All Publications

  • Disparities as Predictors of Non-Healing in Lower Extremity Wounds George, E. L., Trang, K., Dua, A., Parsley, J. D., Robertson, R., Fukaya, E., Sen, S. K., Gurtner, G. C., Chandra, V. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E248
  • Institutional Retrospective Review of Ultrasound-Accelerated Arterial and Venous Thrombolysis Howe, K. L., George, E. L., Lee, A., Chandra, V., Mell, M. W. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2017: 105S
  • Incidence and Risk Factors for Turf Toe Injuries in Intercollegiate Football: Data From the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System FOOT & ANKLE INTERNATIONAL George, E., Harris, A. H., Dragoo, J. L., Hunt, K. J. 2014; 35 (2): 108-115


    Turf toe is the general term for a sprain of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint complex. Previously attributed to shoe design and artificial turf, the incidence of turf toe injury has been thought to decline with the advent of newer turf designs. However, the current incidence and epidemiology remain unknown as the majority of the literature consists of small series and addresses diagnosis and treatment rather than epidemiology and prevention.We examined data from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (2004-2005 through 2008-2009), including all preseason, regular season, and postseason practice and competition data. The incidence, epidemiology, and risk factors for turf toe injury, defined as injury to the connective tissue of the first MTP joint, plantar plate complex, and/or sesamoid fracture, were determined.The overall incidence of turf toe injuries in NCAA football players was 0.062 per 1000 athlete-exposures (A-Es; 95% CI 0.052, 0.072). Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared to practice, with a mean days lost due to injury of 10.1 (7.9, 12.4). Fewer than 2% of turf toe injuries required operative intervention. There was a significantly higher injury rate on third-generation artificial surfaces compared to natural grass (0.087 per 1000 A-E [0.067, 0.11] vs 0.047 per 1000 A-E [0.036, 0.059]). The majority of injuries occurred as a result of contact with the playing surface (35.4%) or contact with another player (32.7%), and running backs and quarterbacks were the most common positions to suffer turf toe injury.Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of turf toe injuries during games, a greater susceptibility among running backs and quarterbacks, and a significant contribution of playing surface to risk of injury. Though turf toe injuries may be less common that previously reported in elite football players, these injuries warrant appropriate acute and long-term management to prevent long-term dysfunction.Level IV, case series.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1071100713514038

    View details for PubMedID 24334272

  • Epidemiology of syndesmosis injuries in intercollegiate football: incidence and risk factors from National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system data from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009. Clinical journal of sport medicine Hunt, K. J., George, E., Harris, A. H., Dragoo, J. L. 2013; 23 (4): 278-282


    OBJECTIVE:: To describe the incidence and risk factors for high ankle sprains (ie, syndesmosis injuries) among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players. DESIGN:: Descriptive epidemiologic study. SETTING:: Data were examined from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009). PARTICIPANTS:: All NCAA men's football programs participating in the ISS. ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS:: No additional risk factors were introduced as a result of this analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: For partial and complete syndesmosis injuries, outcome measures included incidence, time lost from participation, and requirement for surgical repair. RESULTS:: The overall incidence of high ankle sprains in NCAA football players was 0.24 per 1000 athlete exposures, accounting for 24.6% of all ankle sprains. Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared with practice; complete syndesmosis injuries resulted in significantly greater time lost compared with partial injuries (31.3 vs 15.8 days). Less than 3% of syndesmosis injuries required surgical intervention. There was a significantly higher injury incidence on artificial surfaces compared with natural grass. The majority of injuries (75.2%) occurred during contact with another player. CONCLUSIONS:: Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of syndesmosis injuries during games, during running plays, and to running backs and interior defensive linemen. The wide range in time lost from participation for complete syndesmosis injuries underscores the need for improved understanding of injury mechanism and classification of injury severity such that prevention, safe return to play protocols, and outcomes can be further improved.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31827ee829

    View details for PubMedID 23339895

  • Increased efficiency of the GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated neurotransmission in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome NEUROBIOLOGY OF DISEASE Kleschevnikov, A. M., Belichenko, P. V., Gall, J., George, L., Nosheny, R., Maloney, M. T., Salehi, A., Mobley, W. C. 2012; 45 (2): 683-691


    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) involves the hippocampus. In the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and synaptic plasticity were linked to enhanced inhibition. However, the mechanistic basis of changes in inhibitory efficiency remains largely unexplored, and efficiency of the GABAergic synaptic neurotransmission has not yet been investigated in direct electrophysiological experiments. To investigate this important feature of neurobiology of DS, we examined synaptic and molecular properties of the GABAergic system in the dentate gyrus (DG) of adult Ts65Dn mice. Both GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated components of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were significantly increased in Ts65Dn vs. control (2N) DG granule cells. These changes were unaccompanied by alterations in hippocampal levels of GABAA (?1, ?2, ?3, ?5 and ?2) or GABAB (Gbr1a and Gbr1b) receptor subunits. Immunoreactivity for GAD65, a marker for GABAergic terminals, was also unchanged. In contrast, there was a marked change in functional parameters of GABAergic synapses. Paired stimulations showed reduced paired-pulse ratios of both GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated IPSC components (IPSC2/IPSC1), suggesting an increase in presynaptic release of GABA. Consistent with increased gene dose, the level of the Kir3.2 subunit of potassium channels, effectors for postsynaptic GABAB receptors, was increased. This change was associated with enhanced postsynaptic GABAB/Kir3.2 signaling following application of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Thus, both GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated synaptic efficiency is increased in the Ts65Dn DG, thus likely contributing to deficient synaptic plasticity and poor learning in DS.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nbd.2011.10.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299500200003

    View details for PubMedID 22062771

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3259223

  • Restoration of disk height through non- surgical spinal decompression is associated with decreased discogenic low back pain: a retrospective cohort study BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS Apfel, C. C., Cakmakkaya, O. S., Martin, W., Richmond, C., Macario, A., George, E., Schaefer, M., Pergolizzi, J. V. 2010; 11


    Because previous studies have suggested that motorized non-surgical spinal decompression can reduce chronic low back pain (LBP) due to disc degeneration (discogenic low back pain) and disc herniation, it has accordingly been hypothesized that the reduction of pressure on affected discs will facilitate their regeneration. The goal of this study was to determine if changes in LBP, as measured on a verbal rating scale, before and after a 6-week treatment period with non-surgical spinal decompression, correlate with changes in lumbar disc height, as measured on computed tomography (CT) scans.A retrospective cohort study of adults with chronic LBP attributed to disc herniation and/or discogenic LBP who underwent a 6-week treatment protocol of motorized non-surgical spinal decompression via the DRX9000 with CT scans before and after treatment. The main outcomes were changes in pain as measured on a verbal rating scale from 0 to 10 during a flexion-extension range of motion evaluation and changes in disc height as measured on CT scans. Paired t-test or linear regression was used as appropriate with p < 0.05 considered to be statistically significant.We identified 30 patients with lumbar disc herniation with an average age of 65 years, body mass index of 29 kg/m2, 21 females and 9 males, and an average duration of LBP of 12.5 weeks. During treatment, low back pain decreased from 6.2 (SD 2.2) to 1.6 (2.3, p < 0.001) and disc height increased from 7.5 (1.7) mm to 8.8 (1.7) mm (p < 0.001). Increase in disc height and reduction in pain were significantly correlated (r = 0.36, p = 0.044).Non-surgical spinal decompression was associated with a reduction in pain and an increase in disc height. The correlation of these variables suggests that pain reduction may be mediated, at least in part, through a restoration of disc height. A randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm these promising results.NCT00828880.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2474-11-155

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280834100001

    View details for PubMedID 20615252

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2912793

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