What Do We Mean by Physician Wellness? A Systematic Review of Its Definition and Measurement
2018; 42 (1): 94?108
High-dose spaced theta-burst TMS as a rapid-acting antidepressant in highly refractory depression.
Brain : a journal of neurology
Well-Being in Residency: A Systematic Review.
Journal of graduate medical education
2016; 8 (5): 674?84
Physician wellness (well-being) is recognized for its intrinsic importance and impact on patient care, but it is a construct that lacks conceptual clarity. The authors conducted a systematic review to characterize the conceptualization of physician wellness in the literature by synthesizing definitions and measures used to operationalize the construct.A total of 3057 references identified from PubMed, Web of Science, and a manual reference check were reviewed for studies that quantitatively assessed the "wellness" or "well-being" of physicians. Definitions of physician wellness were thematically synthesized. Measures of physician wellness were classified based on their dimensional, contextual, and valence attributes, and changes in the operationalization of physician wellness were assessed over time (1989-2015).Only 14% of included papers (11/78) explicitly defined physician wellness. At least one measure of mental, social, physical, and integrated well-being was present in 89, 50, 49, and 37% of papers, respectively. The number of papers operationalizing physician wellness using integrated, general-life well-being measures (e.g., meaning in life) increased [X 2 = 5.08, p = 0.02] over time. Changes in measurement across mental, physical, and social domains remained stable over time.Conceptualizations of physician wellness varied widely, with greatest emphasis on negative moods/emotions (e.g., burnout). Clarity and consensus regarding the conceptual definition of physician wellness is needed to advance the development of valid and reliable physician wellness measures, improve the consistency by which the construct is operationalized, and increase comparability of findings across studies. To guide future physician wellness assessments and interventions, the authors propose a holistic definition.
View details for PubMedID 28913621
Hypomagnesemia in Adolescents With Eating Disorders Hospitalized for Medical Instability
NUTRITION IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
2012; 27 (5): 689-694
Rates of physician burnout have increased in recent years, and high burnout levels are reported by physicians in training.This review of the research on resident well-being seeks to identify factors associated with well-being, summarize well-being promotion interventions, and provide a framework for future research efforts.Keywords were used to search PubMed, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE. Studies included were conducted between 1989 and 2014. The search yielded 82 articles, 26 which met inclusion criteria, and were assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument.Articles measured resident well-being and associated factors, predictors, effects, barriers, as well as interventions to improve well-being. Factors identified in psychological well-being research-autonomy, building of competence, and strong social relatedness-are associated with resident well-being. Sleep and time away from work are associated with greater resident well-being. Perseverance is predictive of well-being, and greater well-being is associated with increased empathy. Interventions focused on health and coping skills appear to improve well-being, although the 3 studies that examined interventions were limited by small samples and single site administration.An important step in evolving research in this area entails the development of a clear definition of resident well-being and a scale for measuring the construct. The majority (n?=?17, 65%) of existing studies are cross-sectional analyses of factors associated with well-being. The literature summarized in this review suggests future research should focus on factors identified in cross-sectional studies, including sleep, coping mechanisms, resident autonomy, building competence, and enhanced social relatedness.
View details for DOI 10.4300/JGME-D-15-00764.1
View details for PubMedID 28018531
Hypomagnesemia in patients with eating disorders is poorly characterized, particularly among adolescents.To determine the prevalence of hypomagnesemia (Mg ? 1.7 mg/dL) and clinical characteristics of adolescents hospitalized with a DSM-IV-diagnosed eating disorder who developed hypomagnesemia, a retrospective chart review was conducted on all adolescents aged 10-21 years with an eating disorder were hospitalized at a tertiary care children's hospital from 2007 to 2010. Patients were refed orally with standard nutrition and high-energy liquid supplements. Serum magnesium and phosphorus were obtained on admission, every 24-48 hours for the first week, and thereafter as clinically indicated. Clinical characteristics of patients with hypomagnesemia were compared with those of individuals with normal magnesium levels and those with hypophosphatemia.Eighty-six of 541 eligible participants (15.9%) developed hypomagnesemia. Forty (47%) with hypomagnesemia admitted to purging in the year before admission, with 88% purging during the prior month. Compared with those with normal serum magnesium levels, patients with hypomagnesemia were older (P = .0001), ill longer (P = .001), more likely to be purging (P = .04), and more likely to have an alkaline urine (P = .01). They did not differ in eating disorder diagnosis, BMI, or other electrolyte disturbances. Hypomagnesemia developed 4.9 ± 5.5 days after refeeding was initiated, significantly later than the onset of hypophosphatemia, 0.95 ± 2.6 days (P < .001).Hypomagnesemia is prevalent in adolescents hospitalized for an eating disorder and is associated with purging and alkaline urine. Hypomagnesemia develops later in the course of refeeding than hypophosphatemia. Magnesium levels should continue to be monitored after the more immediate risk of hypophosphatemia has passed, especially in those with alkaline urine.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0884533612446799
View details for PubMedID 22683565