Clinical Focus

  • Residency

Professional Education

  • BS, Texas A&M University, Biomedical Engineering (2010)
  • MD, Weill Cornell Medical College, Medicine (2016)


All Publications

  • Readmission following discharge on labetalol or nifedipine for management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy Do, S. C., Panelli, D. M., Girsen, A. I., Suharwardy, S., Estes, J., Gibbs, R. S., El-Sayed, Y., Lyell, D. J., Druzin, M. L., Bentley, J. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2019: S341
  • Oral versus intravenous iron therapy for postpartum anemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology Sultan, P., Bampoe, S., Shah, R., Guo, N., Estes, J., Stave, C., Goodnough, T., Halpern, S., Butwick, A. J. 2018


    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of randomized trials comparing oral versus intravenous iron therapy to treat postpartum anemia.DATA SOURCES: Data sources were: PubMed (1972-2017); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CENTRAL (1972-2017); CINAHL (1972-2017); Web of Science; Excerpta Medica Database, and EMBASE (1972-2017).STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included randomized trials comparing oral versus intravenous iron monotherapy to treat postpartum anemia (classified as a hemoglobin<12 g/dL).STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. The primary outcome was the hemoglobin concentration at 6 weeks postpartum. Secondary outcomes included: hemoglobin concentration at 1 - 5 weeks postpartum, ferritin concentration at 1 - 6 weeks postpartum; and maternal adverse outcomes. For meta-analysis, mean differences and odds ratios using a random effects model were calculated. Risk of heterogeneity was reported as I2.RESULTS: Fifteen randomized trials met our inclusion criteria (n=1,001 and 1,181 women receiving oral iron and intravenous iron, respectively); 4 studies reported data for our primary outcome. We observed higher postpartum week 6 hemoglobin concentrations in the iv iron group compared to the oral iron group, (mean difference 0.9 g/dL, 95% CI=0.4, 1.3; p=0.0003). Compared to oral iron, women receiving iv iron had higher hemoglobin concentrations at postpartum weeks 1, 2, and 3; higher ferritin concentrations at postpartum weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6; an increased likelihood of skin flushing (odds ratio=6.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-31.03; P=0.01; I2=0%); and a decreased likelihood of constipation (odds ratio=0.08, 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.21; P=<0.00001, I2=27%) and dyspepsia (odds ratio=0.07, 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.42; P=0.004; I2=0%). The reported event rate for anaphylaxis among women receiving intravenous iron was 0.6%.CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review, among women with postpartum anemia, hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks postpartum were almost 1 g/dL higher in women who received intravenous iron compared to oral iron. The safety profile of intravenous iron was also reassuring. Given the weaker hemoglobin response and higher risk of gastrointestinal side-effects with oral iron use, our findings suggest that intravenous iron be considered as a viable treatment option for postpartum iron deficiency anemia.

    View details for PubMedID 30578747

  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist as a novel treatment for interstitial cystitis: A rat model. Investigative and clinical urology Mahal, A., Young-Lin, N., Dobberfuhl, A., Estes, J., Comiter, C. V. 2018; 59 (4): 257?62


    Purpose: To understand the therapeutic potential of pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonist with a propensity to cause bladder mucosal proliferation, on interstitial cystitis (IC) in a rat model.Materials and Methods: Using a previously described animal model for IC, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with biweekly cyclophosphamide injections (35 mg/kg) to induce cystitis. Animals were divided into 4 groups (n=6 for each group): IC plus daily sham saline gavage (IC+Pio-), IC plus daily pioglitazone gavage (15 mg/kg) (IC+Pio+), normal rats with daily pioglitazone (IC-Pio+), and normal rats with neither IC nor pioglitazone (IC-Pio- or Control). At the end of four weeks, urinary frequency and bladder capacity were measured. Histologic examination of urothelial integrity was also performed.Results: Average voids per hour were significantly lower in IC+Pio+ (4.01.9) vs. IC+Pio- (10.02.4) rats (p<0.01) and were similar to IC-Pio+ (6.01.4) and IC-Pio- (6.01.5) controls. Cystometric capacity was significantly higher in IC+Pio+ (0.9450.122 mL) vs. IC+Pio- rats (0.5880.165 mL, p=0.01) and was comparable to IC-Pio- capacity (0.8170.196 mL) and IC-Pio+ capacity (0.9410.188 mL). Urothelial structural integrity was improved in IC+Pio+ rats versus IC+Pio- rats upon histologic observation.Conclusions: Pioglitazone, a PPAR-gamma agonist, improved bladder function in cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis by both observed urinary frequency and measured cystometric capacity. Urothelial structural integrity was also improved. Pioglitazone, due to a propensity to cause bladder mucosal proliferation, may prove useful for treating IC, and deserves further investigation.

    View details for PubMedID 29984341

  • A pulmonary embolism response team's initial 20 month experience treating 87 patients with submassive and massive pulmonary embolism. Vascular medicine (London, England) Sista, A. K., Friedman, O. A., Dou, E., Denvir, B., Askin, G., Stern, J., Estes, J., Salemi, A., Winokur, R. S., Horowitz, J. M. 2018; 23 (1): 65?71


    Pulmonary Embolism Response Teams (PERTs) have emerged to provide rapid multidisciplinary assessment and treatment of PE patients. However, descriptive institutional experience and preliminary outcomes data from such teams are sparse. PERT activations were identified through a retrospective review. Only confirmed submassive or massive PEs were included in the data analysis. In addition to baseline variables, the therapeutic intervention, length of stay (LOS), in-hospital mortality, and bleeding rate/severity were recorded. A total of 124 PERT activations occurred over 20 months: 43 in the first 10 months and 81 in the next 10. A total of 87 submassive (90.8%) and massive (9.2%) PE patients were included. The median age was 65 (51-75 IQR) years. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) was administered to 25 patients, systemic thrombolysis (ST) to six, and anticoagulation alone (AC) to 54. The median ICU stay and overall LOS were 6 (3-10 IQR) and 7 (4-14 IQR) days, respectively, with no association with any variables except a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) >100 pg/mL ( p=0.008 ICU LOS; p=0.047 overall LOS). Twelve patients (13.7%) died in the hospital, nine of whom had metastatic or brain cancer, with a median overall LOS of 13 (11-17 IQR) days. There were five major bleeds: one in the CDT group, one in the ST group, and three in the AC group. Overall, (1) PERT activations increased after the first 10 months; (2) BNP >100 pg/mL was associated with a longer LOS; (3) rates of mortality and bleeding did not correlate with treatment; and (4) the majority of in-hospital deaths occurred in patients with advanced cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1358863X17730430

    View details for PubMedID 28920554

  • Does the time interval between hysteroscopic polypectomy and start of in vitro fertilization affect outcomes? FERTILITY AND STERILITY Pereira, N., Amrane, S., Estes, J. L., Lekovich, J. P., Elias, R. T., Chung, P. H., Rosenwaks, Z. 2016; 105 (2): 539-?


    To investigate whether the time interval between hysteroscopic polypectomy and the start of IVF-ET cycles affect IVF cycle outcomes.Retrospective cohort.Academic center.All patients diagnosed with endometrial polyps undergoing hysteroscopic polypectomy before fresh IVF-ET.Hysteroscopic polypectomy.Patients were divided into three groups based on the time interval between hysteroscopic polypectomy and the start of a fresh IVF-ET cycle. Group 1 consisted of patients who underwent IVF-ET after their next menses, group 2 after two or three menstrual cycles, and group 3 after more than three menstrual cycles. Demographics, baseline IVF characteristics, controlled ovarian stimulation response, and pregnancy outcomes after ET were compared among the groups.A total of 487 patients met inclusion criteria: 241 in group 1 (49.5%), 172 in group 2 (35.3%), and 74 in group 3 (15.2%). There were no differences in the baseline characteristics of the three groups. Ovarian stimulation outcomes, specifically total stimulation days, total gonadotropins administered, and number of oocytes retrieved, were similar between groups. There were no differences in the mean number of embryos transferred. The overall pregnancy outcomes were similar for groups 1, 2, and 3: implantation rate (42.4%, 41.2%, and 42.1%, respectively), clinical pregnancy rate (48.5%, 48.3%, and 48.6%), spontaneous miscarriage rate (4.56%, 4.65%, and 4.05%), and live birth rate (44.0, 43.6%, and 44.6%).Because waiting for two or more menstrual cycles after hysteroscopic polypectomy does not necessarily yield superior outcomes, patients can undergo ovarian stimulation after their next menses without affecting IVF-ET outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.10.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373405900046

    View details for PubMedID 26604066

  • Three-Dimensional Volumetric Assessment of the Nasolacrimal Duct in Patients With Obstruction OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Estes, J. L., Tsiouris, A. J., Christos, P. J., Lelli, G. J. 2015; 31 (3): 211-214


    The purpose of this study was to determine if a significant difference exists in the nasolacrimal duct volume of subjects with primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction compared with that of controls.This was a retrospective, case-control study of 70 subjects with prior maxillofacial CT scans, including 35 subjects with obstruction and 35 controls. Volume measurements of the nasolacrimal duct were made on a GE Advantage Workstation using volume viewer software, and measurements were compared using an unpaired Student t test. Interrater and intrarater reliabilities were calculated.There was no significant difference in the nasolacrimal duct volume of patients (0.411 0.18 cm) compared with that of controls (0.380 0.13 cm(3)) (p = 0.23). Women had smaller volume ducts (0.356 0.11 cm(3)) than that of men (0.482 0.19 cm(3)) (p < 0.001). Male patients had smaller volume ducts (0.470 0.23 cm(3)) than that of male controls (0.493 0.14 cm(3)) (p = 0.70), while female patients (0.384 0.13 cm(3)) had significantly larger volume ducts than that of female controls (0.328 0.08 cm(3)) (p = 0.01). There was excellent interrater and intrarater reliabilities.CT 3-dimensional volumetric software can be used to accurately measure the nasolacrimal duct volume in patients with obstruction. Both the absence of a significant difference in patient's and control's nasolacrimal duct volumes and the overlap in range between the 2 groups imply that the volume of the tear duct is likely not related to the etiology of obstruction. The increase in volume seen in females with obstruction may be due to expansion of the bony canal during the postmenopausal years. The exact etiology of primary nasolacrimal duct obstruction requires further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/IOP.0000000000000259

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354222200022

    View details for PubMedID 25153312

  • Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes. Journal of pathogens Pereira, N., Kucharczyk, K. M., Estes, J. L., Gerber, R. S., Lekovich, J. P., Elias, R. T., Spandorfer, S. D. 2015; 2015: 578423-?


    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2015/578423

    View details for PubMedID 26609434

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