Bachelor of Science, Universitat Bayreuth (2008)
Doctor of Philosophy, Indiana University (2015)
Karla Kirkegaard, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Matrix proteins are encoded by many enveloped viruses, including influenza viruses, herpes viruses, and coronaviruses. Underneath the viral envelope of influenza virus, matrix protein 1 (M1) forms an oligomeric layer critical for particle stability and pH-dependent RNA genome release. However, high-resolution structures of full-length monomeric M1 and the matrix layer have not been available, impeding antiviral targeting and understanding of the pH-dependent transitions involved in cell entry. Here, purification and extensive mutagenesis revealed protein-protein interfaces required for the formation of multilayered helical M1 oligomers similar to those observed in virions exposed to the low pH of cell entry. However, single-layered helical oligomers with biochemical and ultrastructural similarity to those found in infectious virions before cell entry were observed upon mutation of a single amino acid. The highly ordered structure of the single-layered oligomers and their likeness to the matrix layer of intact virions prompted structural analysis by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The resulting 3.4-Å-resolution structure revealed the molecular details of M1 folding and its organization within the single-shelled matrix. The solution of the full-length M1 structure, the identification of critical assembly interfaces, and the development of M1 assembly assays with purified proteins are crucial advances for antiviral targeting of influenza viruses.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000827
View details for PubMedID 32997652
For many viruses, capsids (biological nanoparticles) assemble to protect genetic material and dissociate to release their cargo. To understand these contradictory properties, we analyzed capsid assembly for hepatitis B virus; an endemic pathogen with an icosahedral, 120-homodimer capsid. We used solution X-ray scattering to examine trapped and equilibrated assembly reactions. To fit experimental results, we generated a library of distinct intermediates, selected by umbrella sampling of Monte Carlo simulations. The number of possible capsid intermediates is immense, 1030, yet assembly reactions are rapid and completed with high fidelity. If the huge number of possible intermediates were actually present, maximum entropy analysis shows that assembly reactions would be blocked by an entropic barrier, resulting in incomplete nanoparticles. When an energetic term was applied to select the stable species that dominated the reaction mixture, we found only a few hundred intermediates, mapping out a narrow path through the immense reaction landscape. This is a solution to a viral application of the Levinthal paradox. With the correct energetic term, the match between predicted intermediates and scattering data was striking. The grand canonical free energy landscape for assembly, calibrated by our experimental results, supports a detailed analysis of this complex reaction. There is a narrow range of energies that supports on-path assembly. If association energy is too weak or too strong, progressively more intermediates will be entropically blocked, spilling into paths leading to dissociation or trapped incomplete nanoparticles, respectively. These results are relevant to many viruses and provide a basis for simplifying assembly models and identifying new targets for antiviral intervention. They provide a basis for understanding and designing biological and abiological self-assembly reactions.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.9b00648
View details for PubMedID 31173689
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is a dynamic and versatile protein that directs many viral processes. During capsid assembly, core protein allosteric changes ensure efficient formation of a stable capsid that assembles while packaging viral RNA-polymerase complex. Reverse transcription of the RNA genome as well as transport of the capsid to multiple cellular compartments are directed by dynamic phosphorylation and structural changes of core protein. Subsequently, interactions of the capsid with the surface proteins and/or host proteins trigger envelopment and release of the viral capsids or the transport to the nucleus. Held together by many weak protein-protein interactions, the viral capsid is an extraordinary metastable machine that is stable enough to persist in the cellular and extracellular environment but dissociates to allow release of the viral genome at the right time during infection.
View details for DOI 10.1101/cshperspect.a021394
View details for Web of Science ID 000368599500011
View details for PubMedID 26552701
Hepatitis B Virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty HBV T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage compared to CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-EM studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at fivefold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at fivefolds, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the HBV lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M115.678441
View details for Web of Science ID 000365761900049
View details for PubMedID 26405031
Virus assembly is a coordinated process in which typically hundreds of subunits react to form complex, symmetric particles. We use resistive-pulse sensing to characterize the assembly of hepatitis B virus core protein dimers into T = 3 and T = 4 icosahedral capsids. This technique counts and sizes intermediates and capsids in real time, with single-particle sensitivity, and at biologically relevant concentrations. Other methods are not able to produce comparable real-time, single-particle observations of assembly reactions below, near, and above the pseudocritical dimer concentration, at which the dimer and capsid concentrations are approximately equal. Assembly reactions across a range of dimer concentrations reveal three distinct patterns. At dimer concentrations as low as 50 nM, well below the pseudocritical dimer concentration of 0.5 ?M, we observe a switch in the ratio of T = 3 to T = 4 capsids, which increases with decreasing dimer concentration. Far above the pseudocritical dimer concentration, kinetically trapped, incomplete T = 4 particles assemble rapidly, then slowly anneal into T = 4 capsids. At all dimer concentrations tested, T = 3 capsids form more rapidly than T = 4 capsids, suggesting distinct pathways for the two forms.
View details for DOI 10.1021/acsnano.5b03231
View details for PubMedID 26266555
Electrophoretic mobilities and particle sizes of individual Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) capsids were measured in nanofluidic channels with two nanopores in series. The channels and pores had three-dimensional topography and were milled directly in glass substrates with a focused ion beam instrument assisted by an electron flood gun. The nanochannel between the two pores was 300 nm wide, 100 nm deep, and 2.5 ?m long, and the nanopores at each end had dimensions 45 nm wide, 45 nm deep, and 400 nm long. With resistive-pulse sensing, the nanopores fully resolved pulse amplitude distributions of T = 3 HBV capsids (32 nm outer diameter) and T = 4 HBV capsids (35 nm outer diameter) and had sufficient peak capacity to discriminate intermediate species from the T = 3 and T = 4 capsid distributions in an assembly reaction. Because the T = 3 and T = 4 capsids have a wiffle-ball geometry with a hollow core, the observed change in current due to the capsid transiting the nanopore is proportional to the volume of electrolyte displaced by the volume of capsid protein, not the volume of the entire capsid. Both the signal-to-noise ratio of the pulse amplitude and resolution between the T = 3 and T = 4 distributions of the pulse amplitudes increase as the electric field strength is increased. At low field strengths, transport of the larger T = 4 capsid through the nanopores is hindered relative to the smaller T = 3 capsid due to interaction with the pores, but at sufficiently high field strengths, the T = 3 and T = 4 capsids had the same electrophoretic mobilities (7.4 × 10(-5) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) in the nanopores and in the nanochannel with the larger cross-sectional area.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ac503527d
View details for Web of Science ID 000347590400074
View details for PubMedID 25489919
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4287839
Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), a close relative of human hepatitis B virus (HBV), has been a key model for disease progression and clinical studies. Sequences of the assembly domain of WHV and HBV core proteins (wCp149 and hCp149, respectively) have 65% identity, suggesting similar assembly behaviors. We report a cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the WHV capsid at nanometer resolution and characterization of wCp149 assembly. At this resolution, the T=4 capsid structures of WHV and HBV are practically identical. In contrast to their structural similarity, wCp149 demonstrates enhanced assembly kinetics and stronger dimer-dimer interactions than hCp149: at 23 °C and at 100 mM ionic strength, the pseudocritical concentrations of assembly of wCp149 and hCp149 are 1.8 ?M and 43.3 ?M, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that wCp149 assembles into predominantly T=4 capsids with a sizeable population of larger, nonicosahedral structures. Charge detection mass spectrometry indicates that T=3 particles are extremely rare compared to the ? 5% observed in hCp149 reactions. Unlike hCp149, wCp149 capsid assembly is favorable over a temperature range of 4 °C to 37 °C; van't Hoff analyses relate the differences in temperature dependence to the high positive values for heat capacity, enthalpy, and entropy of wCp149 assembly. Because the final capsids are so similar, these findings suggest that free wCp149 and hCp149 undergo different structural transitions leading to assembly. The difference in the temperature dependence of wCp149 assembly may be related to the temperature range of its hibernating host.In this paper, we present a cryo-EM structure of a WHV capsid showing its similarity to HBV. We then observe that the assembly properties of the two homologous proteins are very different. Unlike human HBV, the capsid protein of WHV has evolved to function in a nonhomeostatic environment. These studies yield insight into the interplay between core protein self-assembly and the host environment, which may be particularly relevant to plant viruses and viruses with zoonotic cycles involving insect vectors.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.01840-14
View details for Web of Science ID 000345292100017
View details for PubMedID 25253350
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4249156
During the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle, capsid assembly and disassembly must ensure correct packaging and release of the viral genome. Here we show that changes in the dynamics of the core protein play an important role in regulating these processes. The HBV capsid assembles from 120 copies of the core protein homodimer. Each monomer contains a conserved cysteine at position 61 that can form an intradimer disulfide that we use as a marker for dimer conformational states. We show that dimers in the context of capsids form intradimer disulfides relatively rapidly. Surprisingly, compared to reduced dimers, fully oxidized dimers assembled slower and into capsids that were morphologically similar but less stable. We hypothesize that oxidized protein adopts a geometry (or constellation of geometries) that is unfavorable for capsid assembly, resulting in weaker dimer-dimer interactions as well as slower assembly kinetics. Our results suggest that structural flexibility at the core protein intradimer interface is essential for regulating capsid assembly and stability. We further suggest that capsid destabilization by the C61-C61 disulfide has a regulatory function to support capsid disassembly and release of the viral genome.
View details for DOI 10.1021/bi500732b
View details for Web of Science ID 000341229800004
View details for PubMedID 25102363
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4151697
The assembly of hundreds of identical proteins into an icosahedral virus capsid is a remarkable feat of molecular engineering. How this occurs is poorly understood. Key intermediates have been anticipated at the end of the assembly reaction, but it has not been possible to detect them. In this work we have used charge detection mass spectrometry to identify trapped intermediates from late in the assembly of the hepatitis B virus T = 4 capsid, a complex of 120 protein dimers. Prominent intermediates are found with 104/105, 110/111, and 117/118 dimers. Cryo-EM observations indicate the intermediates are incomplete capsids and, hence, on the assembly pathway. On the basis of their stability and kinetic accessibility we have proposed plausible structures. The prominent trapped intermediate with 104 dimers is attributed to an icosahedron missing two neighboring facets, the 111-dimer species is assigned to an icosahedron missing a single facet, and the intermediate with 117 dimers is assigned to a capsid missing a ring of three dimers in the center of a facet.
View details for DOI 10.1021/ja411460w
View details for Web of Science ID 000332684700033
View details for PubMedID 24548133
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3985884
Hepatitis B virus core gene products can adopt different conformations to perform their functional roles. In this issue of Structure, DiMattia and colleagues show the crystal structure of immuno-modulating HBeAg and thereby reveal the similarities and differences between it and HBcAg, the variant found in virions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.str.2012.12.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000313383400004
View details for PubMedID 23312031
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3545281