Bio

Bio


The Solgaard group focus on design and fabrication of nano-photonics and micro-optical systems. We combine photonic crystals, optical meta-materials, silicon photonics, and MEMS, to create efficient and reliable systems for communication, sensing, imaging, and optical manipulation.

Honors & Awards


  • Fellow, Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (2010)
  • Member, The Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters (2008)
  • Fellow, Optical Society of America (2008)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Stanford (1992)

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Two-axis MEMS scanner with transfer-printed high-reflectivity, broadband monolithic silicon photonic crystal mirrors OPTICS EXPRESS Jeong, J., Park, B., Keum, H., Kim, S., Rogers, J. A., Solgaard, O. 2013; 21 (11): 13800-13809

    Abstract

    We present a two-axis electrostatic MEMS scanner with high-reflectivity monolithic single-crystal-silicon photonic crystal (PC) mirrors suitable for applications in harsh environments. The reflective surfaces of the MEMS scanner are transfer-printed PC mirrors with low polarization dependence, low angular dependence, and reflectivity over 85% in the wavelength range of 1490nm~1505nm and above 90% over the wavelength band of 1550~1570nm. In static mode, the scanner has total scan range of 10.2° on one rotation axis and 7.8° on the other. Dynamic operation on resonance increase the scan range to 21° at 608Hz around the outer rotation axis and 9.5° at 1.73kHz about the inner rotation axis.

    View details for DOI 10.1364/OE.21.013800

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319814900085

    View details for PubMedID 23736634

  • Measurement of elastic properties in fluid using high bandwidth atomic force microscope probes APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Vijayraghavan, K., Wang, A., Solgaard, O., Butte, M. J., Melosh, N. A. 2013; 102 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.4795598

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316501200074

  • MONOLITHIC SILICON WAVEGUIDES IN STANDARD SILICON IEEE MICRO Chang, C., Solgaard, O. 2013; 33 (1): 32-40
  • Modeling and Demonstration of Thermally Stable High-Sensitivity Reproducible Acoustic Sensors Journal of Lightwave Technology Akkaya, O., C., Digonnet, M., J.F., Kino, G., S., Solgaard, O. 2013; 31 (16): 2701-2708
  • Fano resonances in integrated silicon Bragg reflectors for sensing applications Optics Express Chang, C., M., Solgaard, O. 2013; 21 (22): 2720927219
  • Engineering-reflected phase in Fabry–Perot sensors with resonant mirrors Optics Letters Gellineau, A., Wong, Y., P., Solgaard, O. 2013; 38 (23): 4992–4995
  • Detection of single nano-defects in photonic crystals between crossed polarizers Optics Express Grepstad, J., O., Kaspar, P., Johansen, I., R., Solgaard, O., Sudbø, A. 2013; 21 (25): 31375–31389
  • Short-cavity multimode fiber-tip Fabry-Pérot sensors Optics Express Wu, X., Solgaard, O. 2013; 21 (6): 14487–14499
  • Modeling and Demonstration of Thermally Stable High-Sensitivity Reproducible Acoustic Sensors JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Akkaya, O. C., Kilic, O., Digonnet, M. J., Kino, G. S., Solgaard, O. 2012; 21 (6): 1347-1356
  • Split-Frame Gimbaled Two-Dimensional MEMS Scanner for Miniature Dual-Axis Confocal Microendoscopes Fabricated by Front-Side Processing JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Jeong, J., Kim, S., Solgaard, O. 2012; 21 (2): 308-315
  • Photonic-crystal membranes for optical detection of single nano-particles, designed for biosensor application OPTICS EXPRESS Grepstad, J. O., Kaspar, P., Solgaard, O., Johansen, I., Sudbo, A. S. 2012; 20 (7): 7954-7965

    Abstract

    A sensor designed to detect bio-molecules is presented. The sensor exploits a planar 2D photonic crystal (PC) membrane with sub-micron thickness and through holes, to induce high optical fields that allow detection of nano-particles smaller than the diffraction limit of an optical microscope. We report on our design and fabrication of a PC membrane with a nano-particle trapped inside. We have also designed and built an imaging system where an optical microscope and a CCD camera are used to take images of the PC membrane. Results show how the trapped nano-particle appears as a bright spot in the image. In a first experimental realization of the imaging system, single particles with a radius of 75 nm can be detected.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302138800107

    View details for PubMedID 22453468

  • Reflectivity and polarization dependence of polysilicon single-film broadband photonic crystal micro-mirrors OPTICS EXPRESS Kim, S., Hadzialic, S., Sudbo, A. S., Solgaard, O. 2012; 20 (6): 6306-6315

    Abstract

    We report on the fabrication of 2-D photonic crystal (PC) micro-mirrors, and Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations and measurements of their reflectance spectra and polarization dependence at normal incidence. The PC mirrors were fabricated in free-standing thin polysilicon membranes supported by silicon nitride films for stress compensation. Greater than 90% reflectivity is measured over a wavelength range of 35 nm from 1565 nm to 1600 nm with small polarization dependence. Our FDTD simulations show that fabrication errors on the order of tens of nanometers can strongly affect the reflection spectra. When the fabrication errors are kept below this level, FDTD simulations on perfectly periodic structures accurately predict the reflection spectra of the fabricated PC mirrors, despite their sensitivity to the fabrication errors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301877700077

    View details for PubMedID 22418512

  • In vivo near-infrared dual-axis confocal microendoscopy in the human lower gastrointestinal tract JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Qiu, Z., Friedland, S., Liu, J. T., Loewke, K., Kino, G. S., Solgaard, O., Wang, T. D., Mandella, M. J., Contag, C. H. 2012; 17 (2)

    Abstract

    Near-infrared confocal microendoscopy is a promising technique for deep in vivo imaging of tissues and can generate high-resolution cross-sectional images at the micron-scale. We demonstrate the use of a dual-axis confocal (DAC) near-infrared fluorescence microendoscope with a 5.5-mm outer diameter for obtaining clinical images of human colorectal mucosa. High-speed two-dimensional en face scanning was achieved through a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner while a micromotor was used for adjusting the axial focus. In vivo images of human patients are collected at 5 frames/sec with a field of view of 362×212 ?m(2) and a maximum imaging depth of 140 ?m. During routine endoscopy, indocyanine green (ICG) was topically applied a nonspecific optical contrasting agent to regions of the human colon. The DAC microendoscope was then used to obtain microanatomic images of the mucosa by detecting near-infrared fluorescence from ICG. These results suggest that DAC microendoscopy may have utility for visualizing the anatomical and, perhaps, functional changes associated with colorectal pathology for the early detection of colorectal cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1117/1.JBO.17.2.021102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303033600004

    View details for PubMedID 22463020

  • Tapping-mode force spectroscopy using cantilevers with interferometric high-bandwidth force sensors APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Sarioglu, A. F., Magonov, S., Solgaard, O. 2012; 100 (5)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3679683

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300065300065

  • Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for High-Temperature Measurement IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL Park, B., Provine, J., Jung, I. W., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011; 11 (11): 2643-2648
  • Multilayered Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystals IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Mallick, S. B., Jung, I. W., Meisner, A. M., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011; 23 (11): 730-732
  • High-Resolution Nanomechanical Mapping Using Interferometric-Force-Sensing AFM Probes JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Sarioglu, A. F., Liu, M., Solgaard, O. 2011; 20 (3): 654-664
  • Optical design and imaging performance testing of a 9.6-mm diameter femtosecond laser microsurgery probe OPTICS EXPRESS Hoy, C. L., Ferhanoglu, O., Yildirim, M., Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Solgaard, O., Ben-Yakar, A. 2011; 19 (11): 10536-10552

    Abstract

    We present the optical design of a 9.6-mm diameter fiber-coupled probe for combined femtosecond laser microsurgery and nonlinear optical imaging. Towards enabling clinical use, we successfully reduced the dimensions of our earlier 18-mm microsurgery probe by half, while improving optical performance. We use analytical and computational models to optimize the miniaturized lens system for off-axis scanning aberrations. The optimization reveals that the optical system can be aberration-corrected using simple aspheric relay lenses to achieve diffraction-limited imaging resolution over a large field of view. Before moving forward with custom lenses, we have constructed the 9.6-mm probe using off-the-shelf spherical relay lenses and a 0.55 NA aspheric objective lens. In addition to reducing the diameter by nearly 50% and the total volume by 5 times, we also demonstrate improved lateral and axial resolutions of 1.27 µm and 13.5 µm, respectively, compared to 1.64 µm and 16.4 µm in our previous work. Using this probe, we can successfully image various tissue samples, such as rat tail tendon that required 2-3 × lower laser power than the current state-of-the-art. With further development, image-guided, femtosecond laser microsurgical probes such as this one can enable physicians to achieve the highest level of surgical precision anywhere inside the body.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290852800048

    View details for PubMedID 21643308

  • In Vivo Imaging of Human and Mouse Skin with a Handheld Dual-Axis Confocal Fluorescence Microscope JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY Ra, H., Piyawattanametha, W., Gonzalez-Gonzalez, E., Mandella, M. J., Kino, G. S., Solgaard, O., Leake, D., Kaspar, R. L., Oro, A., Contag, C. H. 2011; 131 (5): 1061-1066

    Abstract

    Advancing molecular therapies for the treatment of skin diseases will require the development of new tools that can reveal spatiotemporal changes in the microanatomy of the skin and associate these changes with the presence of the therapeutic agent. For this purpose, we evaluated a handheld dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscope that is capable of in vivo fluorescence imaging of skin, using both mouse models and human skin. Individual keratinocytes in the epidermis were observed in three-dimensional image stacks after topical administration of near-infrared (NIR) dyes as contrast agents. This suggested that the DAC microscope may have utility in assessing the clinical effects of a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapeutic (TD101) that targets the causative mutation in pachyonychia congenita (PC) patients. The data indicated that (1) formulated indocyanine green (ICG) readily penetrated hyperkeratotic PC skin and normal callused regions compared with nonaffected areas, and (2) TD101-treated PC skin revealed changes in tissue morphology, consistent with reversion to nonaffected skin compared with vehicle-treated skin. In addition, siRNA was conjugated to NIR dye and shown to penetrate through the stratum corneum barrier when topically applied to mouse skin. These results suggest that in vivo confocal microscopy may provide an informative clinical end point to evaluate the efficacy of experimental molecular therapeutics.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jid.2010.401

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289789900014

    View details for PubMedID 21191407

  • Highly Sensitive Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Temperature JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Jung, I. W., Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R. T., Solgaard, O. 2011; 29 (9): 1367-1374
  • Miniature photonic-crystal hydrophone optimized for ocean acoustics JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Kilic, O., Digonnet, M. J., Kino, G. S., Solgaard, O. 2011; 129 (4): 1837-1850

    Abstract

    This work reports on an optical hydrophone that is insensitive to hydrostatic pressure, yet capable of measuring acoustic pressures as low as the background noise in the ocean in a frequency range of 1 Hz to 100 kHz. The miniature hydrophone consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer made of a photonic-crystal reflector interrogated with a single-mode fiber and is compatible with existing fiber-optic technologies. Three sensors with different acoustic power ranges placed within a sub-wavelength sized hydrophone head allow a high dynamic range in the excess of 160 dB with a low harmonic distortion of better than -30 dB. A method for suppressing cross-coupling between sensors in the same hydrophone head is also proposed. A prototype was fabricated, assembled, and tested. The sensitivity was measured from 100 Hz to 100 kHz, demonstrating a sound-pressure-equivalent noise spectral density down to 12 ?Pa/Hz(1/2), a flatband wider than 10 kHz, and very low distortion.

    View details for DOI 10.1121/1.3543949

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289298600026

    View details for PubMedID 21476640

  • Modeling, design, and analysis of interferometric cantilevers for time-resolved force measurements in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Sarioglu, A. F., Solgaard, O. 2011; 109 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.3553852

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289149900122

  • High resolution nanomechanical mapping using interferometric-force-sensing AFM probes Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems Sarioglu, A., F., Lui, M., Solgaard, O. 2011; 20 (3): 654-664
  • Amplified spontaneous emission rejection with multi-functional MEMS tunable filter ELECTRONICS LETTERS Jeong, J. W., Cho, J. W., Jung, I. W., Solgaard, O. 2010; 46 (18): 1275-U57
  • Miniaturization of free space optical systems APPLIED OPTICS Solgaard, O. 2010; 49 (25): F18-F31

    Abstract

    Coherent illumination enables not only integrated optics, but also miniaturized free-space optics that takes advantage of the amplitude and phase control afforded by optical microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and photonic crystals. These technologies also provide a practical and cost-effective means for integration and packaging of optical systems. The properties of miniaturized optical systems based on optical MEMS and photonic crystals are described, and efficient analysis and design approaches to miniaturized optical scanners and tunable diffractive optical elements are demonstrated. The impact of photonic crystals on free-space micro-optics is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281748100025

    View details for PubMedID 20820200

  • Displacement Sensing With a Mechanically Tunable Photonic Crystal IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Hadzialic, S., Kim, S., Sarioglu, A. F., Sudbo, A. S., Solgaard, O. 2010; 22 (16): 1196-1198
  • Photonic Components for Future Fiber Access Networks IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS Yen, S., Wong, S., Das, S., Cheng, N., Cho, J., Yamashita, S., Solgaard, O., Kazovsky, L. G. 2010; 28 (6): 928-935
  • Multifunctional Tunable Optical Filter Using MEMS Spatial Light Modulator JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Jeong, J., Jung, I. W., Jung, H. J., Baney, D. M., Solgaard, O. 2010; 19 (3): 610-618
  • Assessing delivery and quantifying efficacy of small interfering ribonucleic acid therapeutics in the skin using a dual-axis confocal microscope JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS Ra, H., Gonzalez-Gonzalez, E., Smith, B. R., Gambhir, S. S., Kino, G. S., Solgaard, O., Kaspar, R. L., Contag, C. H. 2010; 15 (3)

    Abstract

    Transgenic reporter mice and advances in imaging instrumentation are enabling real-time visualization of cellular mechanisms in living subjects and accelerating the development of novel therapies. Innovative confocal microscope designs are improving their utility for microscopic imaging of fluorescent reporters in living animals. We develop dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopes for such in vivo studies and create mouse models where fluorescent proteins are expressed in the skin for the purpose of advancing skin therapeutics and transdermal delivery tools. Three-dimensional image volumes, through the different skin compartments of the epidermis and dermis, can be acquired in several seconds with the DAC microscope in living mice, and are comparable to histologic analyses of reporter protein expression patterns in skin sections. Intravital imaging with the DAC microscope further enables visualization of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression in the skin over time, and quantification of transdermal delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) and therapeutic efficacy. Visualization of transdermal delivery of nucleic acids will play an important role in the development of innovative strategies for treating skin pathologies.

    View details for DOI 10.1117/1.3432627

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280642900042

    View details for PubMedID 20615029

  • Micromirror-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope utilizing a gradient-index relay lens for image guidance during brain surgery JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL OPTICS Liu, J. T., Mandella, M. J., Loewke, N. O., Haeberle, H., Ra, H., Piyawattanametha, W., Solgaard, O., Kino, G. S., Contag, C. H. 2010; 15 (2)

    Abstract

    A fluorescence confocal microscope incorporating a 1.8-mm-diam gradient-index relay lens is developed for in vivo histological guidance during resection of brain tumors. The microscope utilizes a dual-axis confocal architecture to efficiently reject out-of-focus light for high-contrast optical sectioning. A biaxial microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanning mirror is actuated at resonance along each axis to achieve a large field of view with low-voltage waveforms. The unstable Lissajous scan, which results from actuating the orthogonal axes of the MEMS mirror at highly disparate resonance frequencies, is optimized to fully sample 500x500 pixels at two frames per second. Optically sectioned fluorescence images of brain tissues are obtained in living mice to demonstrate the utility of this microscope for image-guided resections.

    View details for DOI 10.1117/1.3386055

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278465300060

    View details for PubMedID 20459274

  • Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Fabricated in Monolithic Single-Crystal Silicon IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Hadzialic, S., Kim, S., Sudbo, A. S., Solgaard, O. 2010; 22 (2): 67-69
  • Asymmetrical Spectral Response in Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometers (vol 27, pg 5648, 2009) JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Kilic, O., Digonnet, M. J., Kino, G. S., Solgaard, O. 2010; 28 (1): 188-188
  • Asymmetrical Spectral Response in Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometers JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Kilic, O., Digonnet, M. J., Kino, G. S., Solgaard, O. 2009; 27 (24): 5648-5656
  • A Large-Area High-Reflectivity Broadband Monolithic Single-Crystal-Silicon Photonic Crystal Mirror MEMS Scanner With Low Dependence on Incident Angle and Polarization IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Jung, I. W., Mallick, S. B., Solgaard, O. 2009; 15 (5): 1447-1454
  • Introduction to the Issue on Nanophotonics and Optical MEMS IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Peter, Y., He, S., Martin, O. J., Sasaki, M., Solgaard, O. 2009; 15 (5): 1307-1309
  • 3-D Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using an MEMS-Based Miniature Dual-Axis Confocal Microscope IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Mandella, M. J., Loewke, K., Wang, T. D., Kino, G. S., Solgaard, O., Contag, C. H. 2009; 15 (5): 1344-1350
  • High-Reflectivity Broadband Photonic Crystal Mirror MEMS Scanner With Low Dependence on Incident Angle and Polarization JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Jung, I. W., Kim, S., Solgaard, O. 2009; 18 (4): 924-932
  • siRNA silencing of keratinocyte-specific GFP expression in a transgenic mouse skin model GENE THERAPY Gonzalez-Gonzalez, E., Ra, H., Hickerson, R. P., Wang, Q., Piyawattanametha, W., Mandella, M. J., Kino, G. S., Leake, D., Avilion, A. A., Solgaard, O., Doyle, T. C., Contag, C. H., Kaspar, R. L. 2009; 16 (8): 963-972

    Abstract

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can be designed to specifically and potently target and silence a mutant allele, with little or no effect on the corresponding wild-type allele expression, presenting an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Although several siRNAs have entered clinical trials, the development of siRNA therapeutics as a new drug class will require the development of improved delivery technologies. In this study, a reporter mouse model (transgenic click beetle luciferase/humanized monster green fluorescent protein) was developed to enable the study of siRNA delivery to skin; in this transgenic mouse, green fluorescent protein reporter gene expression is confined to the epidermis. Intradermal injection of siRNAs targeting the reporter gene resulted in marked reduction of green fluorescent protein expression in the localized treatment areas as measured by histology, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and intravital imaging using a dual-axes confocal fluorescence microscope. These results indicate that this transgenic mouse skin model, coupled with in vivo imaging, will be useful for development of efficient and 'patient-friendly' siRNA delivery techniques and should facilitate the translation of siRNA-based therapeutics to the clinic for treatment of skin disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/gt.2009.62

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268916800004

    View details for PubMedID 19474811

  • In vivo brain imaging using a portable 2.9 g two-photon microscope based on a microelectromechanical systems scanning mirror OPTICS LETTERS Piyawattanametha, W., Cocker, E. D., Burns, L. D., Barretto, R. P., Jung, J. C., Ra, H., Solgaard, O., Schnitzer, M. J. 2009; 34 (15): 2309-2311

    Abstract

    We present a two-photon microscope that is approximately 2.9 g in mass and 2.0 x 1.9 x 1.1 cm(3) in size and based on a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) laser-scanning mirror. The microscope has a focusing motor and a micro-optical assembly composed of four gradient refractive index lenses and a dichroic microprism. Fluorescence is captured without the detected emissions reflecting off the MEMS mirror, by use of separate optical fibers for fluorescence collection and delivery of ultrashort excitation pulses. Using this microscope we imaged neocortical microvasculature and tracked the flow of erythrocytes in live mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269405900022

    View details for PubMedID 19649080

  • Vertical Mirror Fabrication Combining KOH Etch and DRIE of (110) Silicon JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Lee, D., Yu, K., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. 2009; 18 (1): 217-227
  • Analysis of guided-resonance-based polarization beam splitting in photonic crystal slabs JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA A-OPTICS IMAGE SCIENCE AND VISION Kilic, O., Fan, S., Solgaard, O. 2008; 25 (11): 2680-2692

    Abstract

    We present an analysis of the phase and amplitude responses of guided resonances in a photonic crystal slab. Through this analysis, we obtain the general rules and conditions under which a photonic crystal slab can be employed as a general elliptical polarization beam splitter, separating an incoming beam equally into its two orthogonal constituents, so that half the power is reflected in one polarization state, and half the power is transmitted in the other state. We show that at normal incidence a photonic crystal slab acts as a dual quarter-wave retarder in which the fast and slow axes are switched for reflection and transmission. We also analyze the case where such a structure operates at oblique incidences. As a result we show that the effective dielectric constant of the photonic crystal slab imposes the Brewster angle as a boundary, separating two ranges of angles with different mechanisms of polarization beam splitting. We show that the diattenuation can be tuned from zero to one to make the structure a circular or linear polarization beam splitter. We verify our analytical analysis through finite-difference time-domain simulations and experimental measurements at infrared wavelengths.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261520700008

    View details for PubMedID 18978845

  • Pull-In Analysis of Torsional Scanners Actuated by Electrostatic Vertical Combdrives JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2008; 17 (5): 1228-1238
  • Controlling uncoupled resonances in photonic crystals through breaking the mirror symmetry OPTICS EXPRESS Kilic, O., Digonnet, M., Kino, G., Solgaard, O. 2008; 16 (17): 13090-13103

    Abstract

    We show that modes in a photonic crystal slab that are uncoupled to outside radiation in a symmetric structure can be excited by breaking the mirror symmetry through introducing a protrusion on the side of the photonic crystal holes. We show that coupling to these resonances can be controlled by the strength of this asymmetry, and that it is also possible to choose among modes to couple to, through the shape of the asymmetry introduced. We provide simple theoretical arguments that explain the effect, and present eigenmode simulations and time-domain simulations. We confirm this predicted behavior with measurements on a photonic crystal with a broken mirror symmetry that exhibits an additional sharp resonant feature with a linewidth of 0.5 nm, in agreement with both calculated and simulated predictions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259268700070

    View details for PubMedID 18711548

  • Cantilevers with integrated sensor for time-resolved force measurement in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Sarioglu, A. F., Solgaard, O. 2008; 93 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.2959828

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257796100091

  • Miniaturized probe for femtosecond laser microsurgery and two-photon imaging OPTICS EXPRESS Hoy, C. L., Durr, N. J., Chen, P., Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Solgaard, O., Ben-Yakar, A. 2008; 16 (13): 9996-10005

    Abstract

    Combined two-photon fluorescence microscopy and femtosecond laser microsurgery has many potential biomedical applications as a powerful "seek-and-treat" tool. Towards developing such a tool, we demonstrate a miniaturized probe which combines these techniques in a compact housing. The device is 10 x 15 x 40 mm(3) in size and uses an aircore photonic crystal fiber to deliver femtosecond laser pulses at 80 MHz repetition rate for imaging and 1 kHz for microsurgery. A fast two-axis microelectromechanical system scanning mirror is driven at resonance to produce Lissajous beam scanning at 10 frames per second. Field of view is 310 microm in diameter and the lateral and axial resolutions are 1.64 microm and 16.4 microm, respectively. Combined imaging and microsurgery is demonstrated using live cancer cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257563900082

    View details for PubMedID 18575570

  • Three-dimensional in vivo imaging by a handheld dual-axes confocal microscope OPTICS EXPRESS Ra, H., Piyawattanametha, W., Mandella, M. J., Hsiung, P., Hardy, J., Wang, T. D., Contag, C. H., Kino, G. S., Solgaard, O. 2008; 16 (10): 7224-7232

    Abstract

    We present a handheld dual-axes confocal microscope that is based on a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner. It performs reflectance and fluorescence imaging at 488 nm wavelength, with three-dimensional imaging capability. The fully packaged microscope has a diameter of 10 mm and acquires images at 4 Hz frame rate with a maximum field of view of 400 microm x 260 microm. The transverse and axial resolutions of the handheld probe are 1.7 microm and 5.8 microm, respectively. Capability to perform real time small animal imaging is demonstrated in vivo in transgenic mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256469800048

    View details for PubMedID 18545427

  • Scalable optical switches with large port count based on a waveguide grating router and passive couplers IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Joe, I., Solgaard, O. 2008; 20 (5-8): 508-510
  • Reconfigurable optical wavelength multiplexer using a MEMS tunable blazed grating JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Antoine, C., Li, X., Wang, J., Solgaard, O. 2007; 25 (10): 3100-3107
  • An atomic force microscope tip designed to measure time-varying nanomechanical forces NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY Sahin, O., Magonov, S., Su, C., Quate, C. F., Solgaard, O. 2007; 2 (8): 507-514

    Abstract

    Tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), in which the vibrating tip periodically approaches, interacts and retracts from the sample surface, is the most common AFM imaging method. The tip experiences attractive and repulsive forces that depend on the chemical and mechanical properties of the sample, yet conventional AFM tips are limited in their ability to resolve these time-varying forces. We have created a specially designed cantilever tip that allows these interaction forces to be measured with good (sub-microsecond) temporal resolution and material properties to be determined and mapped in detail with nanoscale spatial resolution. Mechanical measurements based on these force waveforms are provided at a rate of 4 kHz. The forces and contact areas encountered in these measurements are orders of magnitude smaller than conventional indentation and AFM-based indentation techniques that typically provide data rates around 1 Hz. We use this tool to quantify and map nanomechanical changes in a binary polymer blend in the vicinity of its glass transition.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nnano.2007.226

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249062900016

    View details for PubMedID 18654349

  • Two-dimensional MEMS scanner for dual-axes confocal microscopy JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Ra, H., Piyawattanametha, W., Taguchi, Y., Lee, D., Mandella, M. J., Solgaard, O. 2007; 16 (4): 969-976
  • Fiber-optic confocal microscope using a MEMS scanner and miniature objective lens OPTICS EXPRESS Shin, H., Pierce, M. C., Lee, D., Ra, H., Solgaard, O., Richards-Kortum, R. 2007; 15 (15): 9113-9122

    Abstract

    We designed and constructed a single-fiber-optic confocal microscope (SFCM) with a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scanner and a miniature objective lens. Axial and lateral resolution values for the system were experimentally measured to be 9.55 mum and 0.83 mum respectively, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Reflectance images were acquired at a rate of 8 frames per second, over a 140 mum x 70 mum field-of-view. In anticipation of future applications in oral cancer detection, we imaged ex vivo and in vivo human oral tissue with the SFCM, demonstrating the ability of the system to resolve cellular detail.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248394500002

    View details for PubMedID 19547251

  • Introduction to the issue on optical micro- and nanosystems IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Talghader, J. J., Solgaard, O., Lin, L. Y. 2007; 13 (2): 145-146
  • Optical pattern generation using a, spatial light modulator for maskless lithography IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Jung, I. W., Wang, J., Solgaard, O. 2007; 13 (2): 147-154
  • Single-crystal-silicon continuous membrane deformable mirror array for adaptive optics in space-based telescopes IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Woong-Jung, I., Peter, Y., Carr, E., Wang, J., Solgaard, O. 2007; 13 (2): 162-167
  • Superresolution digital image enhancement by subpixel image translation with a scanning micromirror IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Yu, K., Park, N., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2007; 13 (2): 304-311
  • Miniature near-infrared dual-axes confocal microscope utilizing a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems scanner OPTICS LETTERS Liu, J. T., Mandella, M. J., Ra, H., Wong, L. K., Solgaard, O., Kino, G. S., Piyawattanametha, W., Contag, C. H., Wang, T. D. 2007; 32 (3): 256-258

    Abstract

    The first, to our knowledge, miniature dual-axes confocal microscope has been developed, with an outer diameter of 10 mm, for subsurface imaging of biological tissues with 5-7 microm resolution. Depth-resolved en face images are obtained at 30 frames per second, with a field of view of 800 x 100 microm, by employing a two-dimensional scanning microelectromechanical systems mirror. Reflectance and fluorescence images are obtained with a laser source at 785 nm, demonstrating the ability to perform real-time optical biopsy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244278900018

    View details for PubMedID 17215937

  • Algorithms for the synthesis of complex-value spectral filters with an array of micromechanical mirrors OPTICS EXPRESS Lacolle, M., Belikov, R., Sagberg, H., Solgaard, O., Sudbo, A. S. 2006; 14 (26): 12590-12612

    Abstract

    We study optical spectral filter synthesis with arrays of piston-actuated micro-mirrors. We propose two algorithms for the calculation of the positions of the micro-mirrors, giving us control of both the amplitude and phase of the synthetic filter. Both algorithms for filter synthesis are explored in an analytic version and in numerical searches for the least deviations between the target and the synthesized filter. We measure the quality of the filter both in terms of the deviations and in filter transmissivity, and present results of numerical simulations for a wide selection of target filters. We find that numerical searches can sometimes yield considerable improvement in the filter synthesis compared to the analytic approximation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243144600005

    View details for PubMedID 19532151

  • Tunable optical bandpass filter with variable-aperture MEMS reflector JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY Yu, K., Lee, D., Park, N., Solgaard, O. 2006; 24 (12): 5095-5102
  • Single fiber confocal microscope with a two-axis gimbaled MEMS scanner for cellular imaging OPTICS EXPRESS Carlson Maitland, K., Shin, H. J., Ra, H., Lee, D., Solgaard, O., Richards-Kortum, R. 2006; 14 (19): 8604-8612

    Abstract

    We present a single fiber reflectance confocal microscope with a two dimensional MEMS gimbaled scanner. Achieved lateral and axial resolutions are 0.82 mum and 13 mum, respectively. The field of view is 140 x 100 mum at 8 frames/second. Images and videos of cell phantoms and tissue are presented with sub-cellular resolution.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240638700016

    View details for PubMedID 19529240

  • Fast-scanning two-photon fluorescence imaging based on a microelectromechanical systems two-dimensional scanning mirror OPTICS LETTERS Piyawattanametha, W., Barretto, R. P., Ko, T. H., Flusberg, B. A., Cocker, E. D., Ra, H., Lee, D., Solgaard, O., Schnitzer, M. J. 2006; 31 (13): 2018-2020

    Abstract

    Towards overcoming the size limitations of conventional two-photon fluorescence microscopy, we introduce two-photon imaging based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanners. Single crystalline silicon scanning mirrors that are 0.75 mm x 0.75 mm in size and driven in two dimensions by microfabricated vertical comb electrostatic actuators can provide optical deflection angles through a range of approximately16 degrees . Using such scanners we demonstrated two-photon microscopy and microendoscopy with fast-axis acquisition rates up to 3.52 kHz.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238494600026

    View details for PubMedID 16770418

  • High fill-factor two-axis gimbaled tip-tilt-piston micromirror array actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Jung, I. W., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. 2006; 15 (3): 563-571
  • Tunable blazed gratings JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Li, X., Antoine, C., Lee, D., Wang, J., Solgaard, O. 2006; 15 (3): 597-604
  • Tunable wavelength demultiplexer and OCDMA code hopping using a 10-mu s-tuning MEMS-actuated Gires-Tournois filter IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Ebrahimi, P., Yu, K., Hauer, M. C., Willner, A. E., Solgaard, O. 2006; 18 (9-12): 1398-1400
  • Microoptical characterization of piezoelectric vibratory microinjections in Drosophila embryos for genome-wide RNAi screen JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Zhang, X. J., Scott, M. P., Quate, C. F., Solgaard, O. 2006; 15 (2): 277-286
  • Air-bridged photonic crystal slabs at visible and near-infrared wavelengths PHYSICAL REVIEW B Crozier, K. B., Lousse, V., Kilic, O., Kim, S., Fan, S. H., Solgaard, O. 2006; 73 (11)
  • Automated MEMS-based Drosophila embryo injection system for high-throughput RNAi screens LAB ON A CHIP Zappe, S., Fish, M., Scott, M. P., Solgaard, O. 2006; 6 (8): 1012-1019

    Abstract

    We have developed an automated system based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) injectors for reliable mass-injection of Drosophila embryos. Targeted applications are high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screens. Our injection needles are made of silicon nitride. The liquid to be injected is stored in an integrated 500 nl reservoir, and an externally applied air pressure pulse precisely controls the injected volume. A steady-state water flow rate per applied pressure of 1.2 nl s(-1) bar(-1) was measured for a needle with channel width, height and length of 6.1 microm, 2.3 microm and 350 microm, respectively. A typical volume of 60 pl per embryo can be reliably and rapidly delivered within tens of milliseconds. Theoretical predictions of flow rates match measured values within +/-10%. Embryos are attached to a glass slide surface and covered with oil. Packages with the injector chip and the embryo slide are mounted on motorized xyz-stages. Two cameras allow the user to quickly align the needle tip to alignment marks on the glass slide. Our system then automatically screens the glass slide for embryos and reliably detects and injects more than 98% of all embryos. Survival rates after deionized (DI) water injection of 80% and higher were achieved. A first RNAi experiment was successfully performed with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to the segment polarity gene armadillo at a concentration of 0.01 microM. Almost 80% of the injected embryos expressed an expected strong loss-of-function phenotype. Our system can replace current manual injection technologies and will support systematic identification of Drosophila gene functions.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b600238b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239313800007

    View details for PubMedID 16874371

  • Optical MEMS for Light Wave Communication (Invited Paper) Journal of Lightwave Technology Wu, M., Solgaard, O., Ford, J. 2006; 24 (12): 4433-4454.
  • Reconfigurable near-infrared optical filter with a micromechanical diffractive Fresnel lens IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Lacolle, M., Sagberg, H., Johansen, I. R., Lovhaugen, O., Solgaard, O., Sudbo, A. S. 2005; 17 (12): 2622-2624
  • Microoptical characterization and modeling of positioning forces on drosophila embryos self-assembled in two-dimensional arrays JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Zhang, X. J., Chen, C. C., Bernstein, R. W., Zappe, S., Scott, M. P., Solgaard, O. 2005; 14 (5): 1187-1197
  • Displacement sensing using evanescent tunneling between guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Suh, W., Solgaard, O., Fan, S. 2005; 98 (3)

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1999031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231246100002

  • Reconfigurable Near-Infrared Optical Filter with Micromechanical Diffractive Fresnel Lens IEEE Photonics Technology Letters Lacolle, M., Sagberg, H., Johansen, I., R., Løvhaugen, O., Solgaard, O., Sudbo, A. 2005; 17 (12): 2622-2624
  • Photonic crystal slabs demonstrating strong broadband suppression of transmission in the presence of disorders OPTICS LETTERS Kilic, O., Kim, S., Suh, W., Peter, Y. A., Sudbo, A. S., Yanik, M. F., Fan, S. H., Solgaard, O. 2004; 29 (23): 2782-2784

    Abstract

    We characterize the transmission spectra of out-of-plane, normal-incidence light of two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal slabs and observe excellent agreement between the measured data and finite-difference time-domain simulations over the 1050-1600-nm wavelength range. Crystals that are 340 nm thick and have holes of 330-nm radius on a square lattice of 998-nm pitch show 20-dB extinction in transmission from 1220 to 1255 nm. Increasing the hole radius to 450 nm broadens the extinction band further, and we obtain >85% extinction from 1310 to 1550 nm. Discrepancies between simulation and measurement are ascribed to disorder in the photonic lattice, which is measured through image processing on high-resolution scanning electron micrographs. Analysis of crystal imperfections indicates that they tend to average out narrowband spectral features, while having relatively small effects on broadband features.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225280700028

    View details for PubMedID 15605504

  • Analysis of resonant frequency of fast scanning micromirror with vertical combdrives IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS Wada, H., Lee, D. S., Zappe, S., Solgaard, O. 2004; E87C (11): 2006-2008
  • Lithography process for trench pattern above large cavity to fabricate fast scanning micromirror IEICE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRONICS Wada, H., Lee, D., Zappe, S., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. 2004; E87C (8): 1395-1398
  • Tunable optical transversal filters based on a Gires-Tournois interferometer with MEMS phase shifters IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Yu, K., Solgaard, O. 2004; 10 (3): 588-597
  • Introduction to the issue on optical microsystems IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Solgaard, O., Talghader, J., Toshiyoshi, H., Kopola, H. 2004; 10 (3): 433-434
  • Micromechanical gratings for visible and near-infrared spectroscopy IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Sagberg, H., Lacolle, M., Johansen, I. R., Lovhaugen, O., Belikov, R., Solgaard, O., Sudbo, A. S. 2004; 10 (3): 604-613
  • Resonant harmonic response in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy PHYSICAL REVIEW B Sahin, O., Quate, C. F., Solgaard, O., Atalar, A. 2004; 69 (16)
  • Snap down voltage of a fast-scanning micromirror with vertical electrostatic combdrives JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS & EXPRESS LETTERS Wada, H., Lee, D., Zappe, S., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. 2004; 43 (2B): L284-L286
  • Bonding of two silicon layers above a gap to fabricate a fast scanning micromirror JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS & EXPRESS LETTERS Wada, H., Lee, D., Zappe, S., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. 2004; 43 (1A-B): L50-L52
  • The torque of high speed scanning micromirrors with vertical combdrives JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS & EXPRESS LETTERS Wada, H., Lee, D., Zappe, S., Solgaard, O. 2003; 42 (12A): L1449-L1451
  • Self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives for micromirror actuation JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS Krishnamoorthy, U., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2003; 12 (4): 458-464
  • Optical wavelength filtering by diffraction from a surface relief (vol 28, pg 447, 2003) OPTICS LETTERS Belikov, R., Solgaard, O. 2003; 28 (12): 1055-1055
  • Displacement-sensitive photonic crystal structures based on guided resonance in photonic crystal slabs APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Suh, W., Yanik, M. F., Solgaard, O., Fan, S. H. 2003; 82 (13): 1999-2001

    View details for DOI 10.1063/1.1563739

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181801100001

  • Optical wavelength filtering by diffraction from a surface relief OPTICS LETTERS Belikov, R., Solgaard, O. 2003; 28 (6): 447-449

    Abstract

    We present an analytical solution to the problem of finding a diffractive surface relief that generates a specific optical amplitude and phase spectral reflection in a particular direction. We show that any discrete finite impulse response filter can be generated to within a multiplicative constant at nonzero frequencies. We propose an implementation of such a filter that works in the visible and the near infrared, based on a two-dimensional array of dual-state tiltable mirrors. A 1024 x 1024 array results in a 1024-tap filter with 10-bit quantization of the impulse response. The applications of such a device include spectroscopy and wavelength-division multiplex switching.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181411300023

    View details for PubMedID 12659275

  • MEMS optical wavelength deinterleaver with continuously variable channel spacing and center wavelength IEEE Photonics Technology Letters Yu, K., Solgaard, O. 2003; 15 (3): 425-427
  • Optical Microphone Based on a Modulated Diffractive Lens IEEE Photonics Technology Letters Sagberg, H., Sudbo, A., Solgaard, O., Bakke, K., A. Hestnes, Johansen, I., R. 2003; 15 (10): 1431-1433
  • Optical characterization of high speed scanning micromirrors with vertical combdrives JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS & EXPRESS LETTERS Wada, H., Lee, D., Yu, K., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. 2002; 41 (10B): L1169-L1171
  • Process for high speed micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) scanning mirrors with vertical comb drives JAPANESE JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS PART 2-LETTERS & EXPRESS LETTERS Wada, H., Lee, D., Krishnamoorthy, U., Zappe, S., Solgaard, O. 2002; 41 (8A): L899-L901
  • Coherent micromirror arrays OPTICS LETTERS Li, K. B., Krishnamoorthy, U., Heritage, J. P., Solgaard, O. 2002; 27 (5): 366-368

    Abstract

    A one-dimensional, spatial light phase modulator consists of a coherent array of programmable micromirrors. Each micromirror has rotation as well as elevation control to permit high-fidelity, piecewise linear approximations to a desired spatial phase profile. We demonstrate programmable, coherent spatial modulation by configuring a four-micromirror array to act as a blazed diffraction grating, showing five diffraction orders. In sharp contrast, adjustment of each mirror elevation converts the grating into the equivalent of a single, large tilted mirror that reflects only in a new specular direction. Higher-order diffraction is effectively suppressed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174143400028

    View details for PubMedID 18007805

  • Introduction to the issue on optical MEMS IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS Solgaard, O., Ford, J. E., Fujita, H., Herzig, H. P. 2002; 8 (1): 1-3
  • Dual mode micromirrors for optical phased array applications Sensors and Actuators: A. Physical Krishnamoorthy, U., Li, K., Yu, K., Lee, D., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O. 2002; A97-98: 21-26
  • Narrow-band light emission in semiconductor-fibre asymmetric waveguide coupler ELECTRONICS LETTERS Mao, E., Yankelevich, D. R., Lin, C. C., Solgaard, O., Knoesen, A., Harris, J. S. 2000; 36 (16): 1378-1379
  • Scalable optical cross-connect switch using micromachined mirrors IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Hagelin, P. M., Krishnamoorthy, U., Heritage, J. P., Solgaard, O. 2000; 12 (7): 882-884
  • Wavelength-selective semiconductor in-line fibre photodetectors ELECTRONICS LETTERS Mao, E., Yankelevich, D. R., Lin, C. C., Solgaard, O., Knoesen, A., Harris, J. S. 2000; 36 (6): 515-516
  • A raster-scanning full-motion video display using polysilicon micromachined mirrors Sensors & Actuators A Conant, R., A., Hagelin, P., M., Krishnamoorthy, U., Hart, M., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y. 2000; 83 (1-3): 291-296
  • GaAs AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well in-line fiber intensity modulator APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Mao, E., Coldren, C. W., Harris, J. S., Yankelevich, D. R., Solgaard, O., Knoesen, A. 1999; 75 (3): 310-312
  • Electrostatic Combdrive-Actuated Micromirrors for Laser-Beam Scanning and Positioning IEEE Journal of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (JMEMS) Kiang, M, H., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1998; 7 (1): 27-37
  • Compact 2D laser beam scanner with fan laser array and Si micromachined microscanner Electronics Letters (UK), IEE Francis, D., A., Kiang, M., H., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S., Chang-Hasnain, C., J. 1997; 33 (13): 1143-5
  • Silicon-micromachined micromirrors with integrated high-precision actuators for external-cavity semiconductor lasers IEEEPhotonics Techn. Letters Kiang, M, H., Solgaard, O., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1996; 8 (1): 95-97
  • Linear Microvibromotor for Positioning Optical Components IEEE Journal of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (JMEMS) Daneman, M., J., Tien, N., C., Solgaard, O., Pisano, A., P., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1996; 5 (3): 159-165
  • Surface-Micromachined Mirrors for Laser-Beam Positioning Sensors and Actuators A (Physical) Tien, N., C., Solgaard, O., Kiang, M., H., Daneman, M., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1996; A52 (13): 76-80
  • Laser-to-fiber Coupling Module Using a Micromachined Alignment Mirror IEEE Photonics Technology Letters Daneman, M., Solgaard, O., Tien, N., C., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1996; 8 (3): 396-398
  • Optical Transmission of Narrowband Millimeter-Wave Signals IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques Georges, J., B., Cutrer, D., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y. 1995; 43 (9): 2229-2240
  • Optoelectronic packaging using silicon surface-micromachined alignment mirrors IEEEPhotonics Techn. Letters Solgaard, O., Daneman, M., Tien, N., C., Friedberger, A., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1995; 7 (1): 41-43
  • Stable Picosecond Pulse Generation at 46 GHz by Mode-Locking of a Semiconductor Laser Operating in an Optoelectronic Phase-Locked Loop Electronics Letters Georges, J., B., Buckman, L., A., Vassilovski, D., Park, J., Kiang, M., H., Solgaard, O. 1994; 30 (1): 69-71
  • Transmission of 300 Mb/s BPSK at 39 GHz Using Feedforward Optical Modulation Electronics Letters Georges, J., B., Park, J., Solgaard, O., Pepeljugoski, P., Sayed, M., Lau, K., Y. 1994; 30 (2): 160-161
  • Optical Feedback Stabilization of the Intensity Oscillations in Ultra-high Frequency, Passively Modelocked, Monolithic, Quantum Well Lasers Photonics Techn. Lett. Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y. 1993; 5 (11): 1264-1267
  • Pulse buildup in passively mode-locked quantum-well semiconductor lasers Applied Physics Letters Solgaard, O., Kiang, M., H., Lau, K., Y. 1993; 15 (63): 2021-2023
  • Millimeter-Wave Frequency, Multi-Gigahertz Optical Modulation by Feedforward Phase Noise Compensation of a Beat Note Generated by Photomixing of Two Laser Diodes IEEEPhotonics Techn. Letters Solgaard, O., Park, J., Georges, J., B., Pepeljugoski, P., Lau, K., Y. 1993; 5 (5): 574-577
  • HIGH-FREQUENCY ATTENUATED TOTAL INTERNAL-REFLECTION LIGHT-MODULATOR APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Solgaard, O., Ho, F., Thackara, J. I., Bloom, D. M. 1992; 61 (21): 2500-2502
  • DEFORMABLE GRATING OPTICAL MODULATOR OPTICS LETTERS Solgaard, O., SANDEJAS, F. S., Bloom, D. M. 1992; 17 (9): 688-690

    Abstract

    A new type of light modulator, the deformable grating modulator, based on electrically controlling the amplitude of a micromachined phase grating is described. Mechanical motion of one quarter of a wavelength is sufficient for switching in this device. The small mechanical motion allows the use of structures with high mechanical resonance frequencies. We have developed a deformable grating modulator with a bandwidth of 1.8 MHz and a switching voltage of 3.2 V and have demonstrated modulation with 16 dB of contrast. Smaller devices with bandwidths of as much as 6.1 MHz and predicted switching voltages of less than 10 V were also fabricated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HP32800020

    View details for PubMedID 19794599

  • A deformable grating optical modulator Optics Letters Solgaard, O., Sandejas, F., S. A., Bloom, D., M. 1992; 17 (9): 688-690
  • An Attenuated Internal Reflection Modulator Applied Physics Letters Solgaard, O., Ho, F., Thackara, J., I., Bloom, D., M. 1992; 21 (61): 2500-2502
  • ALL-SILICON INTEGRATED OPTICAL MODULATOR IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS Solgaard, O., Godil, A. A., HEMENWAY, B. R., Bloom, D. M. 1991; 9 (5): 704-710
  • PIGTAILED SINGLE-MODE FIBER OPTIC LIGHT-MODULATOR IN SILICON IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Solgaard, O., Godil, A. A., HEMENWAY, B. R., Bloom, D. M. 1990; 2 (9): 640-642
  • A POLARIZATION-INDEPENDENT SILICON LIGHT-INTENSITY MODULATOR FOR 1.32-MU-M FIBER OPTICS IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS HEMENWAY, B. R., Solgaard, O., Godil, A. A., Bloom, D. M. 1990; 2 (4): 262-264
  • ALL-SILICON INTEGRATED OPTICAL MODULATOR FOR 1.3-MU-M FIBER-OPTIC INTERCONNECTS APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS HEMENWAY, B. R., Solgaard, O., Bloom, D. M. 1989; 55 (4): 349-350

Books and Book Chapters


  • Time-Resolved Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy Scanning Probe Microscopy in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 2 Sarioglu, A., F., Solgaard, O. Springer Verlag. 2011: 1
  • Higher harmonics and time-varying force detection in dynamic force microscopy Handbook of Nanotechnology Quate, C., Sahin, O., Solgaard, O., Giessibl, F., J. Springer Verlag. 2009; 3: 1
  • Micro and Nano Electromechanical Systems National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN) Open Textbook on Nanotechnology (33 pages), http://www.nano.umn.edu/nnin_opentext/contents.jsp Howe, R., T., Maharbiz, M., M., Muhlstein, C., L., Solgaard, O. 2008: 1
  • Microelectromechanical Systems for Lightwave Communication Optical Fiber Telecommunications, A: Components and Subsystems Wu, M., C., Solgaard, O., Ford, J., E. edited by Kaminow, I., P., Li, T., Willner, A., E. Academic Press. 2008: 713-758
  • Photonic Microsystems - Micro and Nanotechnology Applied to Optical Devices and Systems Solgaard, O. Springer Verlag. 2008
  • Higher-Harmonic Force Detection in Dynamic Force Microscopy Handbook of Nanotechnology Quate, C., Sahin, O., Solgaard, O., Giessibl, F., J. Springer Verlag. 2006; 2: 717-736
  • Vertical Combdrives - Design and Implementation MEMS/NEMS Handbook Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. Springer-Verlag New York Inc.. 2005: 393-420

Conference Proceedings


  • Double-layer silicon waveguides in standard silicon for 3D photonics Chang, C., M., Solgaard, O. 2013
  • Single nano-particle sensing exploiting crossed polarizers to improve the signal-to-noise ratio Grepstad, J., O., Kaspar, P., Solgaard, O., Johansen, I-, R., Sudbø, A., S. 2013
  • High-Reflectivity, Broadband Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Mirrors on Two-Axis MEMS Scanner by Transfer-Printing Jeong, J-, W., Park, B., Keum, H., Kim, S., Rogers, J., A., Solgaard, O. 2013
  • Monolithic Photonic Crystal-Based Fiber-TipFabry-Pérot Static Pressure Sensor Wu, X., Jan, C., Solgaard, O. 2013
  • OvercomingMultimodal Effects in Optical Fiber Tip CMOS-Compatible Fabry-Perot Sensors Wu, X., Solgaard, O. 2012
  • Ratiometric Molecular Microscopy: Towards Real-Time Quantitative Delineation of Brain Tumor Margins Leigh, S., Y., Wang, D., Chen, Y., Mandella, M., J., Haeberle, H., Solgaard, O. 2012
  • Multifunctional Fiber Sensors Based on Photonic Crystals Solgaard, O. 2012
  • Integrated Silicon Photonic Temperature Sensors Based onBragg Reflectors with Asymmetric Fano Lineshapes Chang, C., M., Solgaard, O. 2012
  • Optical imaging system designed for biomolecule detection using photonic crystal membranes Grepstad, J., O., Kaspar, P., Solgaard, O., Johansen, I-, R., Sudbø, A., S. 2012
  • Asymmetric Fano Lineshapes in Integrated Silicon Bragg Reflectors Chang, C., M., Solgaard, O. 2012
  • Double-Layer Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Temperature Sensor Park, B., Jung, I., W., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2012
  • 9.6mm diameter femtosecond laser microsurgeryprobe Hoy, C., L., Ferhanoglu, O., Yildirim, M., Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Solgaard, O. 2012
  • 3-D MEMS Scanning System For Dual-Axis Confocal Microendoscopy Jeong, J., W., Mandella, M., J., Kino, G., S., Contag, C., H., Solgaard, O. 2011
  • Fabry-Perot Fiber Sensors with Reproducible Displacement Sensitivities Akkaya, O., C., Kilic, O., Digonnet, M., J.F., Kino, G., S., Solgaard, O. 2011
  • Spot Formation and Scanning Microscopy via Multimode Fibers Boucher, K., J., Jan, C., Kahn, J., M., Wilde, J., P., Solgaard, O. 2011
  • Frontside-only processing of 2-D MEMS scanner for miniature dual-axis confocal microendoscopes Jeung, J., W., Vaithilingam, S., Solgaard, O. 2011
  • Double-Layer Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor Park, B., Jung, I., W., Provine, J., Shambat, G., Vuckovic, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2011
  • Interdigitated Annular CMUT Arrays for Ultrasound Assisted Delivery of Fluorescent Contrast Agents Cristman, P., Oralkan, O., Mandella, M., Solgaard, O., Contag, C., Khuri-Yakub, B., T. 2011
  • AGILE: Axially Graded Index LEns as a non-tracking solar concentrator Vaidya, N., Dauskardt, R., Solgaard, O. 2011
  • Cortial blood flow imaging with a portable MEMS based2-photon fluorescence microendoscope Piyawattanametha, W., Solgaard, O., Schnitzer, M., J. 2011
  • Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor forRefractive Index and Temperature Sensing Park, B., Jung, I, W., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • A surgical confocal microscope utilizing a MEMS scanner and a GRIN relay lens for molecular image-guided brain tumor resection Liu, J., T.C., Mandella, M., J., Loewke, N., O., Garai, E., Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • Photonic Crystal Mirrors for Free-Space Communication and Fiber-Optic Sensors Hadzialic, S., Jung, I., W., Kilic, O., Kim, S., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • Quasi-Passive and Reconfigurable Node for Optical Access Network Yen, S., H., Tendulkar, M., Jameson, J., R., Yamashita, S., Nishi, Y., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • From Bench to Bedside with AdvancedDual-Axes Confocal Microendoscope Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Mandella, M., J., Contag, C., H., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • Miniature optical-sectioning microscopy for molecular image guidance during brain tumor resection Liu, J., T.C., Mandella, M., J., Loewke, N., O., Ra, H., Solgaard, O., Kino, G., S. 2010
  • High Temperature Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensor Park, B., Provine, J., Jung, I-, W., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • From Bench to Bedside with AdvancedDual-Axes Confocal Microendoscope Piyawattanametha, W., Mandella, M., J., Ra, H., Lui, J., T.C., Friedland, S., Qui, Z., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • High-Sensitivity Thermally Stable Acoustic Fiber Sensor Akkaya, O., C., Kilic, O., Digonnet, M., J.F., Kino, G., S., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • SurgicalDual-Axis Confocal Microscope for Brain Tumor Resection Lui, J., T.C., Mandella, M., J., Loewke, N., O., Haeberle, H., Ra, H., Piyawattanametha, W., Solgaard, O. 2010
  • A CMOS Compatible Low Temperature Process for Photonic CrystalMEMS Scanner Takahashi, K., Jung, I., W., Higo, A., Mita, Y., Fujita, H., Toshiyoshi, H., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Optomechanical fiber gyroscope Kilic, O., Akkaya, O., C., Digonnet, M., Kino, G., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Photonic Crystal Fiber Tip Sensorfor Precision Temperature Sensing Jung, I., W., Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • In vivo Clinical and Intravital Imaging with MEMS Based Dual-Axes Confocal Microscopes Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Mandella, M., J., Liu, J., T, Gonzalez, E., Kaspar, R., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Tunable Optical Bandpass Filter with High-Quality Vertical MirrorsMicroassembled on Movable MEMS Platforms Jeung, J., W., Jung, I., W., Baney, D., M., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Sequential in vivo Molecular Imaging with a Dual-Axes Confocal Microscope Ra, H., Gonzalez, E., Piyawattanametha, W., Mandella, M., J., Kaspar, R., Contag, C., H., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Slab Fiber Tip Sensor Jung, I., W., Park, B., Provine, J., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Interferometric Force Sensing AFM Probes ForNanomechanical Mapping of Material Properties Sarioglu, F., Liu, M., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Fiber-Optical Acoustic Sensor Based on a Photonic-Crystal Diaphragm Kilic, O., Digonnet, M., J.F., Kino, G., S., Solgaard, O. 2009
  • Three-dimensional in-vivo imaging with a miniature dual-axes confocal fluorescence microscope Piyawattanametha, W., Mandella, M., J., Ra, H., Du, C., Contag, C., H., Kino, G., S., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • Double-layered Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystals Mallick, S., Basu, Kim, S., Hadzialic, S., Sudbø, A., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • Large-Area Monolithic Photonic Crystal Mirrors with High Reflectivity in the 1250-1650nm Band Patterned by Optical Lithography Jung, I., W., Mallick, S., B., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • Displacement sensing with a mechanically tunable photonic crystal Hadzialic, S., Kim, S., Sudbø, A., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • Monolithic photonic crystals Hadzialic, S., Kim, S., Mallick, S., Basu, Sudbø, A., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • Two-Photon Luminescence Imaging Using a MEMS-Based Miniaturized Probe Hoy, C., Durr, N., Chen, P., Smith, D., K., Larson, T., Piyawattanametha, W., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • Interface Quality Control of Monolithic Photonic Crystals by Hydrogen Annealing Kim, S., Kant, R., Hadzialic, S., Howe, R., T., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • MEMS based Dual-Axes Confocal Clinical Endoscope for Real Time in vivo Imaging Piyawattanametha, W., Mandella, M., J., Ra, H., Liu, J., T.C., Garai, E., Kino, G., S., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • In vivo Intravital Imaging with a Dual-Axes Confocal Microscope in Skin Ra, H., Piyawattanametha, W., Gonzalez, E., Kaspar, R., Mandella, M., J., Contag, C., H., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • Large-Area High-Reflectivity Broadband Monolithic Silicon Photonic Crystal Mirror MEMS Scanner Jung, I., W., Mallick, S., B., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • Photonic-crystal-diaphragm-based fiber-tip hydrophone optimized for ocean acoustics Kilic, O., Digonnet, M., Kino, G., Solgaard, O. 2008
  • External fibre Fabry-Perot acoustic sensor based on a photonic-crystal mirror Kilic, O., Digonnet, M., Kino, G., Solgaard, O. IOP PUBLISHING LTD. 2007: 3049-3054
  • Optical MEMS Based on High-Reflectivity Photonic Crystals Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Portable forms of fiber-optic one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoseopy towards imaging in freely moving mice Cocker, E. D., Flusberg, B. A., Piyawattanametha, W., Jung, J. C., Baretto, R. P., Ko, T. H., Ra, H., Lee, D., Solgaard, O., Schnitzer, M. J. CELL PRESS. 2007: 154A-154A
  • Reflectance and fluorescence imaging with a MEMS dual-axes confocal microscope (invited talk) Ra, H., Piyawattanametha, W., Taguchi, Y., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Three-Dimensional in vivo Reflectance and Fluorescence Imaging by a Handheld Dual-Axes Confocal Microscope Ra, H., Piyawattanametha, W., Mandella, M., J., Liu, J., T.C., Wong, L., K., Wang, T., D., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • A compact 15-mm wide two-photon microscope for imaging and femtosecond laser microsurgery Hoy, C., L., Durr, N., J., Douglass, S., Mallick, S., Solgaard, O., Ben-Yakar, A. 2007
  • A Portable Two-photon Fluorescence Microendoscope Based on a Two-dimensional Scanning Mirror Piyawattananmetha, W., Crocker, E., D, Barretto, R., P.J., Jung, J., C., Flusberg, B., A., Ra, H., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Vortex Generation and Pixel Calibration Using a Spatial Light Modulators for Maskless Lithography Jung, I., W., Wang, J, S., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Compact optical design for a dual-axes confocal endoscopic microscope Mandella, M., J., Liu, J., T.C., Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Hsiung, P., Wong, L., K., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Large-Stroke Self-Aligned Vertical Comb Drive Actuated Micromirror Arrays for Adaptive Optics Applications Carr, E., Olivier, S., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Three-Dimensional In Vivo Real Time Imaging By A Miniature Dual-Axes Confocal Microscope Based on a Two-Dimensional MEMS Scanner Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Mandella, M., J., Liu, J., T.C., Wong, L., K., Du, C., B., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • High Reflectivity Broadband Photonic Crystal Mirror MEMS Scanner Jung, I., W., Kim, S., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • MEMS Based Dual-axes Confocal Microscope for in-vivo Imaging Piyawattanametha, W., Ra, H., Mandella, M., J., Liu, J., T.C., Wong, L., K., Hsiung, P., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • An External Cavity Tunable Laser with a Low-Loss Narrowband MEMS Tunable Blazed Grating Antoine, C., Li, X., Sesko, D., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Displacement Sensing with a Mechanically Tunable Photonic Crystal Hadzialic, S., Kim, S., Sudbø, A., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Optical Bandpass Filter with Tunable Chromatic Dispersion and Optical Bandwidth Using a Variable MEMS Reflector Yu, K., Lee, H., Park, N., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Single-film Broadband Photonic Crystal Micro-mirror with Large Angular Range and Low Polarization Dependence Kim, S., Hadzialic, S., Sudbo, A., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Toward portable two-photon fluorescence micro-endoscopy using a two-dimensional microelectromechanical (MEMS) scanning mirror Piyawattanametha, W., Flusberg, B., A., Baretto, R., P.J., Jung, J., C., Ko, T., H., Cocker, E., D., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Pull-in Analysis of Scanners Actuated by Electrostatic Vertical Combdrives Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Monolithic Photonic Crystals Hadzialic, S., Kim, S., Mallick, S., Basu, Sudbø, A., Solgaard, O. 2007
  • Micromachined bubble-jet cell sorter with multiple operation modes Chen, C. C., Wang, J. S., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2006: 523-529
  • Micromachined Fourier transform spectrometer on silicon optical bench platform Yu, K., Lee, D., Krishnamoorthy, U., Park, N., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2006: 523-530
  • External Fiber Fabry-Perot Acoustic Sensor Based on Photonic Crystal Mirror Kilic, O., Digonnet, M., Kino, G., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • High Capacity Optical Packet Switch Based on a Waveguide Grating Router Operated over Multiple FSRs Joe, I., S., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Superresolution Image Enhancement in Digital Photomicrography by Subpixel Translation using a Scanning Micromirror Yu, K., Park, N., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Micromechanical Diffractive Optical Filters for Spectroscopy Lacolle, M., Sagberg, H., Johansen, I., R., Løvhaugen, O., Sudbø, A., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Single-Crystal-Silicon Continuous Membrane Deformable Mirror Array for Adaptive Optics Jung, I., W., Peter, Y. A., Carr, E., Wang, J, S., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Micromirror-based scan range enhancement in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography Yu, K., Park, N., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Spatial Light Modulators for Maskless Lithography Jung, I., W., Wang, J, S., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Dual quarter-wave retardation based polarization beam splitting in photonic crystal slabs Kilic, O., Fan, S., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Dual-Axes Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy with a Two-Dimensional MEMS Scanner Ra, H., Piyawattanametha, W., Taguchi, Y., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Single Fiber Confocal Microscope Using a Two-Axis Microscanner for Cellular Imaging Carlson, K., Shin, H., J., Ra, H., Lee, D., Solgaard, O., Richards-Kortum, R. 2006
  • Coupled Torsional Cantilevers for label-free single-molecule bio-detection and nanomaterials characterization Sahin, O., Person, H., H.J., Quate, C., F., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • High-sensitivity interferometric schemes for ML2 micromirror calibrations Wang, J., S., Solgaard, O., Neureuther, A., R. 2006
  • Large-Stroke Self-Aligned Vertical Comb Drive Actuators for Adaptive Optics Applications Carr, E., Olivier, S., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Compact Laser Scanning Distance Sensor with a Two-axis Gimbaled Microscanner for Volumetric Imaging Yu, K., Park, N., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Fast-scanning Two-photon Fluorescence Imaging Using a Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Two-dimensional Scanning Mirror Piyawattanametha, W., Barretto, R., P.J., Ko, T., H., Flusberg, B., A., Cocker, E., D., Ra, H., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Photonic Crystals as Angle-Insensitive Broadband Mirrors Blad, J., Sudbø, A., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • A reconfigurable optical demultiplexer based on a MEMS deformable blazed grating Antoine, C., Li, X., Wang, J, S., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • MEMS Based Dual-axes Confocal Reflectance Handheld Microscope for in vivo Imaging Piyawattanametha, W., Liu, J., T.C., Mandella, M., J., Ra, H., Wong, L., K., Hsiung, P., Solgaard, O. 2006
  • Effects of through-focus symmetry in maskless lithography using micromirror arrays Wang, J. S., Hafeman, S., Neureuther, A. R., Solgaard, O. A V S AMER INST PHYSICS. 2005: 2738-2742

    View details for DOI 10.1116/1.2062407

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234613200088

  • Micro-optical characterization of fluidic self-assembly of Drosophila embryos through surface tension: Principle, simulation and experiments Zhang, X. J., Chen, C. C., Scott, M. P., Solgaard, O. OPTICAL SOC JAPAN. 2005: 352-357
  • Near-Field Sensor Using Photonic Crystal Slabs Suh, W., Solgaard, O., Fan, S. 2005
  • Excitation of Non-Degenerate Resonances through Breaking of Mirror Symmetry in Photonic Crystal Slabs Kilic, O., Kim, S., Digonnet, M., Kino, G., Solgaard, O. 2005
  • Design and Operation of a Micromachined Bubble-Jet Cell Sorter Chen, C, C., Wang, J, S., Zappe, S., Zhang, X., Solgaard, O. 2005
  • Silicon Masking Layers for Fabrication of High Aspect Ratio MEMS Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2005
  • A Micro-Mechanical Fresnel Lens for Spectral Filtering Lacolle, M., Sagberg, H., Lee, D., Solgaard, O., Johansen, I, R., Løvhaugen, O. 2005
  • A wavelength selective switch with flat passband using a free-space grating and MEMS phase-shifters Yu, K., Park, N., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2005
  • Micromachined Fourier Transform Spectrometer on Silicon Optical Bench Platform Yu, K., Lee, D., Krishnamoorthy, U., Park, N., Solgaard, O. 2005
  • High-resolution microelectromechanical scanners for miniaturized dual-axes confocal microscopes Ra, H-, J., Jung, I, W., Lee, D., Krishnamoorthy, U., Yu, K., Solgaard, O. 2005
  • Understanding Through-Focus Symmetry in Maskless Lithography Using Micromirror Arrays Wang, J., S., Hafeman, S., Neureuther, A., R., Solgaard, O. 2005
  • Scalable optical switch fabric for avionic networks Joe, I., S., Solgaard, O. 2005
  • Fabrication method for elastomer spatial light modulators for short wavelength maskless lithography Wang, J. S., Jung, I. W., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2004: 528-535
  • Design and operation of a microfluidic sorter for Drosophila embryos Chen, C. C., Zappe, S., Sahin, O., Zhang, X. J., Fish, M., Scott, M., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2004: 59-66
  • Micromachined silicon force sensor based on diffractive optical encoders for characterization of microinjection Zhang, X. J., Zappe, S., Bernstein, R. W., Sahin, O., Chen, C. C., Fish, M., Scott, M. P., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2004: 197-203
  • Single-crystalline silicon micromirrors actuated by self-aligned vertical electrostatic combdrives with piston-motion and rotation capability Lee, D., Krishnamoorthy, U., Yu, K., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2004: 423-428
  • High-resolution imaging of elastic properties using harmonic cantilevers Sahin, O., Yaralioglu, G., Grow, R., Zappe, S. F., Atalar, A., Quate, C., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2004: 183-190
  • Characterization of fluidic microassembly for immobilization and positioning of Drosophila embryos in 2-D arrays Bernstein, R. W., Zhang, X. J., Zappe, S., Fish, M., Scott, M., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2004: 191-196
  • Angular and polarization properties of a photonic crystal slab mirror Lousse, V., Suh, W., Kilic, O., Kim, S., Solgaard, O., Fan, S. H. OPTICAL SOC AMER. 2004: 1575-1582

    Abstract

    It was recently demonstrated that a photonic crystal slab can function as a mirror for externally incident light along a normal direction with near-complete reflectivity over a broad wavelength range. We analyze the angular and polarization properties of such photonic crystal slab mirror, and show such reflectivity occurs over a sizable angular range for both polarizations. We also show that such mirror can be designed to reflect one polarization completely, while allowing 100% transmission for the other polarization, thus behaving as a polarization splitter with a complete contrast. The theoretical analysis is validated by comparing with experimental measurements.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220908100012

    View details for PubMedID 19474983

  • Automated MEMS Based Fruit Fly Embryo Injection System for Genome-Wide High-Throughput RNAi Screens Zappe, S., Fish, M., Scott, M., P., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Micro-Optical Characterization and Modeling of Microfluidic Self-Assembly in Biology Zhang, X., Chen, C., C., Scott, M., P., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Interference-Based Optical MEMS Filters Solgaard, O., Belikov, R., Yu, K. 2004
  • Tunable external cavity laser with a stationary deformable MEMS grating. Belikov, R., Antoine-Snowden, C., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Ultrasonic Microinjection Characterized by Integrated Micro-optical Force Encoder Zhang, X., Zappe, S., F., Quate, C., F., Scott, M., P., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Variable Bandwidth Optical Filters with Vertical Micromirrors and Silicon Optical Bench Alignment Technology Yu, K., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • A 10-ms-tuning MEMS-Actuated Gires-Tournois Filter for use as a Tunable Wavelength Demultiplexer and a TunableOCDMA Encoder/Decoder Ebrahimi, P., Kargar, M., Hauer, M., C., Willner, A., E., Yu, K., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Micromachined Silicon Diffractive Optical Force Encoders: Principles and Applications in Biology Zhang, X., Zappe, S., Chen, C., C., Scott, M., P., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Vertical micromirror fabricated in (110) silicon device layer by combination of KOH and DRIE etch Lee, D., Yu, K., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • A Transmissive Interferometric Light Modulator based on Silicon Nitride Double-Half-Wave Filter Structure Kato, T., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Two-Axis Gimbaled Microscanner in Double SOI Layers Actuated by Self-Aligned Vertical Electrostatic Combdrive Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Surface Micromachined Elastomer Spatial Light modulators for Extreme Ultra violet Radiation Wang, J., S., Chen, Y., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • High Fill-Factor Two-Axis Gimbaled Tip-Tilt-Piston Micromirror Array Actuated by Self-Aligned Vertical Electrostatic Combdrives Jung, I., W., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Tunable Optical Wavelength Deinterleaver based on Tunable MEMS Blazed Gratings Li, X., Lee, D., Belikov, R., Yu, K., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Mechanically switchable photonic crystal structures based on coupled photonic crystal slabs Suh, W., Yanik, M., F., Solgaard, O., Fan, S. 2004
  • Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals at Visible Wavelengths Crozier, K., B., Kim, S., Kilic, O., Suh, W., Fan, S., Solgaard, O. 2004
  • Scaling Internet routers using optics Keslassy, I., Chuang, S. T., Yu, K., Miller, D., Horowitz, M., Solgaard, O., McKeown, N. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2003: 189-200
  • Programmable Optical Wavelength Filter Based on Diffraction from a 2‑D MEMS Micromirror Array Belikov, R., Li, X., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Integrated Optical Diffractive Micrograting-Based Injection Force Sensor Zhang, X., J., Zappe, S.,  , Bernstein, R., W.,  Sahin, O., Chen, C., C., Fish, M., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • High-Precision Characterization of Embryo Positioning Force Using MEMS Optical Encoder Zhang, X., J., Zappe, S., Bernstein, R., W., Chen, C., C., Sahin, O., Scott, M., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Tunable Wavelength Multiplexer/Demultiplexer using a MEMS Gires-Tournois Interferometer Yu, K., Lee, D., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Harmonic Cantilevers for Nanomechanical Sensing of Elastic Properties Sahin, O., Yaralioglu, G., Grow, R., Zappe, S., F., Atalar, A., Quate, C., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Elastomer Spatial Light Modulators for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Wang, J., S., Jung, I., W., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Microoptical phased arrays for spatial and spectral switching Solgaard, O., Yu, K., Krishnamoorthy, U., Li, K., Heritage, J., P. 2003
  • Characterization of Drosophila Embryos Immobilized by Fluidic Microassembly Bernstein, R., W., Zhang, X., Zappe, S.,  Fish, M., Scott, M., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Tunable bandwidth optical filter based on MEMS Gires‑Tournois Interferometer Yu, K., Lee, D., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Optical MEMS - Fabrication, Scaling and Design of Microoptical Devices and Systems Solgaard, O. 2003
  • MOEMS Spatial Light Modulator Development at the Center for Adaptive Optics Krulevitch, P., Bierden, P., Bifano, T., Carr, E., Dimas, C., Dyson, H., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Microfluidic Switch for Embryo and Cell Sorting Chen, C., C., Zappe, S., Sahin, O., Zappe, X., F., Furlong, E., E. M., Fish, M., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • High-Resolution, High-Speed Microscanner in Single-Crystalline Silicon Actuated by Self-Aligned Dual-Mode Vertical Electrostatic Combdrive with Capability for Phased Array Operation Lee, D., Krishnamoorthy, U., Yu, K., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Configurable spectral filter with an array of diffraction gratings Sagberg, H., Lacolle, M., Sudbo, A., S., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Femtosecond Direct Space-to-Time Pulse Shaping with MEMS Micromirror Arrays Belikov, R., Antoine-Snowden, C., Solgaard, O. 2003
  • Dual-mode micromirrors for optical phased array applications Krishnamoorthy, U., Li, K., Yu, K., Lee, D., Heritage, J. P., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2002: 21-26
  • Tunable Chromatic Dispersion Compensators Using MEMS Gires-Tournois Interferometers Yu, K., Solgaard, O. 2002
  • High Speed MEMS Scanning Mirror with Vertical Comb Drive Wada, H., Lee, D., Yu, K., Krishnamoorthy, U., Zappe, S., Solgaard, O. 2002
  • Microoptical phased arrays for spatial and spectral switching Solgaard, O., Yu, K., Krishnamoorthy, U., Li, K., Heritage, J., P. 2002
  • Positioning and Immobilization of Drosophila Embryos in 2‑D Arrays for Drug Injection Bernstein, R., W., Zhang, X., J., Zappe, S., Fish, M., Scott, M., Solgaard, O. 2002
  • Segmented Deformable Micromirror for Free-Space Optical Communication Peter, Y., A., Carr, E., Solgaard, O. 2002
  • Micromachined Hollow Needle with Integrated Pressure Sensor for Precise, Calibrated Injection into Cells and Embryos Zappe, S., Zhang, X., J., Jung, I., W., Bernstein, R.,  W., Furlong, E., E. M., Fish, M., Solgaard, O. 2002
  • Dynamic Diffractive Optical Elements based on MEMS Technology Solgaard, O. 2002
  • Micromirror Array Phase Modulator for Ultrashort Optical Pulse Shaping Li, K., Krishnamoorthy, U., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O. 2002
  • Optical Communication with Coherent MEMS Arrays Solgaard, O. 2002
  • MEMS Switchable WDM De interleaver Based on a Gires-Tournois Interferometer Yu, K., Solgaard, O. 2001
  • Effects of Mirror Surface Deformation in Optical Delay Lines Based on Resonant-Scanning Micromirrors Cornett, K., T., Walker, B., Carr, E., J., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O. 2001
  • Phased Arrays of Micromirrors for Programmable Shaping of Ultrashort Pulses Li, K., Krishnamoorthy, U., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O. 2001
  • Self-Aligned Vertical Combdrive Actuators for Optical Scanning Micromirrors Krishnamoorthy, U. 2001
  • Dual Mode Micromirrors for Optical Phased Arrays Applications Krishnamoorthy, U., Li, K., Yu, K., Lee, D., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O. 2001
  • Free space communication link using a grating light modulator Pedersen, D., Solgaard, O. ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA. 2000: 6-10
  • Low Power Wireless Readout of Autonomous Sensor Wafer using MEMS Grating Light Modulator Krueger, M., V.P., Guddal, M., H., Belikov, R., Bhatnagar, A., Solgaard, O., Spanos, C. 2000
  • Micro-electro- mechanical systems spatial light modulator development Olivier, S., S., Bierden, P., A., Bifano, T., G., Bishop, D., J., Carr, E., Cowan, W., D., Solgaard, O. 2000
  • Surface-micromachined mirrors for scalable fiber optic switching applications Krishnamoorthy, U., Hagelin, P., M., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O. 2000
  • Compact Optical Delay Line Based on Scanning Surface Micromachined Polysilicon Micromirrors Cornett, K., T., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O. 2000
  • Miniature variable optical delay using silicon micromachined scanning mirrors Cornett, K., T., Hagelin, P., M., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O., Everett, M. 2000
  • Micromachined grating light modulators for wireless sensor networks Pedersen, D., R., Solgaard, O. 1999
  • A Raster-Scanning Full-Motion Video Display Using Polysilicon Micromachined Mirrors Conant, R., A., Hagelin, P., M., Krishnamoorthy, U., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1999
  • Micromachined Scalable Fiber-Optic Switch Hagelin, P., M., Krishnamoorthy, U., Arft, C., M., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O. 1999
  • Scalable Fiber Optic Switch Using Micromachined Mirrors Hagelin, P., M., Krishnamoorthy, U., Arft, C., M., Heritage, J., P., Solgaard, O. 1999
  • Robustness and Reliability of Micromachined Scanning Mirrors Conant, R., A., Nee, J., Hart, M., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1999
  • Static and Dynamic Characterization of Polysilicon Surface-Micromachined Actuators Laible, V., Hagelin, P., M., Solgaard, O., Obermeier, E. 1999
  • A GaAs/AlGaAs narrow bandwidth in-line fiber filter Mao, E., Coldren, C., W., Harris, J., S., Yankelevich, D., R., Solgaard, O., Knoesen, A. 1999
  • Free-Space Communication Link Using a Grating Light Modulator Pedersen, D., R., Solgaard, O. 1999
  • Integrated Micromachined Scanning Display Systems Hagelin, P., M., Krishnamoorthy, U., Conant, R., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Solgaard, O. 1999
  • In-line fiber-optic filter using GaAs ARROW waveguide Mao, E., Coldren, C., Harris, J., S., Yankelevich, D., Solgaard, O., Knoesen, A. 1998
  • Micromachined Mirrors in a Raster Scanning Display System Hagelin, P., Cornett, K., Solgaard, O. 1998
  • Polysilicon optical microscanners for laser scanning displays Kiang, M., H, Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1998
  • Micromachined microscanners for optical scanning Kiang, M, H., Solgaard, O., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1997
  • High-Resolution Silicon Surface Micromachined Displays Solgaard, O. 1997
  • Actuated Polysilicon Micromirrors for Raster-Scanning Displays Kiang, M., H., Francis, D., A., Chang-Hasnain, C., J., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1997
  • Surface-micromachined electrostatic-comb driven scanning micromirrors for barcode scanners Kiang, M, H., Solgaard, O., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1996
  • Design and Fabrication of High-Performance Silicon Micromachined Resonant Microscanners for Optical Scanning Applications Kiang, M, H., Solgaard, O., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1996
  • Actuated Micromachined Microreflector with Two Degrees of Freedom for Integrated Optical Systems Daneman, M., Tien, N., C., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1996
  • High-Precision Silicon Micromachined Micromirrors for Laser Beam Scanning and Positioning Kiang, M, H., Solgaard, O., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1996
  • Actuation of polysilicon surface-micromachined mirrors Tien, N., C., Kiang, M-, H., Daneman, M., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1996
  • Linear Vibromotor-Actuated Micromachined microreflector for Integrated Optical Systems Daneman, M., Tien, N., C., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1996
  • High-precision Si-micromachined micromirrors with on-chip actuation for external cavity semiconductor lasers Kiang, M, H., Solgaard, O., Daneman, M., Tien, N., C., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1995
  • Surface-micromachined active optical bench for optoelectronic integration and packaging Solgaard, O., Daneman, M., Tien, N., C., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1995
  • Linear Microvibromotor for Positioning Optical Elements Daneman, M., Tien, N., C., Solgaard, O., Pisano, A., P., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1995
  • Precision and performance of polysilicon micromirrors for hybrid integrated optics Solgaard, O., Tien, N., C., Daneman, M., Kiang, M., H., Friedberger, A., Muller, R., S. 1995
  • Polysilicon-micromachined optical devices Tien, N., C., Daneman, M., Kiang, M, H., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1995
  • Surface-micromachined mirrors for laser-beam positioning Tien, N., C., Solgaard, O., Kiang, M., H., Daneman, M., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1995
  • Integrated Laser to Fiber Coupling Module Using a Micromachined Alignment Mirror Daneman, M., Solgaard, O., Tien, N., C., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1995
  • High Data Rate Millimeter Wave Subcarrier Transmission Using Feedforward Optical Modulation Georges, J., B., Park, J., Solgaard, O., Cutrer, D., Pepeljugoski, P., Lau, K., Y. 1994
  • Impact-actuated linear microvibromotor for micro- optical systems on silicon Tien, N., C., Daneman, M., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y., Muller, R., S. 1994
  • Stable Picosecond Pulse Generation at 46 GHz by Passive Mode-Locking of a Semiconductor Laser Operating in an Optoelectronic Phase-Locked Loop Buckman, L., A., Georges, J., B., Vassilovski, D., Park, J., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y. 1994
  • Micromachined alignment mirrors for opto-electronic packaging Solgaard, O., Daneman, M., Tien, N., C., Friedberger, A., Muller, R., S., Lau, K., Y. 1994
  • Millimeter wave optical transmission using a tunable laser beatnote source with feedforward compensation Solgaard, O., Park, J., Georges, J., B., Pepeljugoski, P., Lau, K., Y. 1993
  • Dynamics of pulse build-up in QW lasers passively mode-locked at millimeter wave frequencies Kiang, M., H., Solgaard, O., Lau, K., Y. 1993
  • Deformable grating optical modulator Sandejas, F., Solgaard, O., Bloom, D., M. 1992
  • High Speed Attenuated Internal reflection Modulators Solgaard, O., Ho, F., Thackara, J., I., Bloom, D., M. 1991
  • A SMALL-AREA LIGHT-INTENSITY MODULATOR IMPLEMENTED IN SILICON HEMENWAY, B. R., Solgaard, O., Bloom, D. M. IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC. 1989: 2614-2614
  • Bulk piezoresistors for stable pressure sensors Jakobsen, H., Solgaard, O. 1986

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