Modeling Cardiovascular Risks of E-Cigarettes With Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
2019; 73 (21): 2722?37
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have experienced a tremendous increase in use. Unlike cigarette smoking, the effects of e-cigarettes and their constituents on mediating vascular health remain understudied. However, given their increasing popularity, it is imperative to evaluate the health risks of e-cigarettes, including the effects of their ingredients, especially nicotine and flavorings.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of flavored e-cigarette liquids (e-liquids) and serum isolated from e-cigarette users on endothelial health and endothelial cell-dependent macrophage activation.Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) and a high-throughput screening approach were used to assess endothelial integrity following exposure to 6 different e-liquids with varying nicotine concentrations and to serum from e-cigarette users.The cytotoxicity of the e-liquids varied considerably, with the cinnamon-flavored product being most potent and leading to significantly decreased cell viability, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, caspase 3/7 activity, and low-density lipoprotein uptake, activation of oxidative stress-related pathway, and impaired tube formation and migration, confirming endothelial dysfunction. Upon exposure of ECs to e-liquid, conditioned media induced macrophage polarization into a pro-inflammatory state, eliciting the production of interleukin-1? and -6, leading to increased ROS. After exposure of human iPSC-ECs to serum of e-cigarette users, increased ROS linked to endothelial dysfunction was observed, as indicated by impaired pro-angiogenic properties. There was also an observed increase in inflammatory cytokine expression in the serum of e-cigarette users.Acute exposure to flavored e-liquids or e-cigarette use exacerbates endothelial dysfunction, which often precedes cardiovascular diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.03.476
View details for PubMedID 31146818
Comparison of Non-Coding RNAs in Exosomes and Functional Efficacy of Human Embryonic Stem Cell- Versus Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio)
Both human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs) and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) can serve as unlimited cell sources for cardiac regenerative therapy. However, the functional equivalency between human ESC-CMs and iPSC-CMs for cardiac regenerative therapy has not been demonstrated. Here we performed a head-to-head comparison of ESC-CMs and iPSC-CMs in their ability to restore cardiac function in a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model as well as their exosomal secretome.Human ESCs and iPSCs were differentiated into cardiomyocytes using small molecule inhibitors. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis confirmed ?85% and ?83% of CMs differentiated from ESCs and iPSCs, respectively, were positive for cardiac troponin T. At a single-cell level, both cell types displayed similar calcium handling and electrophysiological properties, with gene expression comparable to the human fetal heart marked by striated sarcomeres. Sub-acute transplantation of ESC-CMs and iPSC-CMs into nude rats post-MI improved cardiac function, which was associated with increased expression of angiogenic genes in vitro following hypoxia. Profiling of exosomal microRNAs (miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) revealed that both groups contain an identical repertoire of miRs and lncRNAs, including some that are known to be cardioprotective.We demonstrate for the first time that both ESC-CMs and iPSC-CMs can facilitate comparable cardiac repair. This is advantageous because unlike allogeneic ESC-CMs used in therapy, autologous iPSC-CMs could potentially avoid immune rejection when used for cardiac cell transplantation in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for PubMedID 28710827