Clinical Associate Professor, Cardiothoracic Surgery
To assess the health economic impact of perioperative myocardial infarction in a cohort of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.Retrospective cohort analysis using data from hospital bills and uniform billing forms.A total of 147 geographically diverse hospitals in the United States.The study population consisted of 2,102 coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients enrolled in the PRIMO-CABG trial at U.S. sites between January 2002 and February 2003.None.Resource utilization and costs during the index hospitalization and during a 6-month follow-up period were compared between patients who had a myocardial infarction by postoperative day 4 and those who did not. Linear regression was used to examine whether myocardial infarction by day 4 was associated with index hospitalization costs, after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Myocardial infarction occurred in 191 (9.1%) patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Myocardial infarction was associated with a doubling of intensive care unit time (3.5 days among patients with no myocardial infarction and 7.1 days among patients with myocardial infarction, p < .01) and a 48% increase in hospital length of stay. Myocardial infarction by day 4 was associated with a 43% increase in hospital costs, a 29% increase in physician service costs, a 41% increase in total costs during the index hospitalization, and a 38% increase in cumulative 6-month costs. After baseline adjustment, myocardial infarction continued to be associated with higher index hospitalization costs.Myocardial infarction following coronary artery bypass graft surgery was associated with a significant increase in intensive care unit time, hospital length of stay, and overall costs, which contributed to greater hospital and physician service costs. Healthcare resource utilization is increased in patients sustaining a myocardial infarction following coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1097/01.CCM.0000262403.08546.A2
View details for Web of Science ID 000245867800012
View details for PubMedID 17414091
During cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass, pro-inflammatory complement pathways are activated by exposure of blood to bio-incompatible surfaces of the extracorporeal circuit and reperfusion of ischemic organs. Complement activation promotes the generation of additional inflammatory mediators thereby exacerbating tissue injury. We examined the safety and efficacy of a C5 complement inhibitor for attenuating inflammation-mediated cardiovascular dysfunction in cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.Pexelizumab (Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Cheshire, CT), a recombinant, single-chain, anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, was evaluated in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial that involved 914 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with or without valve surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass.Pexelizumab was administered intravenously as a bolus (2.0 mg/kg) or bolus plus infusion (2.0 mg/kg plus 0.05 mg/kg/h for 24 hours), and inhibited complement activation. There were no statistically significant differences between placebo-treated and pexelizumab-treated patients in the primary endpoint (composite of death, or new Q-wave, or non-Q-wave [myocardial-specific isoform of creatine kinase > 60 ng/mL] myocardial infarction, or left ventricular dysfunction, or new central nervous system deficit). However, post hoc analysis revealed a reduction in the composite of death or myocardial infarction (myocardial-specific isoform of creatine kinase >/= 100 ng/mL) for the isolated coronary artery bypass grafting, bolus plus infusion subgroup on POD 4 (p = 0.007) and on POD 30 (p = 0.004).Pexelizumab had no statistically significant effect on the primary endpoint. However, the reduction in death or myocardial infarction (myocardial-specific isoform of creatine kinase >/= 100 ng/mL) as revealed in the post hoc analysis in the isolated coronary artery bypass grafting bolus plus infusion subpopulation, suggests that further investigation of anti-C5 therapy for ameliorating complement-mediated inflammation and myocardial injury is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2003.08.054
View details for Web of Science ID 000189317000041
View details for PubMedID 14992903