Bio

Bio


Rosamond (Roz) Naylor is the William Wrigley Professor of Earth System Science, Professor (by courtesy) in Economics, and founding Director of the Center on Food Security and the Environment (FSE) at Stanford University. She received her PhD from Stanford University in applied economics, her Masters in economics from the London School of Economics, and her Bachelors degree(s) in economics and environmental science from the University of Colorado.

Administrative Appointments


  • Director of Studies, Goldman Interschool Honors Program in Environmental Science, Technology, and Policy, Stanford (1992 - Present)
  • Julie Wrigley Senior Fellow, Center for Environmental Science and Policy, Stanford University (2000 - 2007)
  • Associate Professor by courtesy, Department of Economics, Stanford University (2000 - Present)
  • Director, Center in Food Security and the Environment, Stanford University (2005 - 2018)
  • William Wrigley Senior Fellow, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies & Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment (2007 - 2014)
  • Professor, Environmental Earth Systems Science, Stanford University (2009 - Present)
  • William Wrigley Professor, School of Earth Sciences (2014 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • McNamara Post-doc Fellowship, The World Bank (1990 - 1991)
  • Pew Fellow in Environment and Conservation, . (1994)
  • Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow, . (1999 - Present)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Science Advisor, United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon initiative on Sustainable Development (2013 - Present)
  • Trustee, The Nature Conservancy, California Chapter (2012 - Present)
  • Associate Editor, Journal on Food Security (2012 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, Global Food Security (2012 - Present)
  • Member, Search Committee for Director of Freeman Spogli Institute, Stanford University (2012 - 2013)
  • Member, Scientific Board of the Beijer Institute, Stockholm (2011 - Present)
  • Member, Advisory Panel for the African Human Development Report at UNDP (United Nations Development Program) (2011 - Present)
  • Member, U.S. National Committee for the Pacific Science Association, National Academy of Sciences (2010 - 2011)
  • Member, Oversight Committee, International Relations Program, Stanford University (2010 - Present)
  • Member, Faculty Advisory Council, The Bill Lane Center for the American West, Stanford University (2009 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, Aquaculture Environment Interactions (2009 - Present)
  • Member of the Steering Committee, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, Stanford University (2008 - Present)
  • Member, Executive Committee, Earth Systems Science Program, Stanford University (2008 - Present)
  • Member, Advisory Committee, E-IPER, Stanford University (2008 - Present)
  • Editorial Board, Environmental Research Letters (2007 - 2011)
  • Editorial Board, Reviews in Aquaculture (2007 - 2011)
  • Member of the Advisory Board, Pew Fellows Program in Marine Science (2007 - 2010)
  • Judge, Risser Environmental Journalism Prize for the American West (2006 - 2006)
  • Environmental Ventures Program, Woods Institute of the Environment, Stanford University (2006 - 2009)
  • Member, Faculty Steering Committee, International Policy Studies Program, Stanford University (2006 - Present)
  • Member, Selection Committee, Aldo Leopold Leadership Program (2005 - 2009)
  • Member, Scientific Advisory Board, COMPASS (Communication Partnership for Science and the Sea) (2005 - 2009)
  • Co-Chair, Environmental Ventures Program, Woods Institute of the Environment, Stanford University (2004 - 2006)
  • Editorial Board, Annual Review of Environment and Resources (2004 - 2008)
  • Member, NRC Committee on ?Alaska Yukan Salmon: Research and Restoration Priorities?. National Academy of Sciences (2003 - 2005)
  • Member, Oversight Committee for the Collaborative Crop Improvement Program, McKnight Foundation (1998 - 2009)
  • Undergraduate Advisor, International Relations Program, Stanford University (1996 - Present)
  • Undergraduate Advisor, Human Biology Program, Stanford University (1996 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, Applied Economics (1989)
  • MSc, London School of Economics, Economics (1981)
  • MA, University of Colorado Boulder, Economics and Environmental Conservation (1980)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Research Activities:
My research focuses on the environmental and equity dimensions of intensive food production systems, and the food security dimensions of low-input systems. I have been involved in a number of field-level research projects around the world and have published widely on issues related to climate impacts on agriculture, distributed irrigation systems for diversified cropping, nutrient use and loss in agriculture, biotechnology, aquaculture and livestock production, biofuels development, food price volatility, and food policy analysis.

Teaching Activities:
I teach courses on the world food economy, food and security, aquaculture science and policy, human society and environmental change, and food-water-health linkages. These courses are offered to graduate and undergraduate students through the departments of Earth System Science, Economics, History, and International Relations.

Professional Activities:
William Wrigley Professor of Earth Science (2015 - Present); Professor in Earth System Science (2009-present); Director, Stanford Center on Food Security and the Environment (2005-2018); Associate Professor of Economics by courtesy (2000-present); William Wrigley Senior Fellow, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and the Woods Institute for the Environment (2007-2015); Trustee, The Nature Conservancy CA program (2012-present); Member of the Scientific Advisory Board for the Beijer Institute for Ecological Economics in Stockholm (2011-present), for the Aspen Global Change Institute (2011-present), and for the Aldo Leopold Leadership Program (2012-present); Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow in Environmental Science and Public Policy (1999); Pew Fellow in Conservation and the Environment (1994). Associate Editor for the Journal on Food Security (2012-present). Editorial board member for Aquaculture-Environment Interactions (2009-present) and Global Food Security (2012-present).

Projects


  • Solar Market Gardens as a Tool for Rural Development, Stanford University (7/1/2010 - Present)

    Since 2007, FSE has been evaluating the livelihood and environmental impacts of an effort led by a US-based NGO, the Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF), to use solar arrays to power irrigation pumps for growing high-valued crops (solar market gardens) in the dry season in Northern Benin. We found that photovoltaic technology yields substantial (and significant) benefits in the form of household income and nutritional intake, and is cost-competitive in the medium term, especially where fuel supplies are unreliable. See "An Alternative Development Model: Assessing solar electrification for income generation in Benin" for further information about this project.

    Photovoltaic technology yields substantial (and significant) benefits in the form of household income and nutritional intake, and is cost-competitive in the medium term, especially where fuel supplies are unreliable.

    While there will be hurdles to overcome in taking such a project to scale, we believe that this technology can play a significant role in augmenting regional food security and economic development in the Sudano-Sahel. Our strategy is to provide very careful evaluation of the solar market garden system using a randomized, control-study approach at each phase of scale up.

    In our view, it is critical that investments in this system pay off in the long run for external donors, farmer groups, and private farmers adopting the technology. We would like to see the "pay off" include more than the concept of private profitability; nutritional improvements, equity between and among households, marketing expansion, and educational impacts are all included in our scope of study.

    In an effort to scale up this technology, FSE is planning to evaluate and monitor solar market gardens in a dozen or so new villages in Northern Benin. The overall goal in this phase of scale-up is to create a regional market and learning center for the technology and farm products that can be replicated in other areas of West Africa.

    Location

    Benin

  • Rural Health & Development at the Food-Water Nexus, Stanford University (July 1, 2011 - Present)

    More than two-thirds of the population in Africa must leave their home to fetch water for drinking and domestic use. It is estimated that some 40 billion hours of labor each year are spent hauling water, a responsibility often borne by women and children. Cutting the walking time to a water source by just 15 minutes can reduce under-five mortality of children by 11 percent, and slash the prevalence of nutrition-depleting diarrhea by 41 percent.

    Water resources management, smallholder food production, poverty, and infectious disease are inextricably connected in the world's poorest regions. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) limited access to water for both productive and domestic uses increases vulnerability to infectious diseases, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in SSA. Within these complex linkages, identifying intervention points and constructive policy responses requires an understanding of how and the extent to which freshwater supplies and nutrition jointly influences health outcomes. The proposed project, which involves both place-based empirical research and analysis of secondary data, will explore these water-nutrition-health interconnections. It will identify the extent which, and potential causal mechanisms by which, access to domestic and productive water supplies and associated nutritional benefits affect the progression of both HIV and TB among adults living in rural African households.

    Location

    Kenya

    Collaborators

    • Jenna Davis, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University
    • Glwadys Aymone Gbetibouo, Postdoctoral Research fellow, Environmental Earth System Science, School of Earth Sciences
    • Eran Bendavid, Associate Professor, Stanford University
    • L. Katrina ole-MoiYoi, Ph.D. Student in Environment and Resources, admitted Autumn 2011, School of Earth Sciences

    For More Information:

  • Aquaculture in China and its Role in Global Markets and Resources, Stanford University (9/1/2012 - August 31, 2014)

    Seafood plays a critical role in global food security and protein intake. The global supply of seafood increasingly comes from aquaculture - the farming of fish, shellfish, and aquatic plants. China is the dominant leader in this field, supplying about two-thirds of global aquaculture production. China also consumes an estimated one-third of global aquaculture output, a figure that is expected to increase as the country proceeds along its developmental trajectory.

    This project builds on our recent field surveys in China (supported previously by the Packard Foundation), with two aims:

    1) to finalize our analysis and publish peer-reviewed papers on China?s role in global aquaculture, seafood trade, and feed use; and

    2) to convene researchers from around the world to advance the science around Chinese aquaculture from a food security perspective.

    The anticipated output will be a set of unique and high profile papers on China?s rising role in this important area of global food production, trade, and food security.

    Location

    China

    For More Information:

  • Globalization, Trade, and the Environment: The case of Brazil, Stanford University

    Soybean production has become a significant force for economic development in Brazil, but has come at the cost of expansion into non-protected forests in the Amazon and native savanna in the Cerrado. Over the past fifty years, production has increased from 26 million to 260 million tons. Area planted to soybeans has increased from roughly 1 million hectares in 1970 to more than 23 million hectares in 2010, second only to the United States.

    For more than three decades, deforestation in the Amazon has been driven by the expansion of pasturelands for cattle production. Pasture area also expanded rapidly because soils found throughout much of the region are poor in nutrients following forest slash and burn, and crop production cannot be maintained in the face of degradation of soils and lost vegetation productivity. In the late 1990s, multi-national corporations such as Cargill began investing in infrastructure throughout the south-central Amazon. New river ports, fertilizer and mechanization have fueled explosive growth in the crop agricultural sector, especially for soybeans. For example, in the State of Mato Grosso, soybean agriculture has increased at a rate of 1,000 to 2,000 km2 per year since 2000, making it the fastest growing form of land use regionally. Much of this deforestation is now being driven directly by conversion to soybean fields, the soy oil and meal from which are being used largely by the growing industrial livestock sector in Brazil, China, India, and other countries around the world.

    In the same period that soy agriculture has boomed in the Brazilian Amazon, the power of satellite monitoring technology has also gone through a revolution. Since 2000, it has been possible to monitor not only rates of deforestation on a weekly basis (it was done annually prior to 2000), but also to differentiate between forest areas cleared for cattle pasture or crop agriculture. In addition, selective timber harvests of intact forests - a geographic precursor to deforestation - can now be monitored annually. Using the NASA Terra, Landsat 7 and Earth Observing-1 satellite sensors, it is now possible to measure the location and extent of pasture, cropland and timber harvesting across the entire Amazon. These measurements are vital to understanding not only the dynamics of land-use change in a large and poorly regulated region of Brazil, but also the impacts of these changes on ecosystem function. We will use seed funds from this project grant to advance the satellite-based measurements of soybean expansion in the Amazon.

    While these satellite-based measurements can now tell us the extent and rate of change, we also require on-the-ground measurements to evaluate the consequences of these changes. There has been substantial research on the biogeochemical and climatic consequences of forest conversion to pasture in Amazonia, but less ecosystem-level research on the now-dominant soybean system and its consequences. These consequences are likely to include changes in soils and soil fertility, fluxes of trace gases that function as greenhouse gases or as precursors to photochemical smog, and runoff of nutrients and sediments to aquatic systems. In addition, the energy requirements of the intensive agricultural system can themselves drive deforestation for fuel - and the nutrients mobilized in agricultural products move in international trade and can cause water and air pollution where they are used. We will work with Professor Luiz Martinelli (University of Sao Paulo) and his students to begin the development of integrated nutrient budgets for the forest to soybean conversion, and its ancillary effects.

    Location

    Brazil

    Collaborators

    • Peter Vitousek, Clifford G. Morrison Professor in Population and Resource Studies, Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment and Professor, by courtesy, of Environmental Earth System Sciences, Stanford University

    For More Information:

  • Lead Contaminated Topsoil and Food in Rural Bangladesh, Stanford University (July 1, 2013 - Present)

    Human exposure to lead in the environment causes irreversible impairment of intellectual function. In Bangladesh, where some rural residents have unexpectedly high levels of lead in their blood, the source is proving difficult to pinpoint. This project will evaluate the severity of lead poisoning in rural Bangladesh and identify the pathway of exposure to help develop focused prevention strategies. This study is designed to provide important evidence to support policy responses that reduce lead from the environment, not only in Bangladesh but also in other regions where lead contamination is a known risk to health and development.

    Location

    Bangladesh

    Collaborators

    • Stephen Luby, Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute and the Freeman Spogli Institute, Stanford University

    For More Information:

  • Climate Variability and Global Food Security, Stanford University (September 1, 2013 - Present)

    FSE and the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) in Paris have joined together to foster undergraduate and PhD training and research on the effects of climate variability on wheat markets. This includes ongoing interaction with the Stanford-France student body in Paris via classes and field visits.

    Location

    France

  • The Importance of Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems for Food In China, Stanford University (September 1, 2013 - Present)

    Given China?s demographic changes, evolving nutritional requirements, and dominant role in global fisheries, the key question is whether marine ecosystems can be managed adequately to support the country?s future vision for domestic food security. The symposium will be directed toward research on the provision of wild fish for direct human consumption and for animal feeds. Research on China?s aquaculture sector will also be featured; this component of the symposium will focus on the ability of aquaculture to satisfy the country?s rising seafood demand (potentially taking pressure off wild fisheries) and on the use of wild fish in aquaculture feeds (potentially increasing pressure on wild fisheries).

    Location

    China

    For More Information:

Teaching

2020-21 Courses


Stanford Advisees


Publications

All Publications


  • Water-food-energy challenges in India: political economy of the sugar industry ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Lee, J., Naylor, R. L., Figueroa, A., Gorelick, S. M. 2020; 15 (8)
  • Large scale tropical deforestation drives extreme warming ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Zeppetello, L., Luke's, L. A., Spector, J. T., Naylor, R. L., Battisti, D. S., Masuda, Y. J., Wolff, N. H. 2020; 15 (8)
  • Social dimensions of fertility behavior and consumption patterns in the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Barrett, S., Dasgupta, A., Dasgupta, P., Adger, W. N., Anderies, J., van den Bergh, J., Bledsoe, C., Bongaarts, J., Carpenter, S., Chapin, F. S., Crepin, A., Daily, G., Ehrlich, P., Folke, C., Kautsky, N., Lambin, E. F., Levin, S. A., Maler, K., Naylor, R., Nyborg, K., Polasky, S., Scheffer, M., Shogren, J., Jorgensen, P. S., Walker, B., Wilen, J. 2020

    Abstract

    We consider two aspects of the human enterprise that profoundly affect the global environment: population and consumption. We show that fertility and consumption behavior harbor a class of externalities that have not been much noted in the literature. Both are driven in part by attitudes and preferences that are not egoistic but socially embedded; that is, each household's decisions are influenced by the decisions made by others. In a famous paper, Garrett Hardin [G. Hardin, Science 162, 1243-1248 (1968)] drew attention to overpopulation and concluded that the solution lay in people "abandoning the freedom to breed." That human attitudes and practices are socially embedded suggests that it is possible for people to reduce their fertility rates and consumption demands without experiencing a loss in wellbeing. We focus on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa and consumption in the rich world and argue that bottom-up social mechanisms rather than top-down government interventions are better placed to bring about those ecologically desirable changes.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1909857117

    View details for PubMedID 32165543

  • Causes of Indonesia's forest fires Edwards, R. B., Naylor, R. L., Higgins, M. M., Falcon, W. P. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2020
  • The future of food from the sea. Nature Costello, C., Cao, L., Gelcich, S., Cisneros-Mata, M. Á., Free, C. M., Froehlich, H. E., Golden, C. D., Ishimura, G., Maier, J., Macadam-Somer, I., Mangin, T., Melnychuk, M. C., Miyahara, M., de Moor, C. L., Naylor, R., Nøstbakken, L., Ojea, E., O'Reilly, E., Parma, A. M., Plantinga, A. J., Thilsted, S. H., Lubchenco, J. 2020

    Abstract

    Global food demand is rising, and serious questions remain about whether supply can increase sustainably1. Land-based expansion is possible but may exacerbate climate change and biodiversity loss, and compromise the delivery of other ecosystem services2-6. As food from the sea represents only 17% of the current production of edible meat, we ask how much food we can expect the ocean to sustainably produce by 2050. Here we examine the main food-producing sectors in the ocean-wild fisheries, finfish mariculture and bivalve mariculture-to estimate 'sustainable supply curves' that account for ecological, economic, regulatory and technological constraints. We overlay these supply curves with demand scenarios to estimate future seafood production. We find that under our estimated demand shifts and supply scenarios (which account for policy reform and technology improvements), edible food from the sea could increase by 21-44 million tonnes by 2050, a 36-74% increase compared to current yields. This represents 12-25% of the estimated increase in all meat needed to feed 9.8 billion people by 2050. Increases in all three sectors are likely, but are most pronounced for mariculture. Whether these production potentials are realized sustainably will depend on factors such as policy reforms, technological innovation and the extent of future shifts in demand.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-2616-y

    View details for PubMedID 32814903

  • The impact of a Solar Market Garden programme on dietary diversity, women's nutritional status and micronutrient levels in Kalale district of northern Benin PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION Alaofe, H., Burney, J., Naylor, R., Taren, D. 2019; 22 (14): 2670?81

    Abstract

    To examine the impacts of a Solar Market Garden 1-year solar-powered drip irrigation (SMG) programme in Kalalé district of northern Benin on mothers' nutritional status and micronutrient levels.Using a quasi-experimental design, sixteen villages were assigned to four groups: (i) SMG women's groups (WG); (ii) comparison WG; (iii) SMG non-WG (NWG); and (iv) comparison NWG. Difference-in-differences (DID) estimates were used to assess impacts on mothers' food consumption, diversity, BMI, prevalence of underweight (BMI < 18·5 kg/m2) and anaemia, and deficiencies of iron (ID) and vitamin A (VAD).Kalalé district, northern Benin.Non-pregnant mothers aged 15-49 years (n 1737).The SMG programme significantly increased mothers' intake of vegetables (DID = 25·31 percentage points (pp); P < 0·01), dietary diversity (DID = 0·74; P < 0·01) and marginally increased their intake of flesh foods (DID = 10·14 pp; P < 0·1). Mean BMI was significantly increased among SMG WG compared with the other three groups (DID = 0·44 kg/m2; P < 0·05). The SMG programme also significantly decreased the prevalence of anaemia (DID = 12·86 pp; P < 0·01) but no impacts were found for the prevalence of underweight, ID and VAD.Improving mothers' dietary intake and anaemia prevalence supports the need to integrate gender-based agriculture to improve nutritional status. However, it may take more than a year, and additional nutrition and health programmes, to impact the prevalence of maternal underweight, ID and VAD.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1368980019001599

    View details for Web of Science ID 000483702200017

    View details for PubMedID 31280754

  • Oil palm expansion and deforestation in Southwest Cameroon associated with proliferation of informal mills. Nature communications Ordway, E. M., Naylor, R. L., Nkongho, R. N., Lambin, E. F. 2019; 10 (1): 114

    Abstract

    Oil palm expansion resulted in 2 million hectares (Mha) of forest loss globally in 2000-2010. Despite accounting for 24% (4.5 Mha) of the world's total oil palm cultivated area, expansion dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa have been overlooked. We show that in Southwest Cameroon, a top producing region of Africa, 67% of oil palm expansion from 2000-2015 occurred at the expense of forest. Contrary to the publicized narrative of industrial-scale expansion, most oil palm expansion and associated deforestation is occurring outside large agro-industrial concessions. Expansion and deforestation carried out by non-industrial producers is occurring near low-efficiency informal mills, unconstrained by the location of high-efficiency company-owned mills. These results highlight the key role of a booming informal economic sector in driving rapid land use change. High per capita consumption and rising palm oil demands in sub-Saharan Africa spotlight the need to consider informal economies when identifying regionally relevant sustainability pathways.

    View details for PubMedID 30631076

  • Oil palm expansion and deforestation in Southwest Cameroon associated with proliferation of informal mills NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Ordway, E. M., Naylor, R. L., Nkongho, R. N., Lambin, E. F. 2019; 10
  • Decentralization and the environment: Assessing smallholder oil palm development in Indonesia. Ambio Naylor, R. L., Higgins, M. M., Edwards, R. B., Falcon, W. P. 2019

    Abstract

    Indonesia's oil palm expansion during the last two decades has resulted in widespread environmental and health damages through land clearing by fire and peat conversion, but it has also contributed to rural poverty alleviation. In this paper, we examine the role that decentralization has played in the process of Indonesia's oil palm development, particularly among independent smallholder producers. We use primary survey information, along with government documents and statistics, to analyze the institutional dynamics underpinning the sector's impacts on economic development and the environment. Our analysis focuses on revenue-sharing agreements between district and central governments, district splitting, land title authority, and accountability at individual levels of government. We then assess the role of Indonesia's Village Law of 2014 in promoting rural development and land clearing by fire. We conclude that both environmental conditionality and positive financial incentives are needed within the Village Law to enhance rural development while minimizing environmental damages.

    View details for PubMedID 30607718

  • Decentralization and the environment: Assessing smallholder oil palm development in Indonesia Ambio Naylor, R. L., Higgins, M. M., Edwards, R. B., Falcon, W. P. 2019: 1195?1208

    Abstract

    Indonesia's oil palm expansion during the last two decades has resulted in widespread environmental and health damages through land clearing by fire and peat conversion, but it has also contributed to rural poverty alleviation. In this paper, we examine the role that decentralization has played in the process of Indonesia's oil palm development, particularly among independent smallholder producers. We use primary survey information, along with government documents and statistics, to analyze the institutional dynamics underpinning the sector's impacts on economic development and the environment. Our analysis focuses on revenue-sharing agreements between district and central governments, district splitting, land title authority, and accountability at individual levels of government. We then assess the role of Indonesia's Village Law of 2014 in promoting rural development and land clearing by fire. We conclude that both environmental conditionality and positive financial incentives are needed within the Village Law to enhance rural development while minimizing environmental damages.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s13280-018-1135-7

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6722158

  • Model vs. experiment to predict crop losses Response SCIENCE Deutsch, C. A., Tewksbury, J. J., Merrill, S. C., Huey, R. B., Battisti, D. S., Naylor, R. L. 2018; 362 (6419): 1122?23

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aav7405

    View details for Web of Science ID 000452506300046

    View details for PubMedID 30523102

  • The effects of intensive aquaculture on nutrient residence time and transport in a coastal embayment ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS Wang, B., Cao, L., Micheli, F., Naylor, R. L., Fringer, O. B. 2018; 18 (6): 1321?49
  • Increase in crop losses to insect pests in a warming climate SCIENCE Deutsch, C. A., Tewksbury, J. J., Tigchelaar, M., Battisti, D. S., Merrill, S. C., Huey, R. B., Naylor, R. L. 2018; 361 (6405): 916?19

    Abstract

    Insect pests substantially reduce yields of three staple grains-rice, maize, and wheat-but models assessing the agricultural impacts of global warming rarely consider crop losses to insects. We use established relationships between temperature and the population growth and metabolic rates of insects to estimate how and where climate warming will augment losses of rice, maize, and wheat to insects. Global yield losses of these grains are projected to increase by 10 to 25% per degree of global mean surface warming. Crop losses will be most acute in areas where warming increases both population growth and metabolic rates of insects. These conditions are centered primarily in temperate regions, where most grain is produced.

    View details for PubMedID 30166490

  • Future warming increases probability of globally synchronized maize production shocks PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Tigchelaar, M., Battisti, D. S., Naylor, R. L., Ray, D. K. 2018; 115 (26): 6644?49

    Abstract

    Meeting the global food demand of roughly 10 billion people by the middle of the 21st century will become increasingly challenging as the Earth's climate continues to warm. Earlier studies suggest that once the optimum growing temperature is exceeded, mean crop yields decline and the variability of yield increases even if interannual climate variability remains unchanged. Here, we use global datasets of maize production and climate variability combined with future temperature projections to quantify how yield variability will change in the world's major maize-producing and -exporting countries under 2 °C and 4 °C of global warming. We find that as the global mean temperature increases, absent changes in temperature variability or breeding gains in heat tolerance, the coefficient of variation (CV) of maize yields increases almost everywhere to values much larger than present-day values. This higher CV is due both to an increase in the SD of yields and a decrease in mean yields. For the top four maize-exporting countries, which account for 87% of global maize exports, the probability that they have simultaneous production losses greater than 10% in any given year is presently virtually zero, but it increases to 7% under 2 °C warming and 86% under 4 °C warming. Our results portend rising instability in global grain trade and international grain prices, affecting especially the ?800 million people living in extreme poverty who are most vulnerable to food price spikes. They also underscore the urgency of investments in breeding for heat tolerance.

    View details for PubMedID 29891651

  • The rise in global biodiesel production: Implications for food security GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY-AGRICULTURE POLICY ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT Naylor, R. L., Higgins, M. M. 2018; 16: 75?84
  • The Elusive Goal of Global Food Security CURRENT HISTORY Naylor, R. L. 2018; 117 (795): 3?9
  • Oil palm expansion in Cameroon: Insights into sustainability opportunities and challenges in Africa GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE-HUMAN AND POLICY DIMENSIONS Ordway, E. M., Naylor, R. L., Nkongho, R. N., Lambin, E. F. 2017; 47: 190?200
  • The political economy of biodiesel in an era of low oil prices RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS Naylor, R. L., Higgins, M. M. 2017; 77: 695?705
  • Impact of a rural solar electrification project on the level and structure of women's empowerment ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Burney, J., Alaofe, H., Naylor, R., Taren, D. 2017; 12 (9)
  • Prevalence of anaemia, deficiencies of iron and vitamin A and their determinants in rural women and young children: a cross-sectional study in Kalale district of northern Benin PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION Alaofe, H., Burney, J., Naylor, R., Taren, D. 2017; 20 (7): 1203?13

    Abstract

    To identify the magnitude of anaemia and deficiencies of Fe (ID) and vitamin A (VAD) and their associated factors among rural women and children.Cross-sectional, comprising a household, health and nutrition survey and determination of Hb, biochemical (serum concentrations of ferritin, retinol, C-reactive protein and ?1-acid glycoprotein) and anthropometric parameters. Multivariate logistic regression examined associations of various factors with anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies.Kalalé district, northern Benin.Mother-child pairs (n 767): non-pregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and children 6-59 months old.In women, the overall prevalence of anaemia, ID, Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) and VAD was 47·7, 18·3, 11·3 and 17·7 %, respectively. A similar pattern for anaemia (82·4 %), ID (23·6 %) and IDA (21·2 %) was observed among children, while VAD was greater at 33·6 %. Greater risk of anaemia, ID and VAD was found for low maternal education, maternal farming activity, maternal health status, low food diversity, lack of fruits and vegetables consumption, low protein foods consumption, high infection, anthropometric deficits, large family size, poor sanitary conditions and low socio-economic status. Strong differences were also observed by ethnicity, women's group participation and source of information. Finally, age had a significant effect in children, with those aged 6-23 months having the highest risk for anaemia and those aged 12-23 months at risk for ID and IDA.Anaemia, ID and VAD were high among rural women and their children in northern Benin, although ID accounted for a small proportion of anaemia. Multicentre studies in various parts of the country are needed to substantiate the present results, so that appropriate and beneficial strategies for micronutrient supplementation and interventions to improve food diversity and quality can be planned.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S1368980016003608

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400596400007

    View details for PubMedID 28120735

  • Opportunity for marine fisheries reform in China PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Cao, L., Chen, Y., Dong, S., Hanson, A., Huang, B., Leadbitter, D., Little, D. C., Pikitch, E. K., Qiu, Y., de Mitcheson, Y. S., Sumaila, U. R., Williams, M., Xue, G., Ye, Y., Zhang, W., Zhou, Y., Zhuang, P., Naylor, R. L. 2017; 114 (3): 435-442

    Abstract

    China's 13th Five-Year Plan, launched in March 2016, provides a sound policy platform for the protection of marine ecosystems and the restoration of capture fisheries within China's exclusive economic zone. What distinguishes China among many other countries striving for marine fisheries reform is its size-accounting for almost one-fifth of global catch volume-and the unique cultural context of its economic and resource management. In this paper, we trace the history of Chinese government priorities, policies, and outcomes related to marine fisheries since the 1978 Economic Reform, and examine how the current leadership's agenda for "ecological civilization" could successfully transform marine resource management in the coming years. We show how China, like many other countries, has experienced a decline in the average trophic level of its capture fisheries during the past few decades, and how its policy design, implementation, and enforcement have influenced the status of its wild fish stocks. To reverse the trend in declining fish stocks, the government is introducing a series of new programs for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, with greater traceability and accountability in marine resource management and area controls on coastal development. As impressive as these new plans are on paper, we conclude that serious institutional reforms will be needed to achieve a true paradigm shift in marine fisheries management in China. In particular, we recommend new institutions for science-based fisheries management, secure fishing access, policy consistency across provinces, educational programs for fisheries managers, and increasing public access to scientific data.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1616583114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392095800027

    View details for PubMedID 28096504

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5255632

  • Association Between Women's Empowerment and Maternal and Child Nutrition in Kalalé District of Northern Benin. Food and nutrition bulletin Alaofè, H., Zhu, M., Burney, J., Naylor, R., Douglas, T. 2017; 38 (3): 302?18

    Abstract

    Evidence on effectiveness of women's empowerment (WE) to reduce undernutrition is limited in sub-Sahara Africa, and few studies incorporate multidimensional measures of WE.To examine whether a WE status, in sum and across leadership, decision-making, mobility, economic security, male involvement in housework, and nonfamily group domains, is associated with women and their children nutritional status in Kalalé district of northern Benin.Data were obtained from the 2014 Solar Market Garden baseline study: 767 paired reproductive-age women aged 15 to 49 years and children 6 to 59 months old. Exploratory principal component (cross-validate with confirmatory) factor analysis was first conducted to identify the structure of empowerment. Then, using a new survey-based index, regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between WE measures and maternal dietary diversity score (DDS) and body mass index (BMI), as well as their child's DDS, height-for-age z score (HAZ), weight-for-height z score (WHZ), and weight-for-age z score (WAZ).Positive associations were observed between women's composite empowerment, leadership, maternal DDS and BMI, and female child's DDS. However, opposite signs were found between economic security and child's DDS. Mobility was positively associated with female children's WHZ and male children's HAZ and WAZ, while decision-making was correlated with male child's WHZ and female children's WAZ.Women's empowerment can be associated with undernutrition. Efforts to improve nutrition may benefit from empowerment initiatives that promote women's self-confidence and decision-making in Benin. However, additional qualitative and longitudinal research may enhance understanding of WE in the present area.

    View details for PubMedID 28443373

  • Oil crops, aquaculture, and the rising role of demand: A fresh perspective on food security Naylor, R. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2016: 17?25
  • Solar-Powered Drip Irrigation Impacts on Crops Production Diversity and Dietary Diversity in Northern Benin FOOD AND NUTRITION BULLETIN Alaofe, H., Burney, J., Naylor, R., Taren, D. 2016; 37 (2): 164?75

    Abstract

    Meeting the food needs of Africa's growing population will require innovative and appropriate technologies whose effectiveness needs to be assessed.To evaluate the impact of Solar Market Gardens (SMGs) on crops production diversity and dietary diversity in the Kalalé district of Northern Benin.In 2007, SMGs were installed in 2 villages for women's agricultural groups as a strategy for enhancing food and nutrition security. Data were collected through interviews at installation and 1 year later from all women's group households (30-35 women/group) and from a random representative sample of 30 households in each village, for both treatment and matched-pair comparison villages.Comparison of baseline and endline data indicated increases in the variety of fruits and vegetables produced and consumed by SMG women's groups compared to other groups. The proportion of SMG women's group households engaged in vegetable and fruit production significantly increased by 26% and 55%, respectively (P < .05). After controlling for baseline values, SMG women's groups were 3 times more likely to increase their fruit and vegetable consumption compared with comparison non-women's groups (P < .05). In addition, the percentage change in corn, sorghum, beans, oil, rice and fish purchased was significantly greater in the SMG women's groups compared to other groups. At endline, 57% of the women used their additional income on food, 54% on health care, and 25% on education.Solar Market Gardens have the potential to improve household nutritional status through direct consumption and increased income to make economic decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0379572116639710

    View details for Web of Science ID 000376667800005

    View details for PubMedID 27009089

  • Anemia, Iron and Vitamin A Deficits are Still Public Health Issues Among Women and Young Children in Northern Benin Alaofe, H., Burney, J., Naylor, R., Taren, D. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL. 2016
  • Use of Dietary Scores for Diet Quality Measurement: Relation with Nutritional Status of Women in Northern Benin Burney, J., Alaofe, H., Naylor, R., Taren, D. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL. 2016
  • Nutritional Status of Children Under Five Years and Associated Factors in Kalale District, Benin Taren, D., Alaofe, H., Burney, J., Naylor, R. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL. 2016
  • High Time for Conservation: Adding the Environment to the Debate on Marijuana Liberalization BIOSCIENCE Carah, J. K., Howard, J. K., Thompson, S. E., Gianotti, A. G., Bauer, S. D., Carlson, S. M., Dralle, D. N., Gabriel, M. W., Hulette, L. L., Johnson, B. J., Knight, C. A., Kupferberg, S. J., Martin, S. L., Naylor, R. L., Power, M. E. 2015; 65 (8): 822-829
  • China's aquaculture and the world's wild fisheries SCIENCE Cao, L., Naylor, R., Henriksson, P., Leadbitter, D., Metian, M., Troell, M., Zhang, W. 2015; 347 (6218): 133-135
  • Global food supply. China's aquaculture and the world's wild fisheries. Science Cao, L., Naylor, R., Henriksson, P., Leadbitter, D., Metian, M., Troell, M., Zhang, W. 2015; 347 (6218): 133-135

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1260149

    View details for PubMedID 25574011

  • A Global Perspective on Food Systems Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems and Community Development Naylor, R. L. 2015; 5 (2): 15-18
  • High Time for Conservation: Adding the Environment to the Debate on Marijuana Liberalization. Bioscience Carah, J. K., Howard, J. K., Thompson, S. E., Short Gianotti, A. G., Bauer, S. D., Carlson, S. M., Dralle, D. N., Gabriel, M. W., Hulette, L. L., Johnson, B. J., Knight, C. A., Kupferberg, S. J., Martin, S. L., Naylor, R. L., Power, M. E. 2015; 65 (8): 822?29

    Abstract

    The liberalization of marijuana policies, including the legalization of medical and recreational marijuana, is sweeping the United States and other countries. Marijuana cultivation can have significant negative collateral effects on the environment that are often unknown or overlooked. Focusing on the state of California, where by some estimates 60%-70% of the marijuana consumed in the United States is grown, we argue that (a) the environmental harm caused by marijuana cultivation merits a direct policy response, (b) current approaches to governing the environmental effects are inadequate, and

    View details for PubMedID 26955083

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4776720

  • A global perspective on food systems JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE FOOD SYSTEMS AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Naylor, R. L. 2014; 5 (2): 15?18
  • Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system? PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Troell, M., Naylor, R. L., Metian, M., Beveridge, M., Tyedmers, P. H., Folke, C., Arrow, K. J., Barrett, S., Crepin, A., Ehrlich, P. R., Gren, A., Kautsky, N., Levin, S. A., Nyborg, K., Osterblom, H., Polasky, S., Scheffer, M., Walker, B. H., Xepapadeas, T., de Zeeuw, A. 2014; 111 (37): 13257-13263

    Abstract

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (?4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1404067111

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341630000022

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4169979

  • COMMENTARY: Climate engineering reconsidered NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE Barrett, S., Lenton, T. M., Millner, A., Tavoni, A., Carpenter, S., Anderies, J. M., Chapin, F. S., Crepin, A., Daily, G., Ehrlich, P., Folke, C., Galaz, V., Hughes, T., Kautsky, N., Lambin, E. F., Naylor, R., Nyborg, K., Polasky, S., Scheffer, M., Wilen, J., Xepapadeas, A., de Zeeuw, A. 2014; 4 (7): 527-529
  • Introducing the Scientific Consensus on Maintaining Humanity's Life Support Systems in the 21 st Century: Information for Policy Makers ANTHROPOCENE REVIEW Barnosky, A. D., Brown, J. H., Daily, G. C., Dirzo, R., Ehrlich, A. H., Ehrlich, P. R., Eronen, J. T., Fortelius, M., Hadly, E. A., Leopold, E. B., Mooney, H. A., Myers, J., Naylor, R. L., Palumbi, S., Stenseth, N., Wake, M. H. 2014; 1 (1): 78?109
  • Feed and fishmeal use in the production of carp and tilapia in China AQUACULTURE Chiu, A., Li, L., Guo, S., Bai, J., Fedor, C., Naylor, R. L. 2013; 414: 127-134
  • The new economic geography of land use change: Supply chain configurations and land use in the Brazilian Amazon LAND USE POLICY Garrett, R. D., Lambin, E. F., Naylor, R. L. 2013; 34: 265-275
  • Land institutions and supply chain configurations as determinants of soybean planted area and yields in Brazil LAND USE POLICY Garrett, R. D., Lambin, E. F., Naylor, R. L. 2013; 31: 385-396
  • Feed and fishmeal use in the production of tilapia and carps in China Aquaculture Chiu, A., Li, L., Guo, S., Bai, J., Fedor, C., Naylor, R. L. 2013; 414-415: 127-134
  • Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World ECOLOGY AND SOCIETY Liu, J., Hull, V., Batistella, M., DeFries, R., Dietz, T., Fu, F., Hertel, T. W., Izaurralde, R. C., Lambin, E. F., Li, S., Martinelli, L. A., McConnell, W. J., Moran, E. F., Naylor, R., Ouyang, Z., Polenske, K. R., Reenberg, A., Rocha, G. d., Simmons, C. S., Verburg, P. H., Vitousek, P. M., Zhang, F., Zhu, C. 2013; 18 (2)
  • The new economic geography of land use change: supply chain configurations and land use in the Brazilian Amazon Land use Policy Garrett, R.d., Lambin, E. F., Naylor, R. L. 2013; 34
  • Feed and fishmeal use in the production of tilapia and carps in China Journal of Aquaculture Chiu, A., Li, L., Guo, S., Bai, J., Fedor, C., Naylor, R. L. 2013
  • The case for distributed irrigation as a development priority in sub-Saharan Africa Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Burney, J. A., Naylor, R. L., Postel, S. L. 2013
  • The case for distributed irrigation as a development priority in sub-Saharan Africa Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Burney, J. a., Naylo, R. L., Postel, S. L. 2013; 110 (31): 12513-12517

    Abstract

    Distributed irrigation systems are those in which the water access (via pump or human power), distribution (via furrow, watering can, sprinkler, drip lines, etc.), and use all occur at or near the same location. Distributed systems are typically privately owned and managed by individuals or groups, in contrast to centralized irrigation systems, which tend to be publicly operated and involve large water extractions and distribution over significant distances for use by scores of farmers. Here we draw on a growing body of evidence on smallholder farmers, distributed irrigation systems, and land and water resource availability across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to show how investments in distributed smallholder irrigation technologies might be used to (i) use the water sources of SSA more productively, (ii) improve nutritional outcomes and rural development throughout SSA, and (iii) narrow the income disparities that permit widespread hunger to persist despite aggregate economic advancement.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1203597110

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3732976

  • Smallholder Irrigation as a Poverty Alleviation Tool in Sub-Saharan Africa WORLD DEVELOPMENT Burney, J. A., Naylor, R. L. 2012; 40 (1): 110-123
  • Searching for Solutions in Aquaculture: Charting a Sustainable Course ANNUAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES, VOL 37 Klinger, D., Naylor, R. 2012; 37: 247-?
  • Land institutions and supply chain configurations as determinants of soybean planted area and yields in Brazil Land Use Policy Garrett, R. D., Lambin, E. F., Naylor, R. L. 2012
  • Biofuels, rural development, and the changing nature of agricultural demand Naylor, R. L. Global Food Policy and Food Security. 2012
  • Searching for Solutions in Aquaculture: Charting a Sustainable Course Annual Review of Environment and Resources Klinger, D., Naylor, R. L. 2012; 37
  • Searching for Solutions in Aquaculture: Charting a Sustainable Course Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 2012 Klinger, D., Naylor, R. L. 2012
  • Biofuels, rural development, and the changing nature of agricultural demand Global Food Policy and Food Security Naylor, R. L. Center on Food Security and the Environment, Stanford University. 2012
  • Numerical modeling of aquaculture dissolved waste transport in a coastal embayment ENVIRONMENTAL FLUID MECHANICS Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Ku, H., Fringer, O. B., Chiu, A., Naylor, R. L., Koseff, J. R. 2011; 11 (4): 329-352
  • Sugar and ethanol production as a rural development strategy in Brazil: Evidence from the state of Sao Paulo AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS Martinelli, L. A., Garrett, R., Ferraz, S., Naylor, R. 2011; 104 (5): 419-428
  • Expanding the boundaries of agricultural development FOOD SECURITY Naylor, R. 2011; 3 (2): 233-251
  • Lessons Learned Seeds of Sustainability: Lessons from the Birthplace of the Green Revolution in Agriculture Matson, P., Naylor, R., Ortiz-Monasterio, I. edited by Matson, P. A. Island Press. 2011
  • Smallholder irrigation as a tool for escape from poverty in the Sudano-Sahel World Development Burney, J., Naylor, R. 2011
  • Sugar and ethanol production as a rural development strategy in Brazil: Evidence from the state of Sao Paulo Agricultural Systems Martinelli, L., Garrett, R., Ferraz, S., Naylor, R. 2011; 104
  • Numerical modeling of aquaculture dissolved waste transport in a coastal embayment Environmental Fluid Mechanics Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Fringer, O. B., Koseff, J. R., Naylor, R. L. 2011
  • Seeds of Sustainability: Lessons from the Birthplace of the Green Revolution in Agriculture Matson, P., Naylor, R., Ortiz-Monasterio, I. Island Press. 2011
  • Seeds of Sustainability: Lessons from the Birthplace of the Green Revolution in Agriculture Naylor, R., Falcon, W. Island Press. 2011
  • Seeds of Sustainability: Lessons from the Birthplace of the Green Revolution in Agriculture Matson, P., Naylor, R., Ortiz-Monasterio, I. Island Press. 2011
  • The global costs of {A}merican ethanol The American Interest Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P. 2011; 7
  • The global costs of American ethanol The American Interest Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P. 2011; VII (2)
  • The Yaqui Valley?s agricultural transition to a more open economy Seeds of Sustainability: Lessons from the Birthplace of the Green Revolution in Agriculture Naylor, R., Falcon, W. edited by Matson, P. A. Island Press. 2011
  • Looking for win-wins in intensive agriculture Seeds of Sustainability: Lessons from the Birthplace of the Green Revolution in Agriculture Matson, P., Naylor, R., Ortiz-Monasterio, I. edited by Matson, P. A. Island Press. 2011
  • Agriculture in Brazil: impacts, costs, and opportunities for a sustainable future CURRENT OPINION IN ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY Martinelli, L. A., Naylor, R., Vitousek, P. M., Moutinho, P. 2010; 2 (5-6): 431-438
  • Food Security in an Era of Economic Volatility POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P. 2010; 36 (4): 693-?

    Abstract

    This article analyzes international commodity price movements, assesses food policies in response to price fluctuations, and explores the food security implications of price volatility on low-income groups. It focuses specifically on measurements, causes, and consequences of recent food price trends, variability around those trends, and price spikes. Combining these three components of price dynamics shows that the variation in real prices post-2000 was substantially greater than that in the 1980s and 1990s, and was approximately equal to the extreme volatility in commodity prices that was experienced in the 1970s. Macro policy, exchange rates, and petroleum prices were important determinants of price variability over 2005?2010, highlighting the new linkages between the agriculture-energy and agriculture-finance markets that affect the world food economy today. These linkages contributed in large part to misguided expectations and uncertainty that drove prices to their peak in 2008. The article also argues that there is a long-lasting effect of price spikes on food policy around the world, often resulting in self-sufficiency policies that create even more volatility in international markets. The efforts by governments to stabilize prices frequently contribute to even greater food insecurity among poor households, most of which are in rural areas and survive on the margin of net consumption and net production. Events of 2008?and more recently in 2010?underscore the impact of price variability for food security and the need for refocused policy approaches to prevent and mitigate price spikes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2010.00354.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285359600002

    View details for PubMedID 21174866

  • Downscaling Indonesian precipitation using large-scale meteorological fields INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY Vimont, D. J., Battisti, D. S., Naylor, R. L. 2010; 30 (11): 1706-1722

    View details for DOI 10.1002/joc.2010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282306000009

  • ROSAMOND NAYLOR FEEDING EVERYONE SMITHSONIAN Bensen, A., Naylor, R. 2010; 41 (4): 72-73
  • Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION Chapin, F. S., Carpenter, S. R., Kofinas, G. P., Folke, C., Abel, N., Clark, W. C., Olsson, P., Smith, D. M., Walker, B., Young, O. R., Berkes, F., Biggs, R., Grove, J. M., Naylor, R. L., Pinkerton, E., Steffen, W., Swanson, F. J. 2010; 25 (4): 241-249

    Abstract

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses; focusing on proactive policies that shape change; and avoiding or escaping unsustainable social-ecological traps. As we discuss here, all social-ecological systems are vulnerable to recent and projected changes but have sources of adaptive capacity and resilience that can sustain ecosystem services and human well-being through active ecosystem stewardship.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tree.2009.10.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276705600009

    View details for PubMedID 19923035

  • Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano-Sahel PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Burney, J., Woltering, L., Burke, M., Naylor, R., Pasternak, D. 2010; 107 (5): 1848-1853

    Abstract

    Meeting the food needs of Africa's growing population over the next half-century will require technologies that significantly improve rural livelihoods at minimal environmental cost. These technologies will likely be distinct from those of the Green Revolution, which had relatively little impact in sub-Saharan Africa; consequently, few such interventions have been rigorously evaluated. This paper analyzes solar-powered drip irrigation as a strategy for enhancing food security in the rural Sudano-Sahel region of West Africa. Using a matched-pair comparison of villages in northern Benin (two treatment villages, two comparison villages), and household survey and field-level data through the first year of harvest in those villages, we find that solar-powered drip irrigation significantly augments both household income and nutritional intake, particularly during the dry season, and is cost effective compared to alternative technologies.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0909678107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274296300011

    View details for PubMedID 20080616

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2806882

  • Impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation events on China's rice production JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES Deng Xiangzheng, X. Z., Huang Jikun, J. K., Qiao Fangbin, F. B., Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P., Burke, M., Rozelle, S., Battisti, D. 2010; 20 (1): 3-16
  • People, Land Use, and Environment in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora Mexico Population, Land Use, Environment: Research Directions Matson, P., Luers, A., Seto, K., Naylor, R. edited by Entwisle, B., Stern, P. C. National Academies Press. 2010
  • Coping with Climate Risks in Indonesian Rice Agriculture: A Policy Perspective UNCERTAINTY AND ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING: A HANDBOOK OF RESEARCH AND BEST PRACTICE Naylor, R. L., Mastrandrea, M. D., Filar, J. A., Hauer, A. 2010; 138: 127?53
  • Downscaling Indonesia precipitation using large-scale meteorological fields International Journal of Climatology Vimont, D., Battisti, D., Naylor, R. 2010; 30: 1706-1722
  • Handbook on Uncertainty and Environmental Decision Making: Springer International Series in Operations Research and Management Science Naylor, R., Mastrandrea, M. Springer Verlag Press. 2010
  • Population, Land Use, Environment: Research Directions Matson, P., Luers, A., Seto, K., Naylor, R. The National Academies Press. 2010
  • Impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation Events on China's Rice Production Journal of Geographical Sciences Deng, X., Huang, J., Qiao, F., Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Burke, M., Rozelle, S., Battisti, D. 2010; 20
  • Solar-powered drip irrigation enhances food security in the Sudano-Sahel Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Burney, J., Woltering, L., Burke, M., Naylor, R., Pasternak, D. 2010; 107
  • Environmentally responsible aquaculture: California leads the way Los Angeles Times Naylor, R. L., Leonard, G. H. 2010; 15
  • Impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on the world rice market Huang, J., Yang, J., Rozelle, S., Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Battisti, D. Program on Food Security and the Environment. 2010
  • Agriculture in Brazil: impacts, costs, and opportunities for a sustainable future Current Opinion on Sustainable Development Martinelli, L. Nalor, R. Vitousek, P., Moutinho, P. 2010; 2
  • Food security in an era of economic volatility Population and Development Review Naylor, R., Falcon, W. 2010; 36
  • Impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on the world rice market Program on Food Security and the Environment, Stanford University Huang, J., Yang, J., Rozelle, S., Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Battisti, D. 2010
  • Food security in an era of economic volatility Population and Development Review Naylor, R., Falcon, W. 2010; 36 (4)
  • Environmentally responsible aquaculture: California leads the way Los Angeles Times (editorial) Naylor, R. L., Leonard, G. H. 2010; February 15
  • Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources (vol 106, 15103, 2009) PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Naylor, R. L., Hardy, R. W., Bureau, D. P., Chiu, A., Elliott, M., Farrell, A. P., Forster, I., Gatlin, D. M., Goldburg, R. J., Hua, K., Nichols, P. D. 2009; 106 (42): 18040-18040
  • Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Naylor, R. L., Hardy, R. W., Bureau, D. P., Chiu, A., Elliott, M., Farrell, A. P., Forster, I., Gatlin, D. M., Goldburg, R. J., Hua, K., Nichols, P. D. 2009; 106 (36): 15103-15110

    Abstract

    Aquaculture's pressure on forage fisheries remains hotly contested. This article reviews trends in fishmeal and fish oil use in industrial aquafeeds, showing reduced inclusion rates but greater total use associated with increased aquaculture production and demand for fish high in long-chain omega-3 oils. The ratio of wild fisheries inputs to farmed fish output has fallen to 0.63 for the aquaculture sector as a whole but remains as high as 5.0 for Atlantic salmon. Various plant- and animal-based alternatives are now used or available for industrial aquafeeds, depending on relative prices and consumer acceptance, and the outlook for single-cell organisms to replace fish oil is promising. With appropriate economic and regulatory incentives, the transition toward alternative feedstuffs could accelerate, paving the way for a consensus that aquaculture is aiding the ocean, not depleting it.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0905235106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269632400005

    View details for PubMedID 19805247

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2741212

  • El Nino-Southern Oscillation Impacts on Rice Production in Luzon, the Philippines JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY Roberts, M. G., Dawe, D., Falcon, W. P., Naylor, R. L. 2009; 48 (8): 1718-1724
  • Agriculture. Nutrient imbalances in agricultural development. Science Vitousek, P. M., Naylor, R., Crews, T., David, M. B., Drinkwater, L. E., Holland, E., Johnes, P. J., KATZENBERGER, J., Martinelli, L. A., Matson, P. A., Nziguheba, G., Ojima, D., Palm, C. A., Robertson, G. P., Sanchez, P. A., Townsend, A. R., Zhang, F. S. 2009; 324 (5934): 1519-1520

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1170261

    View details for PubMedID 19541981

  • Historical Warnings of Future Food Insecurity with Unprecedented Seasonal Heat SCIENCE Battisti, D. S., Naylor, R. L. 2009; 323 (5911): 240-244

    Abstract

    Higher growing season temperatures can have dramatic impacts on agricultural productivity, farm incomes, and food security. We used observational data and output from 23 global climate models to show a high probability (>90%) that growing season temperatures in the tropics and subtropics by the end of the 21st century will exceed the most extreme seasonal temperatures recorded from 1900 to 2006. In temperate regions, the hottest seasons on record will represent the future norm in many locations. We used historical examples to illustrate the magnitude of damage to food systems caused by extreme seasonal heat and show that these short-run events could become long-term trends without sufficient investments in adaptation.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1164363

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262290600035

    View details for PubMedID 19131626

  • Food security in an era of price volatility: decoding the devil in the details Program on Food Security and the Environment, Stanford University Falcon, W., Naylor, R., Wang, K. 2009
  • Business strategies for conservation on private lands: Koa forestry as a case study Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Goldstein, J. H., Daily, G., C., Friday, B., J., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R. L., Vitousek, P. M. 2009; 103
  • Program on Food Security and the Environment Falcon, W., Naylor, R., Wang, K. Stanford University. 2009
  • Principles of Natural Resource Stewardship: Resilience-Based Management in a Changing World Naylor, R. Springer Verlag Press. 2009
  • El Nino-Southern Oscillation impacts on rice production in Luzon, the Philippines Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology Roberts, M., Dawe, D., Falcon, W., Naylor, R. 2009; 48
  • Nutrient imbalances in agricultural development Science Vitousek, P. M., Naylor, R. L., Crews, T., David, M. B., Drinkwater, L. E., Holland, E., Johnes, P. J., Katzenberger, J., Martinelli, L. A., Matson, P. A., Nziguheba, G., Ojima, D., Palm, C. A., Robertson, G. P., Sanchez, P. A., Townsend, A. R. 2009; 324
  • Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat Science Battisti, D., Naylor, R. 2009; 323
  • Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Naylor, R., R., Hardy, Bureau, D., Chiu, A., Elliott, M., Farrell, A., Forster, I., Gatlin, D., Goldburg, R., Hua., K., Nichols, P. 2009; 16
  • Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet Trends in Ecology and Evolution Chapin, F. S., Carpenter, S. R., Kofinas, G. P., Naylor, R.L., et al 2009
  • Downscaling Indonesia precipitation using large-scale meteorological fields International Journal of Climatology Vimont, D., Battisti, D., Naylor, R. 2009; 30 (11): 1706?1722

    View details for DOI 10.1002/joc.2010

  • Coping with climate risks in Indonesian rice agriculture: a policy perspective Handbook on Uncertainty and Environmental Decision Making Naylor, R., Mastrandrea, M. edited by Filer, J. A., Haurie, A. Springer . 2009
  • Managing food production systems for resilience Resilience-Based Management of Global Ecosystems Naylor, R. edited by Chapin et al Springer Verlag Press. 2009
  • Increasing wildfire in Alaska's boreal forest: Pathways to potential solutions of a wicked problem BIOSCIENCE Chapin, F. S., Trainor, S. F., Huntington, O., Lovecraft, A. L., Zavaleta, E., Natcher, D. C., McGuire, A. D., Nelson, J. L., Ray, L., Calef, M., Fresco, N., Huntington, H., Rupp, T. S., DeWilde, L., Naylor, R. L. 2008; 58 (6): 531-540

    View details for DOI 10.1641/B580609

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256569200009

  • Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030 SCIENCE Lobell, D. B., Burke, M. B., Tebaldi, C., Mastrandrea, M. D., Falcon, W. P., Naylor, R. L. 2008; 319 (5863): 607-610

    Abstract

    Investments aimed at improving agricultural adaptation to climate change inevitably favor some crops and regions over others. An analysis of climate risks for crops in 12 food-insecure regions was conducted to identify adaptation priorities, based on statistical crop models and climate projections for 2030 from 20 general circulation models. Results indicate South Asia and Southern Africa as two regions that, without sufficient adaptation measures, will likely suffer negative impacts on several crops that are important to large food-insecure human populations. We also find that uncertainties vary widely by crop, and therefore priorities will depend on the risk attitudes of investment institutions.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1152339

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252772000037

    View details for PubMedID 18239122

  • Is it Africa?s turn? Boston Review (commentary: The global food crisis exposes the fragility of sub-Saharan economic progress Naylor, R. 2008; 33 (3)
  • Prioritizing climate adaptation needs for food security in 2030 Science Lobell, D., Burke, M., Tebaldi, C., Mastrandrea, M., Falcon, W., Naylor, R. 2008; 319
  • Increasing wildfire in the boreal forest: causes, consequences, and pathways to potential solutions of a wicked problem BioScience Chapin, F. S., Trainor, S. F., Huntington, O., Lovecraft, A. L., Zavaleta, E., Natcher, D. C., McGuire, A. D., Nelson, J., Ray, L., Calef, M., Fresco, N., Huntington, H., Rupp, T. S., DeWilde, L., R. L., Naylor 2008
  • When cars compete with people for food San Francisco Chronicle Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P. 2008; May 18
  • Our Daily Bread: A Review of the Current World Food Crisis Boston Review Naylor, R., Falcon, W. 2008
  • Is it Africa's Turn? Progress in the World's Poorest Region Boston Review Naylor, R. L., Weinstein, J.M., Miguel, E., Bates, R., Banks, K., Ajakaiye, O., Weil, D.N., Singh, S., Collier, P., Glennerster, R. 2008; 33
  • When cars compete with people for food San Francisco Chronicle, Insight editorial Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P. 2008; May 18
  • Our Daily Bread: A Review of the Current World Food Crisis Boston Review Naylor, R., Falcon, W. 2008; September/October
  • International trade in meat: The tip of the pork chop AMBIO Galloway, J. N., Burke, M., Bradford, G. E., Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Chapagain, A. K., Gaskell, J. C., McCullough, E., Mooney, H. A., Oleson, K. L., Steinfeld, H., Wassenaar, T., Smil, V. 2007; 36 (8): 622-629

    Abstract

    This paper provides an original account of global land, water, and nitrogen use in support of industrialized livestock production and trade, with emphasis on two of the fastest-growing sectors, pork and poultry. Our analysis focuses on trade in feed and animal products, using a new model that calculates the amount of "virtual" nitrogen, water, and land used in production but not embedded in the product. We show how key meat-importing countries, such as Japan, benefit from "virtual" trade in land, water, and nitrogen, and how key meat-exporting countries, such as Brazil, provide these resources without accounting for their true environmental cost. Results show that Japan's pig and chicken meat imports embody the virtual equivalent of 50% of Japan's total arable land, and half of Japan's virtual nitrogen total is lost in the US. Trade links with China are responsible for 15% of the virtual nitrogen left behind in Brazil due to feed and meat exports, and 20% of Brazil's area is used to grow soybean exports. The complexity of trade in meat, feed, water, and nitrogen is illustrated by the dual roles of the US and The Netherlands as both importers and exporters of meat. Mitigation of environmental damage from industrialized livestock production and trade depends on a combination of direct-pricing strategies, regulatory approaches, and use of best management practices. Our analysis indicates that increased water- and nitrogen-use efficiency and land conservation resulting from these measures could significantly reduce resource costs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251979900002

    View details for PubMedID 18240675

  • The ripple effect: Biofuels, food security, and the environment ENVIRONMENT Naylor, R. L., Liska, A. J., Burke, M. B., Falcon, W. P., Gaskell, J. C., Rozelle, S. D., Cassman, K. G. 2007; 49 (9): 30-43
  • Assessing risks of climate variability and climate change for Indonesian rice agriculture PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Naylor, R. L., Battisti, D. S., Vimont, D. J., Falcon, W. P., Burke, M. B. 2007; 104 (19): 7752-7757

    Abstract

    El Niño events typically lead to delayed rainfall and decreased rice planting in Indonesia's main rice-growing regions, thus prolonging the hungry season and increasing the risk of annual rice deficits. Here we use a risk assessment framework to examine the potential impact of El Niño events and natural variability on rice agriculture in 2050 under conditions of climate change, with a focus on two main rice-producing areas: Java and Bali. We select a 30-day delay in monsoon onset as a threshold beyond which significant impact on the country's rice economy is likely to occur. To project the future probability of monsoon delay and changes in the annual cycle of rainfall, we use output from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change AR4 suite of climate models, forced by increasing greenhouse gases, and scale it to the regional level by using empirical downscaling models. Our results reveal a marked increase in the probability of a 30-day delay in monsoon onset in 2050, as a result of changes in the mean climate, from 9-18% today (depending on the region) to 30-40% at the upper tail of the distribution. Predictions of the annual cycle of precipitation suggest an increase in precipitation later in the crop year (April-June) of approximately 10% but a substantial decrease (up to 75% at the tail) in precipitation later in the dry season (July-September). These results indicate a need for adaptation strategies in Indonesian rice agriculture, including increased investments in water storage, drought-tolerant crops, crop diversification, and early warning systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0701825104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246461500007

    View details for PubMedID 17483453

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1876519

  • The conservation of global crop genetic resources in the face of climate change Summary report from a Bellagio Conference, Food Security and the Environment Naylor et al., R. 2007
  • Simulations of mixing and transport of dissolved waste discharged from an aquaculture pen Venayagamoorthy, S. K., S. K., Fringer, O. B., Koseff, J.R., Naylor, R.L. 2007
  • The conservation of global crop genetic resources in the face of climate change Naylor, R. et al. 2007
  • Globalization: Effects on Fisheries Resources Naylor, R., Eagle, J., Smith, W. Cambridge University Press. 2007
  • Assessing risks of climate variability and climate change for Indonesian rice agriculture Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Naylor, R. N., Battisti, D. S., Vimont, D. J., Falcon, W. P., Burke, M. B. 2007; 104
  • The ripple effect: biofuels, food security and the environment Environment Naylor, R., Liska, A., Burke, M., Falcon, W., Gaskill, J. Rozelle, S., K. 2007; 49
  • International trade in meat: the tip of the pork chop AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment Galloway, J., Burke, M., Bradford, E., Falcon, W., Gaskell, J., McCullough, E., Mooney, H., Naylor, R., Oleson, K., Smil, V., Steinfeld, H., Wassenaar, T. 2007; 36
  • Agriculture, Development and the Environment in the Yaqui Valley (Mexico) Naylor, R. N., Falcon, W. P. Center for Environmental Science and Policy. 2007
  • The role of policy in agricultural transition Agriculture, Development and the Environment in the Yaqui Valley (Mexico) Naylor, R. N., Falcon , W. P. edited by Matson, P. A., Falcon, W. P. Center for Environmental Science and Policy, Stanford University. 2007
  • Simulations of mixing and transport of dissolved waste discharged from an aquaculture pen Fifth International Symposium on Environmental Hydraulics Venayagamoorthy, S. K., Friinger, O. B., Koseff, J. R., Naylor, R. L. 2007
  • Response of fishermen to aquaculture and the salmon crisis Globalization: Effects on Fisheries Resources Naylor. R.,, R., Eagle, J., and , J., W. Smith, W. edited by Taylor, W. W., Schechter, M., Wolfson, L. Cambridge University Press. 2007
  • Directional changes in ecological communities and social-ecological systems: A framework for prediction based on Alaskan examples AMERICAN NATURALIST Chapin, F. S., Robards, M. D., Huntington, H. P., Johnstone, J. E., Trainor, S. E., Kofinas, G. P., Ruess, R. W., Fresco, N., Natcher, D. C., Naylor, R. L. 2006; 168 (6): S36-S49

    Abstract

    In this article we extend the theory of community prediction by presenting seven hypotheses for predicting community structure in a directionally changing world. The first three address well-studied community responses to environmental and ecological change: ecological communities are most likely to exhibit threshold changes in structure when perturbations cause large changes in limiting soil or sediment resources, dominant or keystone species, or attributes of disturbance regime that influence community recruitment. Four additional hypotheses address social-ecological interactions and apply to both ecological communities and social-ecological systems. Human responsiveness to short-term and local costs and benefits often leads to human actions with unintended long-term impacts, particularly those that are far from the site of decision making or are geographically dispersed. Policies are usually based on past conditions of ecosystem services rather than expected future trends. Finally, institutions that strengthen negative feedbacks between human actions and social-ecological consequences can reduce human impacts through more responsive (and thus more effective) management of public ecosystem services. Because of the large role that humans play in modifying ecosystems and ecosystem services, it is particularly important to test and improve social-ecological hypotheses as a basis for shaping appropriate policies for long-term ecosystem resilience.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242603400005

    View details for PubMedID 17109327

  • Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chapin, F. S., Lovecraft, A. L., Zavaleta, E. S., Nelson, J., Robards, M. D., Kofinas, G. P., Trainor, S. F., Peterson, G. D., Huntington, H. P., Naylor, R. L. 2006; 103 (45): 16637-16643

    Abstract

    Human activities are altering many factors that determine the fundamental properties of ecological and social systems. Is sustainability a realistic goal in a world in which many key process controls are directionally changing? To address this issue, we integrate several disparate sources of theory to address sustainability in directionally changing social-ecological systems, apply this framework to climate-warming impacts in Interior Alaska, and describe a suite of policy strategies that emerge from these analyses. Climate warming in Interior Alaska has profoundly affected factors that influence landscape processes (climate regulation and disturbance spread) and natural hazards, but has only indirectly influenced ecosystem goods such as food, water, and wood that receive most management attention. Warming has reduced cultural services provided by ecosystems, leading to some of the few institutional responses that directly address the causes of climate warming, e.g., indigenous initiatives to the Arctic Council. Four broad policy strategies emerge: (i) enhancing human adaptability through learning and innovation in the context of changes occurring at multiple scales; (ii) increasing resilience by strengthening negative (stabilizing) feedbacks that buffer the system from change and increasing options for adaptation through biological, cultural, and economic diversity; (iii) reducing vulnerability by strengthening institutions that link the high-latitude impacts of climate warming to their low-latitude causes; and (iv) facilitating transformation to new, potentially more beneficial states by taking advantage of opportunities created by crisis. Each strategy provides societal benefits, and we suggest that all of them be pursued simultaneously.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0606955103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241969500005

    View details for PubMedID 17008403

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1636507

  • A case study of land reform and coastal land transformation in southern Sonora, Mexico LAND USE POLICY Luers, A. L., Naylor, R. L., Matson, P. A. 2006; 23 (4): 436-447
  • Offshore aquaculture legislation SCIENCE Naylor, R. 2006; 313 (5792): 1363-1363

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1134023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240348700001

    View details for PubMedID 16959976

  • Business strategies for conservation on private lands: Koa forestry as a case study PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Goldstein, J. H., Daily, G. C., Friday, J. B., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R. A. 2006; 103 (26): 10140-10145

    Abstract

    Innovative financial instruments are being created to reward conservation on private, working lands. Major design challenges remain, however, to make investments in biodiversity and ecosystem services economically attractive and commonplace. From a business perspective, three key financial barriers for advancing conservation land uses must frequently be addressed: high up-front costs, long time periods with no revenue, and high project risk due to long time horizons and uncertainty. We explored ways of overcoming these barriers on grazing lands in Hawaii by realizing a suite of timber and conservation revenue streams associated with their (partial) reforestation. We calculated the financial implications of alternative strategies, focusing on Acacia koa ("koa") forestry because of its high conservation and economic potential. Koa's timber value alone creates a viable investment (mean net present value = $453/acre), but its long time horizon and poor initial cash flow pose formidable challenges for landowners. At present, subsidy payments from a government conservation program targeting benefits for biodiversity, water quality, and soil erosion have the greatest potential to move landowners beyond the tipping point in favor of investments in koa forestry, particularly when combined with future timber harvest (mean net present value = $1,661/acre). Creating financial mechanisms to capture diverse ecosystem service values through time will broaden opportunities for conservation land uses. Governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private investors have roles to play in catalyzing this transition by developing new revenue streams that can reach a broad spectrum of landowners.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0600391103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238872900070

    View details for PubMedID 16782816

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1502519

  • Stewardship principles for farming finfish in the sea Center for Environmental Science and Policy Series Naylor, R. N., Leonard, G., Goldman, J., Joy, N., Evans, S., Goldburg, R., Heggelund, P., Johnson, P., Kelso, D., MacLeod, N., O?Shea, T., Sims, N., Burke, M., Chiu, A., Gerhart, A. Stanford University. 2006
  • Offshore aquaculture legislation Science Naylor, R. N. 2006; 313
  • Center for Environmental Science and Policy Naylor, R. N., Leonard, G., Goldman, J., Joy, N., Evans, S., Goldburg, R., Heggelund, P., Johnson, P., Kelso, D., MacLeod, N., O'Shea, T., Sims, N., Burke, M., Chiu, A., Gerhart, A. Stanford University. 2006
  • Policy strategies to address sustainability of Alaskan boreal forests in response to a directionally changing climate Proceedings of the National Academy of Science Chapin, F. S., Lovecraft, A. L., Zavaleta, E. S., Nelson, J., Robards, M. D., Kofinas, G. P., Trainor, S. F., Peterson, G., Huntington, H. P., Naylor, R. L 2006; 103
  • Directional changes in ecological communities and social-ecological systems: A framework for prediction based on Alaskan examples The American Naturalist Chapin, F. S., Robards, M., Hunington, H. P., Johnstone, J. F., Trainor, S. F., Kofinas, G. P., Ruess, R. W., Fresco, N., Natcher, D. C., Naylor, R. L. 2006; 168
  • A case study of land reform and coastal land transformation in Southern Sonora, Mexico Land Use Policy Luers, A. L., Naylor, R. L., Matson, P. A. 2006; 23
  • Environmental safeguards for open-ocean aquaculture National Academy of Sciences Issues, Science and Technology Naylor, R. 2006
  • Environmental safeguards for open-ocean aquaculture National Academy of Sciences Issues in Science and Technology Naylor, R. 2006; Spring
  • Agriculture. Losing the links between livestock and land. Science Naylor, R., Steinfeld, H., Falcon, W., Galloway, J., Smil, V., Bradford, E., Alder, J., Mooney, H. 2005; 310 (5754): 1621-1622

    View details for PubMedID 16339432

  • Unleashing the genius of the genome to feed the developing world Symposium on Current Issues in Agriculture Naylor, R., Manning, R. AMER PHILOSOPHICAL SOC. 2005: 515?28
  • Analysis of wheat yield and climatic trends in Mexico FIELD CROPS RESEARCH Lobell, D. B., Ortiz-Monasterio, J. I., Asner, G. P., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P. 2005; 94 (2-3): 250-256
  • Fugitive salmon: Assessing the risks of escaped fish from net-pen aquaculture BIOSCIENCE Naylor, R., Hindar, K., Fleming, I. A., Goldburg, R., Williams, S., Volpe, J., Whoriskey, F., Eagle, J., Kelso, D., Mangel, M. 2005; 55 (5): 427?37
  • Future seascapes, fishing, and fish farming FRONTIERS IN ECOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Goldburg, R., Naylor, R. 2005; 3 (1): 21-28
  • Combining field surveys, remote sensing, and regression trees to understand yield variations in an irrigated wheat landscape AGRONOMY JOURNAL Lobell, D. B., Ortiz-Monasterio, J. I., Asner, G. P., Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P. 2005; 97 (1): 241-249
  • A tropical freshwater wetland: III. Direct use values and other goods and services Wetlands Ecology and Management Drew, W. M., Ewel, K. C., Naylor, R. L., Sigrah, A. 2005; 13
  • Combining field surveys, remote sensing, and regression trees to understand yield variation in an irrigated wheat landscape Agronomy Journal Lobell, D., Ortiz-Monasterio, I., Asner, G., Naylor, R., Falcon, W. 2005; 97
  • Future seascapes, fishing, and fish faming Frontiers in Ecology Goldburg, R., Naylor, R. 2005; 3
  • Fugitive salmon: Assessing risks from aquaculture escapes BioScience Naylor, R., Hindar, K., Fleming, I., Goldburg, R., Williams, S., Volpe, J., Whoriskey, F., Eagle, J., Kelso, D., Mangel, M. 2005; 55
  • Aquaculture and ocean resources: raising tigers of the sea Annual Review of Environment and Resources Naylor, R., Burke, M. 2005; 30
  • Rethinking Food Security for the 21st Century American Journal of Agricultural Economics Falcon, W. P., Naylor, R. L. 2005; 87
  • Losing the Links Between Livestock and Land Science Naylor, R., Steinfeld, H., Falcon, W., Galloway, J., Smil, V., Bradford, E., Alder, J., Mooney, H. 2005; 310
  • Unleashing the genius of the genome to feed the developing world Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Naylor, R., Manning, R. 2005; 149
  • Millennium Assessment of the World's Ecosystems Diaz, S., Tilman, D., among contributing authors, Naylor, R.L. Island Press. 2005
  • A tropical freshwater wetland: III. Direct use values and other goods and services Wetlands Ecology and Management Drew, W. M., Ewel, K. C., Naylor, R. L., Sigrah, A. 2005; 13 (6)
  • Fugitive salmon: Assessing risks from aquaculture escapes BioScience Naylor, R., Hindar, K., Fleming, I., Goldburg, R., Williams, S., Volpe, J., Whoriskey, F., Eagle, J., Kelso, D., Mangel, M. 2005; 55 (5)
  • Aquaculture and ocean resources: raising tigers of the sea Annual Review of Environment and Resources Naylor, R., Burke, M. 2005; 30
  • Biodiversity and the regulation of ecosystem services Millennium Assessment of the World?s Ecosystems Diaz, S., , S., Tilman, D.,, D., Naylor (among contributing authors), R. L. Island Press. 2005
  • Rethinking food security for the twenty-first century AMERICAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Falcon, W. P., Naylor, R. L. 2005; 87 (5): 1113-1127
  • Analysis of wheat yield and climatic trends in Mexico Field Crops Research Lobell, D., Ortiz-Monasterio, I., Asner, G., Matson, P., Naylor, R., Falcon, W. 2005; 94
  • Using climate models to improve Indonesian food security BULLETIN OF INDONESIAN ECONOMIC STUDIES Falcon, W. P., Naylor, R. L., Smith, W. L., Burke, M. B., McCullough, E. B. 2004; 40 (3): 355-377
  • The role of genomics research in improvement of "orphan" crops Symposium on Genomics and Plant Breeding Nelson, R. J., Naylor, R. L., Jahn, M. M. CROP SCIENCE SOC AMER. 2004: 1901?4
  • Why farm salmon outcompete fishery salmon MARINE POLICY Eagle, J., Naylor, R., Smith, W. 2004; 28 (3): 259-270
  • Salmon farms and hatcheries ENVIRONMENT Naylor, R. L., Eagle, J., Smith, W. L. 2004; 46 (3): 45-45
  • Biotechnology in the developing world: a case for increased investments in orphan crops 6th International Conference of the International-Consortium-on-Agricultural-Biotechnology-Research Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P., Goodman, R. M., Jahn, M. M., Sengooba, T., Tefera, H., Nelson, R. J. ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2004: 15?44
  • Threats to Aquatic Environments: Is Aquaculture a Solution? The ATSE Crawford Fund Conference Naylor, R. A., Brown, (ed.), G. 2004
  • Salmon aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest: A global industry with local impacts Environment Naylor, R., Eagle, J., Smith, W. 2004
  • Biotechnology in the developing world: a case for increased investments in orphan crops Food Policy Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P., Goodman, R. M., Jahn, M. M., Sengooba, T., Tefera, H., Nelson, R. J. 2004; 29
  • Why farm salmon out-compete fishery salmon Marine Policy Eagle, J., Naylor, R., Smith, W. 2004; 28
  • Threats to Aquatic Environments: Is Aquaculture a Solution? Naylor, R. The Crawford Fund. 2004
  • Using climate models to improve Indonesian food security Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies Falcon, W., Naylor, R., Smith, W., Burke, M., McCullough, E. 2004
  • Salmon aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest - A global industry ENVIRONMENT Naylor, R. L., Eagle, J., Smith, W. L. 2003; 45 (8): 18-?
  • Illustrating the coupled human-environment system for vulnerability analysis: Three case studies PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Turner, B. L., Matson, P. A., McCarthy, J. J., Corell, R. W., Christensen, L., Eckley, N., Hovelsrud-Broda, G. K., Kasperson, J. X., Kasperson, R. E., Luers, A., Martello, M. L., Mathiesen, S., Naylor, R., Polsky, C., Pulsipher, A., Schiller, A., Selin, H., Tyler, N. 2003; 100 (14): 8080-8085

    Abstract

    The vulnerability framework of the Research and Assessment Systems for Sustainability Program explicitly recognizes the coupled human-environment system and accounts for interactions in the coupling affecting the system's responses to hazards and its vulnerability. This paper illustrates the usefulness of the vulnerability framework through three case studies: the tropical southern Yucatán, the arid Yaqui Valley of northwest Mexico, and the pan-Arctic. Together, these examples illustrate the role of external forces in reshaping the systems in question and their vulnerability to environmental hazards, as well as the different capacities of stakeholders, based on their access to social and biophysical capital, to respond to the changes and hazards. The framework proves useful in directing attention to the interacting parts of the coupled system and helps identify gaps in information and understanding relevant to reducing vulnerability in the systems as a whole.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1231334100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184222500010

    View details for PubMedID 12815106

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC166185

  • The role of genomics research in improvement of orphan crops Crop Science Nelson, R. J., Naylor, R. L., Jahn, M. M. 2003; 44
  • Illustrating the coupled human-environment system for vulnerability analysis: three case studies Proceedings National Academy of Sciences Turner, B. L., Matson, P. A., among contributing authors, Naylor, R. L. 2003; 100
  • Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices NATURE Tilman, D., Cassman, K. G., Matson, P. A., Naylor, R., Polasky, S. 2002; 418 (6898): 671-677

    Abstract

    A doubling in global food demand projected for the next 50 years poses huge challenges for the sustainability both of food production and of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and the services they provide to society. Agriculturalists are the principal managers of global usable lands and will shape, perhaps irreversibly, the surface of the Earth in the coming decades. New incentives and policies for ensuring the sustainability of agriculture and ecosystem services will be crucial if we are to meet the demands of improving yields without compromising environmental integrity or public health.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature01014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177305600053

    View details for PubMedID 12167873

  • Migration, markets, and mangrove resource use on Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia AMBIO Naylor, R. L., Bonine, K. M., Ewel, K. C., Waguk, E. 2002; 31 (4): 340-350

    Abstract

    Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, is a prototype of an island economy prone to economic crowding. Average family size is large, the habitable land area is small, economic activity is limited, and household dependence on natural resources for fuel and food is high. We analyze how economic crowding--and its mitigation through trade and migration policies--affects mangrove resource use. A comparison of household survey data from 1996 and 2000 indicates that despite decreases in US aid and public-sector jobs, average household consumption of mangrove resources has not increased. Migration and remittances have allowed the purchase of imported fuel and building materials substituting for mangrove wood. Despite changing preferences and shifts toward import consumption, population growth and further declines in US financial support will likely cause aggregate demand for mangrove and upland wood to rise. Moreover, continued emigration may accelerate the export of mangrove crabs to off-island Kosraeans.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176989000012

    View details for PubMedID 12174605

  • Policy implications of human-accelerated nitrogen cycling (Reprinted from Biogeochemistry, vol 52, pg 281-320, 2001) BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Mosier, A. R., Bleken, M. A., Chaiwanakupt, P., Ellis, E. C., Freney, J. R., Howarth, R. B., Matson, P. A., Minami, K., Naylor, R., Weeks, K. N., Zhu, Z. L. 2002; 57 (1): 477-516
  • Using El Nino - Southern oscillation climate data to improve food policy planning in Indonesia BULLETIN OF INDONESIAN ECONOMIC STUDIES Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Wada, N., Rochberg, D. 2002; 38 (1): 75-91
  • Integrating New Genetic Technologies Into Orphan-Crop Improvement in the Least Developed Countries 6th Annual Conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies: New Avenues for Production, Consumption, and Technology Transfer Naylor, R., Nelson, R., Falcon, W., Goodman, R., Jahn, M., Kalazich, J., Sengooba, T., Tefera, H. 2002
  • Using El Nino/Southern Oscillation climate data to inform food policy in Indonesia The Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Wada, N., Rochberg, D. 2002; 38
  • Migration, markets, and mangrove resource use in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment Naylor, R. L., Bonine, K., Ewel, K., Waguk, E. 2002; 31
  • Integrating New Genetic Technologies Into Orphan-Crop Improvement in the Least Developed Countries Naylor, R., Nelson, R., Falcon, W., Goodman, R., Jahn, M., Kalazich, J., Sengooba, T., Tefera, H. 2002
  • Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices Nature Tilman, D., Cassman, K., Matson, P., Naylor, R., Polasky, S. 2002; 418
  • Ecology - Aquaculture - A gateway for exotic species SCIENCE Naylor, R. L., Williams, S. L., Strong, D. R. 2001; 294 (5547): 1655-1656

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172307400020

    View details for PubMedID 11721035

  • Using El Nino/Southern oscillation climate data to predict rice production in Indonesia CLIMATIC CHANGE Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P., Rochberg, D., Wada, N. 2001; 50 (3): 255-265
  • Policy implications of human-accelerated nitrogen cycling BIOGEOCHEMISTRY Mosier, A. R., Bleken, M. A., Chaiwanakupt, P., Ellis, E. C., Freney, J. R., Howarth, R. B., Matson, P. A., Minami, K., Naylor, R., Weeks, K. N., Zhu, Z. L. 2001; 52 (3): 281-320
  • Aquaculture: A net loss? Conservation Biology in Practice Naylor, R., Goldburg, R., Beveridge, M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Kautsky, N., Lubchenco, J., Mooney, H., Primavera, J., Troell, M. 2001; 2
  • Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies Nature Naylor, R., Goldburg, R., Primavera, J., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Lubchenco, R., H., Mooney, Troell, M. 2001; 405
  • Policy implications of human-accelerated nitrogen cycling Biogeochemistry Mosier, A., Bleken, M., Chaiwanakupt, P., Ellis, E., Freney, J., Howarth, R., Matson, P., Minami, K., Naylor, R., Weeks, K., Zhu, Z. 2001; 52
  • Policy reforms and Mexican agriculture: views from the Yaqui Valley Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Puente-Gonzalez, A. 2001
  • Using El Nino/Southern Oscillation climate data predict rice production in Indonesia Climatic Change Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Rochberg, D., N. Wada, N. 2001; 50
  • Marine aquaculture in the United States: Environmental Impacts and Policy Options Goldburg, R. J., Elliot, M., Naylor, R. L. 2001
  • Aquaculture: A net loss? Conservation Biology in Practice Naylor, R., Goldburg, R., Beveridge, M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Kautsky, N., Lubchenco, J., Mooney, H., Primavera, J., Troell, M. 2001; 2
  • Aquaculture: A gateway for exotic species Science Naylor, R. L., Williams, S. L., Strong, D. R. 2001; 294
  • Marine aquaculture in the United States: Environmental Impacts and Policy Options Goldburg, R. J., Elliot, M., Naylor, R. L. Pew Ocean Commission, Arlington, Virginia. 2001
  • Policy reforms and Mexican agriculture: views from the Yaqui Valley CIMMYT Economics Working Paper, Mexico D.F. Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Puente-Gonzalez, A. 2001
  • Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies NATURE Naylor, R. L., Goldburg, R. J., Primavera, J. H., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M. C., Clay, J., Folke, C., Lubchenco, J., Mooney, H., Troell, M. 2000; 405 (6790): 1017-1024

    Abstract

    Global production of farmed fish and shellfish has more than doubled in the past 15 years. Many people believe that such growth relieves pressure on ocean fisheries, but the opposite is true for some types of aquaculture. Farming carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Some aquaculture systems also reduce wild fish supplies through habitat modification, wild seedstock collection and other ecological impacts. On balance, global aquaculture production still adds to world fish supplies; however, if the growing aquaculture industry is to sustain its contribution to world fish supplies, it must reduce wild fish inputs in feed and adopt more ecologically sound management practices.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087871700035

    View details for PubMedID 10890435

  • Consequences of changing biodiversity NATURE Chapin, F. S., Zavaleta, E. S., Eviner, V. T., Naylor, R. L., Vitousek, P. M., Reynolds, H. L., Hooper, D. U., Lavorel, S., Sala, O. E., Hobbie, S. E., Mack, M. C., Diaz, S. 2000; 405 (6783): 234-242

    Abstract

    Human alteration of the global environment has triggered the sixth major extinction event in the history of life and caused widespread changes in the global distribution of organisms. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. This has profound consequences for services that humans derive from ecosystems. The large ecological and societal consequences of changing biodiversity should be minimized to preserve options for future solutions to global environmental problems.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087080100061

    View details for PubMedID 10821284

  • Agriculture and global change Earth Systems: Processes and Issues Naylor, R. edited by Ernst, G. Cambridge University Press. 2000
  • Consequences of changing biodiversity Nature Chapin, F. S., Zavaleta, E. S., Eviner, V. T., Naylor, R. L., Vitousek, P. M., Sala, O. E., Reynolds, H. L., Hooper, D. U., Mack, M., Diaz, S. E., Hobbie, S. E., Lavorel, S. 2000; 405
  • Invasive Species in a Changing World Naylor, R. L. Island Press. 2000
  • Earth Systems: Processes and Issues Naylor, R. Cambridge University Press. 2000
  • The economics of alien species invasions Invasive Species in a Changing World, Naylor, R. L. , R. L. edited by Mooney, H., Hobbs, R. Island Press. 2000
  • The maize transition in Asia: Unlocking the controversy Annual Meeting of the American-Agricultural-Economics-Association Falcon, W. P., Naylor, R. L. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 1998: 960?68
  • Ecology - Nature's subsidies to shrimp and salmon farming SCIENCE Naylor, R. L., Goldburg, R. J., Mooney, H., Beveridge, M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Kautsky, N., Lubchenco, J., Primavera, J., Williams, M. 1998; 282 (5390): 883-884
  • Integration of environmental, agronomic, and economic aspects of fertilizer management SCIENCE Matson, P. A., Naylor, R., Ortiz-Monasterio, I. 1998; 280 (5360): 112-115

    Abstract

    Nitrogen fertilization is a substantial source of nitrogen-containing trace gases that have both regional and global consequences. In the intensive wheat systems of Mexico, typical fertilization practices lead to extremely high fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO). In experiments, lower rates of nitrogen fertilizer, applied later in the crop cycle, reduced the loss of nitrogen without affecting yield and grain quality. Economic analyses projected this alternative practice to save 12 to 17 percent of after-tax profits. A knowledge-intensive approach to fertilizer management can substitute for higher levels of inputs, saving farmers money and reducing environmental costs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072885100048

  • Valuing Mangrove Resources in Kosrae, Micronesia Environment and Development Economics Naylor, R. L., Drew, W. M. 1998 ; 3.4
  • Valuing Mangrove Resources in Kosrae, Micronesia Environment and Development Economics Naylor, R. L., Drew, W. M. 1998; 3
  • Integration of environmental, agronomic, and economic aspects of fertilizer management Science Matson, P. A., Naylor, R. L., Ortiz-Monasterio, I. 1998
  • Nature's subsidies to shrimp and salmon farming Science Naylor, R., Goldburg, R., Mooney, H., Beveridge, M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Kautsky, N., Lubchenco, J., Primavera, J., Williams, M. 1998
  • Variability and growth in grain yields, 1950-94: Does the record point to greater instability? POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Zavaleta, E. 1997; 23 (1): 41-?
  • The Value of Natural Pest Control Services in Agriculture Ecosystem Services Naylor, R., Ehrlich, P. edited by Daily, G. Island Press. 1997
  • Herbicides in Asian Rice: Transitions in Weed Management Naylor, R. L. International Rice Research Institute Publications. 1997
  • Ecosystem Services Naylor, R., Ehrlich, P. Island Press. 1997
  • Herbicides in Asian Rice: Transitions in Weed Management Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Kennedy, D. International Rice Research Institute Publications. 1997
  • Variability and Growth in Grain Yields 1950-1994: Does the Record Point to Greater Instability? Population and Development Review Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P., Zavaleta, E. 1997; 23
  • Herbicides in Asian Rice Production: Perspectives from Economics, Ecology, and the Agricultural Sciences Herbicides in Asian Rice: Transitions in Weed Management Naylor, R. L. edited by Naylor, R. L. International Rice Research Institute Publications, Los Banos, The Philippines. 1997
  • Herbicide Strategies for Asian Rice Systems Herbicides in Asian Rice: Transitions in Weed Management Naylor, R., Falcon, W., Kennedy, D. edited by Naylor, R. L. International Rice Research Institute Publications, Los Banos, The Philippines. 1997
  • Invasions in agriculture: Assessing the cost of the golden apple snail in Asia AMBIO Naylor, R. 1996; 25 (7): 443-448
  • Energy and resource constraints on intensive agricultural production ANNUAL REVIEW OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Naylor, R. L. 1996; 21: 99-123
  • Energy and Resource Constraints on Intensive Agricultural Production Annual Review of Energy and Environment Naylor, R. 1996; 21
  • Invasions in Agriculture: Assessing the Cost of the Golden Apple Snail in Asia AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment Naylor, R. 1996; 25
  • Is the locus of poverty changing? FOOD POLICY Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P. 1995; 20 (6): 501-518
  • Is the Locus of Poverty Changing? Food Policy Naylor, R. L., Falcon, W. P. 1995; 20
  • CULTURE AND AGRICULTURE - EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES AFFECTING WOMEN IN JAVA RICE ECONOMY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE Naylor, R. 1994; 42 (3): 509-535
  • HERBICIDE USE IN ASIAN RICE PRODUCTION WORLD DEVELOPMENT Naylor, R. 1994; 22 (1): 55-70
  • Herbicide Use in Asian Rice Production World Development Naylor, R. 1994; 22
  • Culture and Agriculture: Employment Practices Affecting Women in Java's Rice Economy Economic Development and Cultural Change Naylor, R. 1994; 42
  • DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH FOOD POLICY Naylor, R., Matson, P. 1993; 18 (3): 249-251
  • LABOR-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE JAVANESE RICE ECONOMY - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND A LOOK INTO THE 1990S (VOL 28, PG 85, 1992) BULLETIN OF INDONESIAN ECONOMIC STUDIES Naylor, R. 1993; 29 (1): U1-U1
  • REAL WAGES AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE - WOMENS WELFARE IN THE JAVANESE RICE ECONOMY FOOD POLICY Naylor, R. 1993; 18 (1): 73-78
  • Food, Conservation, and Global Environmental Change: Is Compromise Possible? EOS Transactions Naylor, R., Matson, P. 1993; 74 (15)
  • Real Wages and Institutional Change: Women's Welfare in the Javanese Rice Economy Food Policy Naylor, R. 1993; 18
  • Food, Conservation, and Global Environmental Change: Is Compromise Possible? EOS Transactions, American Geophysical Union Naylor, R., Matson, P. 1993; 74
  • LABOR-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE JAVANESE RICE ECONOMY - RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND A LOOK INTO THE 1990S BULLETIN OF INDONESIAN ECONOMIC STUDIES Naylor, R. 1992; 28 (3): 71-91
  • Labor-Saving Technologies in the Javanese Rice Economy: Recent Developments and a Look Into the 1990s Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies Naylor, R. 1992; 28
  • Equity Effects of Alternative Rice Policies Rice Policies in Indonesia Naylor, R. edited by Pearson et al Cornell University Press. 1991
  • Rice Policies in Indonesia Pearson, S., Naylor, R., Falcon, W. Cornell University Press. 1991
  • Rice Policies in Indonesia Naylor, R. Cornell University Press. 1991
  • Rice Policies in Indonesia Naylor, R. Cornell University Press. 1991
  • The Rural Labor Market in Indonesia Rice Policies in Indonesia Naylor, R. edited by Pearson et al Cornell University Press. 1991
  • Recent Policy Influences on Rice Production Rice Policies in Indonesia Pearson, S., Naylor, R., Falconed , W. edited by Pearson et al Cornell University Press. 1991
  • WAGE TRENDS IN RICE PRODUCTION ON JAVA - 1976-1988 BULLETIN OF INDONESIAN ECONOMIC STUDIES Naylor, R. 1990; 26 (2): 133-156
  • Wage Trends in Rice Production on Java: 1976 1988 Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies Naylor, R. 1990; 26
  • Youth Unemployment and the Minimum Wage Annals of Regional Science Naylor (then Lee), R., Lillydahl, J., Singell, L. 1981
  • Youth Unemployment and the Minimum Wage Annals of Regional Science Naylor, R. then Lee, R., Lillydahl, J., Singell, L. 1981

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