data were used to generate birth cohorts and to study pathways of inequity in childhood and early adolescence leading to differences in educational attainment. Advantages and disadvantages of using large administrative data bases for such research were highlighted.Children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1995 were followed until age 19 (N = 89,763), with many time-invariant measures serving as controls. Five time-varying predictors of high school graduation-three social and two health-were modelled using logistic regression and a framework for examining predictors across the life course. For each time-varying predictor, six temporal patterns were tested: full, accumulation of risk, sensitive period, and three critical period models.Predictors measured in early adolescence generated the highest odds ratios, suggesting the importance of adolescence. Full models provided the best fit for the three time-varying social measures. Residence in a low-income neighborhood was a particularly influential predictor of not graduating from high school. The transmission of risk across developmental periods was also highlighted; exposure in one period had significant implications for subsequent life stages.This study advances life course epidemiology, using administrative data to clarify the relationships among several measures of social behavior, cognitive development, and health. Analyses of temporal patterns can be useful in studying such other outcomes as educational achievement, teen pregnancy, and workforce participation.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0188976
View details for Web of Science ID 000419006200014
View details for PubMedID 29281651
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5744927
We investigated whether mothers experience changes to their health and social situation after having a child taken into care by child protection services, then compared these outcomes with those found in mothers whose children were not taken into care.The cohort includes mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba between 1 April 1998 and 31 March 2011. Mothers whose children were taken into care after age 2 (n=1591) were compared with a matched group of women whose children were not taken into care (n=1591).The rates of mental illness diagnoses, treatment use and social factors were significantly higher for mother whose children were taken into care, both in the 2?years before and in the 2?years after the index date. These adjusted relative rates (ARRs) increased significantly for anxiety (before ARR=2.71, after ARR=3.55), substance use disorder (3.77-5.95), physician visits for mental illness (2.83-3.66), number of prescriptions (psychotropic: 4.35-5.86; overall: 2.34-2.94), number of different prescriptions (psychotropic: 2.70-3.27; overall: 1.62-1.70), residential mobility (1.40-1.63) and welfare use (2.07-2.30).The health and social situation of mothers involved with child protection services deteriorates after their child is taken into care. Mothers would benefit from supports during this time period to ensure that the outcomes they experience after the loss of their child do not become another barrier to reunification.
View details for DOI 10.1136/jech-2017-209542
View details for Web of Science ID 000414714100003
View details for PubMedID 28983064
Women who give birth to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) may be at increased risk for suicide; however, there are few data in this area. The objective of this study was to compare rates of suicide between women who had given birth to children with FASD and women who had not given birth to children with FASD during critical periods in their lives, including before pregnancy, during pregnancy, during the postpartum period (maternal death) and until the end of the study period.We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of women with children born in Manitoba between Apr. 1, 1984, and Mar. 31, 2012 in whom FASD was diagnosed between Apr. 1, 1999, and Mar. 31, 2012, with follow-up until Dec. 1, 2013 (FASD group; n = 702). We generated a comparison group of women who had not given birth to children with FASD (n = 2097), matched up to 1:3 on date of birth of the index child, socioeconomic status and region of residence. We used linked administrative data to investigate suicide attempt and completion rates in the 2 groups. Regression modelling produced relative rates (RRs) adjusted for socioeconomic status and age at birth of the index child and was used to assess suicide risk.The 2799 participants produced 40?390.21 person-years until the end of the study period. Compared to the comparison group, the FASD group had higher rates of suicide completion (adjusted RR 6.20 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36-16.31]), a higher number of women who attempted suicide after the postpartum period until the end of the study period (adjusted RR 4.62 [95% CI 2.53-8.43]) and a higher number of attempts after the postpartum period until the end of the study period (adjusted RR 3.92 [95% CI 2.30-6.09]).This study identified a group of women with increased rates of social complexities, mental disorders and alcohol use, which places them at risk for suicide. Interventions are needed that screen for suicidal behaviour in women who are at high risk to consume alcohol during pregnancy and have mental disorders.
View details for DOI 10.9778/cmajo.20160127
View details for PubMedID 28830865
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5621956
Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy.This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing.The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68).Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is influential about what" within the family.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12884-016-0911-2
View details for Web of Science ID 000376586500001
View details for PubMedID 27225972
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4880827
A life course approach and linked Manitoba data from birth to age 18 were used to facilitate comparisons of two important outcomes: high school graduation and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). With a common set of variables, we sought to answer the following questions: Do the measures predicting high school graduation differ from those that predict ADHD? Which factors are most important? How well do the models fit each outcome?Administrative data from the Population Health Research Data Repository at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy were used to conduct one of the strongest observational designs: multilevel modelling of large population (n = 62,739) and sibling (n = 29,444) samples. Variables included are neighbourhood characteristics, measures of family stability, and mental and physical health conditions in childhood and adolescence.The adverse childhood experiences important for each outcome differ. While family instability and economic adversity more strongly affect failing to graduate from high school, adverse health events in childhood and early adolescence have a greater effect on late adolescent ADHD. The variables included in the model provided excellent accuracy and discrimination.These results offer insights on the role of several family and social variables and can serve as the basis for reliable, valid prediction tools that can identify high-risk individuals. Applying such a tool at the population level would provide insight into the future burden of these outcomes in an entire region or nation and further quantify the burden of risk in the population.
View details for DOI 10.17269/CJPH.107.5156
View details for Web of Science ID 000378892000004
View details for PubMedID 27348104