Doctor of Philosophy, Xiamen University (2016)
Geminin expression is essential for embryonic development and the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. In spite of this protective role, geminin is also frequently overexpressed in human cancers and the molecular mechanisms underlying its role in tumor progression remain unclear. The histone deacetylase HDAC3 modulates transcription factors to activate or suppress transcription. Little is known about how HDAC3 specifies substrates for modulation among highly homologous transcription factor family members. Here, we have demonstrated that geminin selectively couples the transcription factor forkhead box O3 (FoxO3) to HDAC3, thereby specifically facilitating FoxO3 deacetylation. We determined that geminin-associated HDAC3 deacetylates FoxO3 to block its transcriptional activity, leading to downregulation of the downstream FoxO3 target Dicer, an RNase that suppresses metastasis. Breast cancer cells depleted of geminin or HDAC3 exhibited poor metastatic potential that was attributed to reduced suppression of the FoxO3-Dicer axis. Moreover, elevated levels of geminin, HDAC3, or both together with decreased FoxO3 acetylation and reduced Dicer expression were detected in aggressive human breast cancer specimens. These results underscore a prominent role for geminin in promoting breast cancer metastasis via the enzyme-substrate-coupling mechanism in HDAC3-FoxO3 complex formation.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI90077
View details for Web of Science ID 000402620800016
View details for PubMedID 28436938
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5451250
FoxO transcription factors have been reported to play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and drug resistance. The mechanisms underlying the tumor suppression function of FoxOs in human cancers remain largely unknown. Aberrant expression and activation of Nrf2 often correlate with chemoresistance and poor prognosis. Here, we report that FoxO3 directs the basal transcription of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an adaptor protein that bridges Nrf2 to Cul3 for degradation. FoxO3 depletion resulted in Keap1 down-regulation, thereby activating Nrf2 signaling. We further demonstrated that inhibition of the FoxO3-Keap1 axis accounts for Nrf2 induction and activation induced by constitutively active AKT signaling or tumor necrosis factor ? treatment. Unlike previous findings, FoxO3 silencing led to decreased reactive oxygen species production, therefore protecting cells from oxidative stress-induced killing in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Importantly, FoxO3 deficiency strongly potentiated tumor formation in nude mice and rendered cholangiocarcinoma xenografts resistant to cisplatin-induced cell death by activating Nrf2. Additionally, we found that clinical cholangiocarcinoma samples displayed FoxO3-Keap1 down-regulation and Nrf2 hyperactivation, underscoring the essential roles of these proteins in cholangiocarcinoma development.Our results unravel a unique mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor function of FoxO3 through constraining Nrf2 signaling. (Hepatology 2016;63:1914-1927).
View details for DOI 10.1002/hep.28496
View details for Web of Science ID 000376361800019
View details for PubMedID 26857210
Autophagy is a potentially inimical pathway and together with apoptosis, may be activated by similar stress stimuli that can lead to cell death. The molecular cues that dictate the cell fate choice between autophagy and apoptosis remain largely unknown. Here we report that the proapoptotic protein BBC3/PUMA (BCL2 binding component 3) is a bona fide substrate of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). BBC3 associates with HSPA8/HSC70 (heat shock 70kDa protein 8), leading to its lysosome translocation and uptake. Inhibition of CMA results in stabilization of BBC3, which in turn sensitizes tumor cells to undergo apoptosis. We further demonstrate that upon TNF (tumor necrosis factor) treatment, IKBKB/IKK? (inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase ?)-mediated BBC3 Ser10 phosphorylation is crucial for BBC3 stabilization via blocking its degradation by CMA. Mechanistically, Ser10 phosphorylation facilitates BBC3 translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria. BBC3 stabilization resulting from either Ser10 phosphorylation or CMA inhibition potentiates TNF-induced apoptotic cell death. Our findings thus reveal that the selective degradation of BBC3 underlies the prosurvival role of CMA and define a previously unappreciated proapoptotic role of IKBKB that acts through phosphorylation-mediated stabilization of BBC3, thereby promoting TNF-triggered apoptosis.
View details for DOI 10.1080/15548627.2015.1075688
View details for Web of Science ID 000361629400013
View details for PubMedID 26212789
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4590652
The biological function of Tripartite Motif 39 (TRIM39) remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that TRIM39 regulates the steady-state levels of p21 and is a pivotal determinant of cell fate. Ablation of TRIM39 leads to destabilization of p21 and increased G1/S transition in unperturbed cells. Furthermore, DNA damage-induced p21 accumulation is completely abolished in cells with depleted TRIM39. As a result, silencing of TRIM39 abrogates the G2 checkpoint induced by genotoxic stress, leading to increased mitotic entry and, ultimately, apoptosis. Importantly, we show p21 is a crucial downstream effector of TRIM39 mediating G1/S transition and DNA damage-induced G2 arrest. Mechanistically, TRIM39 interacts with p21, which subsequently prevents Cdt2 from binding to p21, therefore blocking ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of p21 mediated by CRL4(Cdt2) E3 ligase. Strikingly, we found a significant correlation between p21 abundance and TRIM39 expression levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma samples. Our findings identify a causal role for TRIM39 in regulating cell cycle progression and the balance between cytostasis and apoptosis after DNA damage via stabilizing p21.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1214156110
View details for Web of Science ID 000313123700043
View details for PubMedID 23213251
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3529087