Master of Science, Georg August Universitat Gottingen (2012)
Doctor of Philosophy, Georg August Universitat Gottingen (2017)
Bachelor of Science, University Of Delhi (2011)
Neurons need to allocate and sustain mitochondria to provide adequate energy and sufficient Ca2+-buffering capacity in each sub specialization of their extensive arborizations. Damaged mitochondria, which are highly deleterious to the neuron, must be rapidly repaired or eliminated, even when they are left at terminals extremely far away from the soma. The unique shape of neurons complicates the tasks of both transporting and clearing mitochondria. Errors in the underlying molecular regulations cause detrimental neurodegeneration. Here, we review the molecular machinery and regulatory mechanisms employed to transport, distribute, and clear mitochondria in neurons, and how these fundamental regulations are compromised in neurological disorders.
View details for PubMedID 30784981
Due to the ability of pathogen-associated molecular patters and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family costimulatory agonists to boost T cell responses, studies have combined Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands with TNFR family costimulatory receptor agonists to induce impressive and long-lasting T cell responses. Although some studies have determined how these combinatorial vaccines promote enhanced T cell responses, much remains unknown about the mechanism used by these combinations to promote synergistic T cell responses - especially in settings of infectious diseases or cancer. Areas covered: In this review, we look in detail at the signaling pathways induced by combinatorial targeting of TLR and TNFR family costimulatory members that help them promote synergistic T cell responses. Understanding this can greatly aid the development of novel vaccine regimens that promote cellular immune responses, which is essential for treating certain infectious diseases and cancer. Expert opinion: Vaccines against some infectious diseases as well as therapeutic cancer vaccines require cellular immunity. Therefore, we evaluate here how signaling pathways induced by TLR ligand and costimulatory agonist combinations promote enhanced T cell responses during immunization with model antigens, viral pathogens, or tumor antigens. Once pathways that drive these combinatorial vaccines to boost T cell activation are identified, they can be incorporated in vaccines designed to target pathogens or cancer.
View details for PubMedID 30169979
The sorting of activated receptors into distinct endosomal compartments is essential to activate specific signaling cascades and cellular events including growth and survival. However, the proteins involved in this sorting are not well understood. We discovered a novel role of EndophilinAs in sorting of activated BDNF-TrkB receptors into late endosomal compartments. Mice lacking all three EndophilinAs accumulate Rab7-positive late endosomes. Moreover, EndophilinAs are differentially localized to, co-traffic with, and tubulate, distinct endosomal compartments: In response to BDNF, EndophilinA2 is recruited to both early and late endosomes, EndophilinA3 is recruited to Lamp1-positive late endosomes, and co-trafficks with Rab5 and Rab7 in both the presence and absence of BDNF, while EndophilinA1 colocalizes at lower levels with endosomes. The absence of all three EndophilinAs caused TrkB to accumulate in EEA1 and Rab7-positive endosomes, and impaired BDNF-TrkB-dependent survival signaling cascades. In addition, EndophilinA triple knockout neurons exhibited increased cell death which could not be rescued by exogenous BDNF, in a neurotrophin-dependent survival assay. Thus, EndophilinAs differentially regulate activated receptor sorting via distinct endosomal compartments to promote BDNF-dependent cell survival.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-017-02202-4
View details for Web of Science ID 000401614900007
View details for PubMedID 28526875
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5438371
Delivery of neurotrophins and neuropeptides via long-range trafficking of dense core vesicles (DCVs) from the cell soma to nerve terminals is essential for synapse modulation and circuit function. But the mechanism by which transiting DCVs are captured at specific sites is unknown. Here, we discovered that Synaptotagmin-4 (Syt4) regulates the capture and spatial distribution of DCVs in hippocampal neurons. We found that DCVs are highly mobile and undergo long-range translocation but switch directions only at the distal ends of axons, revealing a circular trafficking pattern. Phosphorylation of serine 135 of Syt4 by JNK steers DCV trafficking by destabilizing Syt4-Kif1A interaction, leading to a transition from microtubule-dependent DCV trafficking to capture at en passant presynaptic boutons by actin. Furthermore, neuronal activity increased DCV capture via JNK-dependent phosphorylation of the S135 site of Syt4. Our data reveal a mechanism that ensures rapid, site-specific delivery of DCVs to synapses.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.10.084
View details for PubMedID 29166604
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5714612
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is widely reported to enhance synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. But it is still unclear whether BDNF enhances SV recycling at excitatory terminals only, or at both excitatory and inhibitory terminals. In the present study, in a direct comparison using cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrate that BDNF enhances both spontaneous and activity-dependent neurotransmitter release from excitatory terminals, but not from inhibitory terminals. BDNF treatment for 5 min or 48 h increased both spontaneous and activity-induced anti-synaptotagmin1 (SYT1) antibody uptake at excitatory terminals marked with vGluT1. Conversely, BDNF treatment did not enhance spontaneous or activity-induced uptake of anti-SYT1 antibodies in inhibitory terminals marked with vGAT. Time-lapse imaging of FM1-43 dye destaining in excitatory and inhibitory terminals visualized by post-hoc immunostaining of vGluT1 and vGAT also showed the same result: The rate of spontaneous and activity-induced destaining was increased by BDNF at excitatory synapses, but not at inhibitory synapses. These data demonstrate that BDNF enhances SV exocytosis in excitatory but not inhibitory terminals. Moreover, BDNF enhanced evoked SV exocytosis, even if vesicles were loaded under spontaneous vesicle recycling conditions. Thus, BDNF enhances both spontaneous and activity-dependent neurotransmitter release on both short and long time-scales, by the same mechanism.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fnsyn.2014.00027
View details for PubMedID 25426063
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4226143
The synaptotagmins (syts) are a family of molecules that regulate membrane fusion. There are 17 mammalian syt isoforms, most of which are expressed in the brain. However, little is known regarding the subcellular location and function of the majority of these syts in neurons, largely due to a lack of isoform-specific antibodies. Here we generated pHluorin-syt constructs harboring a luminal domain pH sensor, which reports localization, pH of organelles to which syts are targeted, and the kinetics and sites of exocytosis and endocytosis. Of interest, only syt-1 and 2 are targeted to synaptic vesicles, whereas other isoforms selectively recycle in dendrites (syt-3 and 11), axons (syt-5, 7, 10, and 17), or both axons and dendrites (syt-4, 6, 9, and 12), where they undergo exocytosis and endocytosis with distinctive kinetics. Hence most syt isoforms localize to distinct secretory organelles in both axons and dendrites and may regulate neuropeptide/neurotrophin release to modulate neuronal function.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E11-08-0707
View details for Web of Science ID 000306244000011
View details for PubMedID 22398727
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3338438