School of Medicine
Showing 1-100 of 662 Results
Oscar J. Abilez
Instructor, Medicine - Cardiovascular Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Bioengineering, biophysical control of cardiovascular development, pluripotent stem cell biology, optogenetics, electrophysiology, cell mechanics, directed cellular evolution, multiscale engineering, microfluidics, computational biology
Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering and, by courtesy, of Genetics
Bio The Abu-Remaileh Lab is interested in identifying novel pathways that enable cellular and organismal adaptation to metabolic stress and changes in environmental conditions. We also study how these pathways go awry in human diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration and metabolic syndrome, in order to engineer new therapeutic modalities.
To address these questions, our lab uses a multidisciplinary approach to study the biochemical functions of the lysosome in vitro and in vivo. Lysosomes are membrane-bound compartments that degrade macromolecules and clear damaged organelles to enable cellular adaptation to various metabolic states. Lysosomal function is critical for organismal homeostasis?mutations in genes encoding lysosomal proteins cause severe human disorders known as lysosomal storage diseases, and lysosome dysfunction is implicated in age-associated diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration and metabolic syndrome.
By developing novel tools and harnessing the power of metabolomics, proteomics and functional genomics, our lab will define 1) how the lysosome communicates with other cellular compartments to fulfill the metabolic demands of the cell under various metabolic states, 2) and how its dysfunction leads to rare and common human diseases. Using insights from our research, we will engineer novel therapies to modulate the pathways that govern human disease.
Clinical Assistant Professor, Pediatrics - Hematology & Oncology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests I am interested in the prevention and management of infectious complication in pediatric oncology patients. I am also interested in developing a protocol for the management of low risk patients with fever and neutropenia.
Lusine Aghajanova, M.D., Ph.D.
Clinical Assistant Professor, Obstetrics & Gynecology - Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility
Bio Dr. Aghajanova received her medical degree from Yerevan State Medical University in Armenia, followed by residency in obstetrics and gynecology, then completed PhD in Human Implantation at Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, followed with embryology training at Karolinska Institute, with an Internship in Austria.
Subsequently, Dr. Aghajanova completed residency in obstetrics and gynecology at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas and at UC San Francisco with subsequent Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellowship training at UC San Francisco. She is a respected researcher in the field of endometrial receptivity, implantation and endometriosis.
Dr. Aghajanova speaks Russian and Armenian and is very well published with over 50 peer-reviewed publications as well as numerous other oral and poster presentations and is a professional peer-reviewer for over 12 journals.
Dr.Aghajanova enjoys spending time with her husband and children, and traveling.
Assistant Professor of Radiology (Neuroimaging) and, by courtesy, of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our goal is to develop and clinically implement new technologies for high-precision and noninvasive intervention upon the nervous system. Every few millimeters of the brain is functionally distinct, and different parts of the brain may have counteracting responses to therapy. To better match our therapies to neuroscience, we develop techniques that allow intervention upon only the right part of the nervous system at the right time, using technologies like focused ultrasound and nanotechnology.
Steven R. Alexander, MD
Professor of Pediatrics (Nephrology) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dialysis, kidney transplantation, continuous renal replacement therapy in pediatric patients; chronic kidney disease in pediatric patients.
Ash A. Alizadeh, MD/PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine (Oncology)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My research is focused on attaining a better understanding of the initiation, maintenance, and progression of tumors, and their response to current therapies toward improving future treatment strategies. In this effort, I employ tools from functional genomics, computational biology, molecular genetics, and mouse models.
Clinically, I specialize in the care of patients with lymphomas, working on translating our findings in prospective cancer clinical trials.
Russ B. Altman
Kenneth Fong Professor and Professor of Bioengineering, of Genetics, of Medicine (General Medical Discipline), of Biomedical Data Science and, by courtesy, of Computer Science
Current Research and Scholarly Interests I refer you to my web page for detailed list of interests, projects and publications. In addition to pressing the link here, you can search "Russ Altman" on http://www.google.com/
Ruben Alvero, M.D.
Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Bio Dr. Ruben Alvero is Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Stanford Medical School and is the Division Director of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at the Lucille Packard Children?s Hospital. He is Board Certified in Obstetrics and Gynecology and in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. He is a fellow of the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the American College of Surgeons.
Following undergraduate training at Harvard College (BA, Economics, 1980), Dr. Alvero received his medical degree from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland in 1986. He completed his residency in Obstetrics and Gynecology at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (1990) and a fellowship in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility at the National Institutes of Health (NIH, 1995).
Dr. Alvero was the Division Director for Infertility Services at the National Naval Medical Center (Bethesda) and Walter Reed Army Medical Center and faculty in the NIH-sponsored fellowship in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. Dr. Alvero remained a reserve Colonel in the U.S. Army Medical Corps until 2012 and during 27 years in the Army was mobilized several times for missions around the world, including service in Iraq, Kuwait, Mongolia, Germany and various locations in the United States.
Dr. Alvero was Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Vice Chair for Education at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center and the Director of the Assisted Reproductive Technologies, and founding member of the Center for Surgical Innovation. Dr. Alvero was Residency Program Director in Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Colorado. He was subsequently Division and Fellowship Director at Brown University.
The Council in Residency Education in Obstetrics and Gynecology awarded him its National Faculty Award for Excellence three times. He has been NIH-funded, most recently as part of the Reproductive Medicine Network.
Dr. Alvero is currently the Vice President of the Society for Reproductive Endocrinology, the national organization of fertility specialists and will take over as President in October 2020.
Dr. Alvero?s clinical interests include IVF, polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis and robotic surgery. Dr. Alvero?s research interests include non-invasive evaluation of embryo quality, cost-effectiveness analysis, and the role of critical thinking in medical education. A fluent Spanish-speaker, Dr. Alvero is also dedicated to improving the health of the Latinx community.
Dr. Alvero is happiest on the water, whether sailing or singles rowing. He is also constantly attempting to improve his mastery of Latin American cuisine. Most of all, he loves spending time with his family.
Cristina M. Alvira
Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Critical Care) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The overall objective of the Alvira Laboratory is to elucidate the mechanisms that promote postnatal lung development and repair, by focusing on three main scientific goals: (i) identification of the signaling pathways that direct the transition between the saccular and alveolar stages of lung development; (ii) exploration of the interplay between postnatal vascular and alveolar development; and (iii) determination of developmentally regulated pathways that mediate lung repair after injury.
Professor of Pediatrics (Infectious Diseases) and of Microbiology and Immunology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My laboratory studies how bacteria colonize our bodies for long periods of time, and how interactions between bacteria and the epithelial surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract and skin may lead to disease. Epithelial surfaces are the first barrier against infection, but they also where our bodies meet and co-evolve with the microbial world.. Several of our studies have focused on the epithelial junctions as a target for bacterial pathogens. The host epithelium uses its epithelial junctions to form a tight but dynamic barrier with an external surface that is inhospitable to microbial attachment, secretes anti-microbial compounds, and has a rapid rate of self-renewal. The balance in the microbe-epithelial relationship results in silent commensalism or symbiosis; an imbalance results in diseases ranging from acute bacterial invasive disease to chronic ulcers or carcinoma.
Our laboratory has developed novel microscopy applications such as quantitative 3D confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, time-lapse imaging, microinjection and micromanipulation to visualize the interaction of pathogens with epithelial cells in culture and in animal and human tissues. Many of out studies focus on the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, but we have also expanded our investigations to include the intestinal pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica, and the skin pathogen and colonizer Staphylococcus aureus. I believe that elucidating how microbes communicate with and alter our epithelial cells at a molecular level will be important for finding novel therapeutic targets to control mucosal colonization and prevent invasive disease.
Using this perspective, we have uncovered several novel concepts of how bacteria colonize and breach our epithelial surfaces. For example, we discovered that Helicobacter pylori target the intercellular junctions, and in particular that the virulence factor CagA affects junction assembly and cell polarity. This confers H. pylori the ability to extract nutrients and grow directly on the epithelial surface. We also found that these properties of CagA have consequences for cellular transformation of the epithelium. For instance, we showed that H. pylori affect the activity and state of epithelial stem cells in the stomach by colonizing the epithelial surface deep in the gastric glands. This gland-associated population is essential for pathological inflammation and hyperplasia in animal models, and confers significant colonization advantages to the bacteria. Our Listeria research uncovered a new mechanism and site where bacteria can breach the gastrointestinal epithelial barrier to invade. We found that Listeria find their receptor for invasion at sites of epithelial senescence, where the epithelial junctions undergo dynamic turnover. To study Salmonella and H. pylori we have developed a human organoid model to study their interactions with human gut epithelium in vitro. To study Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis, we have developed methods to visualize infection at the scale of a single bacterial microcolony using an organoid culture system of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts that grow into a 3D skin-equivalent. We recently identified several proteins at the eptithelial junctions as host factors involved in the pathogenesis of one of Staphylococcus aureus major toxins.
Kanwaljeet S. Anand
Professor of Pediatrics (Pediatric Critical Care) and of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Anand is a translational clinical researcher who pioneered research on the endocrine-metabolic stress responses of infants undergoing surgery and developed the first-ever scientific rationale for pain perception in early life. This provided a framework for newer methods of pain assessment, numerous clinical trials of analgesia/anesthesia in newborns, infants and older children. His research focus over the past 30+ years has contributed fundamental knowledge about pediatric pain/stress, long-term effects of pain in early life, management of pain, mechanisms for opioid tolerance and withdrawal. Current projects in his laboratory are focused on developing biomarkers for repetitive pain/stress in critically ill children and the mechanisms underlying sedative/anesthetic neurotoxicity in the immature brain. He designed and directed many randomized clinical trials (RCT), including the largest-ever pediatric analgesia trial studying morphine therapy in ventilated preterm neonates. He has extensive experience in clinical and translational research from participating in collaborative networks funded by NIMH, NINDS, or NICHD, a track-record of excellent collaboration across multiple disciplines, while achieving success with large research teams like the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN). He played a leadership roles in CANDLE (Condition Affecting Neuro-Development & Learning in Early infancy) and other activities of the Urban Child Institute and UT Neuroscience Institute. More recently, he led the NeoOpioid Consortium funded by the European Commission, which collected data from 243 NICUs in 18 European countries.
Clinical Associate Professor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My lab's research focuses on two areas:
1. Focused ultrasound for peripheral nervous system modulation- We are interested in the potential of focused ultrasound to modulate peripheral nerves and improve both acute and chronic pain.
2. Pediatric perioperative outcomes- Our goals are to understand A) how various perioperative pain management strategies affect outcomes in children who undergo surgery and B) whether disparities in the perioperative pain management of children occur.
Associate Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our laboratory aims to develop and test innovative approaches to the diagnosis, treatment and control of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. We draw upon multiple fields including mathematical modeling, microbial genetics, field epidemiology, statistical inference and biodesign to work on challenging problems in infectious diseases, with an emphasis on tuberculosis and tropical diseases.
Justin P. Annes M.D., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The ANNES LABORATORY of Molecular Endocrinology: Leveraging Chemical Biology to Treat Endocrine Disorders
The prevalence of diabetes is increasing at a staggering rate. By the year 2050 an astounding 25% of Americans will be diabetic. The goal of my research is to uncover therapeutic strategies to stymie the ensuing diabetes epidemic. To achieve this goal we have developed a variety of innovate experimental approaches to uncover novel approaches to curing diabetes.
(1) Beta-Cell Regeneration: Diabetes results from either an absolute or relative deficiency in insulin production. Our therapeutic strategy is to stimulate the regeneration of insulin-producing beta-cells to enhance an individual?s insulin secretion capacity. We have developed a unique high-throughput chemical screening platform which we use to identify small molecules that promote beta-cell growth. This work has led to the identification of key molecular pathways (therapeutic targets) and candidate drugs that promote the growth and regeneration of islet beta-cells. Our goal is to utilize these discoveries to treat and prevent diabetes.
(2) The Metabolic Syndrome: A major cause of the diabetes epidemic is the rise in obesity which leads to a cluster of diabetes- and cardiovascular disease-related metabolic abnormalities that shorten life expectancy. These physiologic aberrations are collectively termed the Metabolic Syndrome (MS). My laboratory has developed an original in vivo screening platform t to identify novel hormones that influence the behaviors (excess caloric consumption, deficient exercise and disrupted sleep-wake cycles) and the metabolic abnormalities caused by obesity. We aim to manipulate these hormone levels to prevent the development and detrimental consequences of the MS.
HEREDIATY PARAGAGLIOMA SYNDROME
The Hereditary Paraganglioma Syndrome (hPGL) is a rare genetic cancer syndrome that is most commonly caused by a defect in mitochondrial metabolism. Our goal is to understand how altered cellular metabolism leads to the development of cancer. Although hPGL is uncommon, it serves as an excellent model for the abnormal metabolic behavior displayed by nearly all cancers. Our goal is to develop novel therapeutic strategies that target the abnormal behavior of cancer cells. In the laboratory we have developed hPGL mouse models and use high throughput chemical screening to identify the therapeutic susceptibilities that result from the abnormal metabolic behavior of cancer cells.
As a physician scientist trained in clinical genetics I have developed expertise in hereditary endocrine disorders and devoted my efforts to treating families affected by the hPGL syndrome. By leveraging our laboratory expertise in the hPGL syndrome, our care for individuals who have inherited the hPGL syndrome is at the forefront of medicine. Our goal is to translate our laboratory discoveries to the treatment of affected families.
Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics - Adolescent Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Research interests include high-risk youth, adolescent health services, and the juvenile justice system.
Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics
Bio I graduated from UCLA (now Geffen) School of Medicine, did my pediatrics residency at Columbia-Presbyterian in NYC, followed by a clinical fellowship in developmental (what was then called an ?ambulatory?) pediatrics at Boston Children?s Hospital. The first 28 years of my career were spent in clinical practice combining both DBP and primary care (the latter focused on serving CSHCN). During those years I was involved in numerous divide-bridging efforts - including programs to coordinate inpatient & outpatient medicine, connect tertiary & primary care, and promote teamwork between pediatricians, psychologists, nurse practitioners, and other community partners. I founded my own solo practice in 1989 and managed its growth to an 8-provider group over the next 25 years. Our practice was a founding member of the PPOC and I served on its board of directors for 6 years. The PPOC is one of the largest pediatric IPA?s in the country, with >200 member providers affiliated with Boston Children's Hospital. Over the years we were involved in groundbreaking QI initiatives including those involving asthma, weight, and ADHD management; medical home; and behavioral health integration with primary care.
I?m now well into my career's ?second act? on the clinician-educator track here at Stanford. I'm proud to have piloted our division's primary care initiative (DBPCI) and am now in the process of planning for a second phase thereof, hoping to make improved collaboration between DBP and primary care more available to more patients. I also pioneered the use of telehealth in our division, and then helped guide its sudden widespread adoption by my peers during the COVID-19 crises. Looking forward, I expect what we have learned during the pandemic will inform what we do for DBPCI 2.0.
Assistant Professor of Material Science and Engineering and, by courtesy of Pediatrics (Endocrinology)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The underlying theme of the Appel Lab at Stanford University integrates concepts and approaches from supramolecular chemistry, natural/synthetic materials, and biology. We aim to develop supramolecular biomaterials that exploit a diverse design toolbox and take advantage of the beautiful synergism between physical properties, aesthetics, and low energy consumption typical of natural systems. Our vision is to use these materials to solve fundamental biological questions and to engineer advanced healthcare solutions.
Ronald L. Ariagno
Professor (Clinical) of Pediatrics, Emeritus
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Developmental Physiology and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Research Laboratory closed in 2008.
Current effort, as Chair of Task Force and neonatal consult at the FDA, is to establish through consensus a culture of investigation and collaboration for all clinical neonatology practices: academic, corporate and community based to maximize the opportunity to participate in research effort needed for the regulatory approval of neonatal therapeutics to improve the outcome of critically ill infants.
Anna Chen Arroyo, MD, MPH
Clinical Assistant Professor, Medicine - Pulmonary, Allergy & Critical Care Medicine
Bio Dr. Arroyo specializes in the treatment of allergic conditions including drug allergy and asthma. She has a special interest in understanding health and healthcare disparities in allergic diseases and how allergies change over a person's lifetime.
Director, Stanford Cancer Institute, Jerome and Daisy Low Gilbert Professor and Professor of Biochemistry
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect chromosome ends and shorten with cell division and aging. We are interested in how telomere shortening influences cancer, stem cell function, aging and human disease. Telomerase is a reverse transcriptase that synthesizes telomere repeats and is expressed in stem cells and in cancer. We have found that telomerase also regulates stem cells and we are pursuing the function of telomerase through diverse genetic and biochemical approaches.
Ann M. Arvin
Lucile Salter Packard Professor of Pediatrics and Professor of Microbiology and Immunology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our laboratory investigates the pathogenesis of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection, focusing on the functional roles of particular viral gene products in pathogenesis and virus-cell interactions in differentiated human cells in humans and in Scid-hu mouse models of VZV cell tropisms in vivo, and the immunobiology of VZV infections.
Euan A. Ashley
Associate Dean, School of Medicine, Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular), of Genetics, of Biomedical Data Science and, by courtesy, of Pathology at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The Ashley lab is focused on precision medicine. We develop methods for the interpretation of whole genome sequencing data to improve the diagnosis of genetic disease and to personalize the practice of medicine. At the wet bench, we take advantage of cell systems, transgenic models and microsurgical models of disease to prove causality in biological pathways and find targets for therapeutic development.
Themistocles (Tim) Assimes
Associate Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine) and, by courtesy, of Health Research and Policy (Epidemiology)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Genetic Epidemiology, Genetic Determinants of Complex Traits related to Cardiovasular Medicine, Coronary Artery Disease related pathway analyses and integrative genomics, Mendelian randomization studies, risk prediction for major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular medicine related pharmacogenomics, ethnic differences in the determinants of Insulin Mediated Glucose Uptake, pharmacoepidemiology of cardiovascular drugs & outcomes
Professor of Radiation Oncology (Radiation and Cancer Biology) and of Genetics
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our research is aimed at defining the pathways of p53-mediated apoptosis and tumor suppression, using a combination of biochemical, cell biological, and mouse genetic approaches. Our strategy is to start by generating hypotheses about p53 mechanisms of action using primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), and then to test them using gene targeting technology in the mouse.
Professor of Pathology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Genetic and cell biological analyses of signals controlling cell polarity and morphogenesis. Frizzled signaling and cytoskeletal organization.
Associate Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Stem Cell Transplantation)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests In the coming years, I plan to further determine the genetic and immunological basis of diseases with autoimmunity or immune dysregulation in children. I believe that much can still be learned from the in depth mechanistic studies of pediatric autoimmune diseases. Genomic analysis of the patients' samples has become possible which may provide a rapid indication of altered target molecules. I plan to implement robust functional studies to define the consequences of these genetic abnormalities and bridge them to the patient's clinical phenotype.
Understanding functional consequences of gene mutations in single case/family first and then validating the molecular and cellular defects in other patients with similar phenotypes, will anticipate and complement cellular and gene therapy strategies.
For further information please visit the Bacchetta Lab website:
Laura K. Bachrach
Professor of Pediatrics (Endocrinology) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Prevention of osteoporosis begins in childhood and adolescence by measures that maximize acquistion of bone mineral during the critical adolescent years. Body mass, calcium nutriture, physical activity, growth and sex steroid hormones, and genetic factors are all thought to be important determinants of bone mass although the relative contribution of each remains controversial.
Professor of Genetics
Current Research and Scholarly Interests We examine how cells communicate and function during fetal development. The work in my laboratory focuses on the establishment of specific cell fates using genomics to decipher interactions between chromatin and developmental signaling cascades, between genomes and rapidly evolving cell types, and between genomic copy number variation and gene expression. In recent years we have focused on the vastly understudied biology of the trophoblast lineage, particularly how this lineage evolved.
Associate Professor of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (Pediatrics) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Balakrishnan's research focuses on innovative ways to improve and standardize treatments and measure outcomes in complex pediatric airway and aerodigestive conditions , as well as ways to reduce treatment costs and medical errors. By improving outcomes and reducing costs, he aims to improve the value of care, while also optimizing patient and caregiver experience during the care process.
Associate Professor of Genetics
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our lab studies how intricate control of gene expression and cell signaling is regulated on a minute-by-minute basis to give rise to the remarkable diversity of cell types and tissue morphology that form the living blueprints of developing organisms. Work in the Barna lab is presently split into two main research efforts. The first is investigating ribosome-mediated control of gene expression genome-wide in space and time during cellular differentiation and organismal development. This research is opening a new field of study in which we apply sophisticated mass spectrometry, computational biology, genomics, and developmental genetics, to characterize a ribosome code to gene expression. Our research has shown that not all of the millions of ribosomes within a cell are the same and that ribosome heterogeneity can diversify how genomes are translated into proteomes. In particular, we seek to address whether fundamental aspects of gene regulation are controlled by ribosomes harboring a unique activity or composition that are tuned to translating specific transcripts by virtue of RNA regulatory elements embedded within their 5?UTRs. The second research effort is centered on employing state-of-the-art live cell imaging to visualize cell signaling and cellular control of organogenesis. This research has led to the realization of a novel means of cell-cell communication dependent on a dense network of actin-based cellular extension within developing organs that interconnect and facilitate the precise transmission of molecular information between cells. We apply and create bioengineering tools to manipulate such cellular interactions and signaling in-vivo.
Professor of Radiology (Pediatric Radiology) at the Stanford University Medical Center, Emeritus
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Advanced imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, of injury to the developing central nervous system; including fetal, neonatal, infant and young child; and, including nonaccidental injury (e.g. child abuse).
Professor of Radiology (Pediatric Radiology) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Sonographic diagnosis of fetal anomalies.
Focus interest in the diagnosis and conservative (non-surgical and minimal radiation) management of congenital broncho pulmonary malformations.
Imaging of appendicitis in children.
Sonography of the pediatric testis.
Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Gastroenterology) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our laboratory is interested in the pathophysiology, immunology, and epidemiology of viral gastroenteritis.
Instructor, Neurology & Neurological Sciences
Current Research and Scholarly Interests I am researching the neurobiology underlying cognitive problems in pediatric epilepsy. I am using transcranial magnetic stimulation paired with EMG and EEG to study cortical excitability and plasticity in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS or Rolandic Epilepsy). I am investigating whether changes in plasticity affect a child's ability to learn.
The Ernest and Amelia Gallo Professor in the School of Medicine, Professor of Urology, of Developmental Biology and, by courtesy, of Chemical and Systems Biology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Function of Hedgehog proteins and other extracellular signals in morphogenesis (pattern formation), in injury repair and regeneration (pattern maintenance). We study how the distribution of such signals is regulated in tissues, how cells perceive and respond to distinct concentrations of signals, and how such signaling pathways arose in evolution. We also study the normal roles of such signals in stem-cell physiology and their abnormal roles in the formation and expansion of cancer stem cells.
Barry Behr, Ph.D., H.C.L.D.
Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Development of improved embryo culture conditions in vitro. Blastocyst cultures. Embryo metabolism in vitro. Embryo maternal dialogue. Clinical application and integration of extended embryo culture systems. Monozygotic twinning. Prevention of multiple pregnancy. Sperm motility enhancers. Fluorescent and non-fluorescent markers of sperm morphology and viablility. Oocyte cryopreservation. Fertility preservation. Improving IVF outcome.
Professor of Developmental Biology, of Computer Science, of Pediatrics (Genetics) and of Biomedical Data Science
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Bejerano, co-discoverer of ultraconserved elements, studies the Human Genome. His research focuses on genome sequence and function in both humans and related primate, mammalian and vertebrate species. He is deeply interested in mapping both coding and non-coding genome sequence variation to phenotype differences, and in extracting specific genetic insights from high throughput sequencing measurements, in the contexts of development and developmental abnormalities.
Associate Professor of Medicine (Primary Care and Population Health), Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment and Associate Professor, by courtesy, of Health Research and Policy
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Effect of global health policies on health of individuals in developing countries, global health, HIV and TB.
Philip Sunshine, M.D., Professor in Neonatology, Emeritus
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Neonatology, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, infant ventilation, neonatal clinical protocols/clinical pathways.
Associate Professor of Pediatrics (General Pediatrics) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital, Emeritus
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My research has involved the use of new technologies to create different types of patient-doctor transactions. I am also interested in how these new transactions impact clinical care processes. Current work includes the evaluation of a patient portal for children with cystic fibrosis, the use of telemedicine to bring asthma experts into the schools and the attitudes of teens and parents about the use of a secure patient portal for teens.
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavior Sciences (Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Child Development) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The focus of my research is on adolescent suicidal and self-harm behavior. I am currently one of four Principal Investigators of a multisite NIMH-sponsored RCT of DBT for adolescents at high risk for suicide (NCT01528020: Collaborative Adolescent Research on Emotions and Suicide [CARES], PI: Linehan, McCauley, Berk, & Asarnow) aimed at evaluating the efficacy of DBT with adolescents compared to a combined individual and group supportive therapy control condition (IGST).
Alfred Woodley Salter and Mabel Smith Salter Endowed Professor in Pediatrics
Current Research and Scholarly Interests 1. Using iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes to understand hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart failure associated with congenital heart disease.
2. Role of alterations in mitochondrial dycamics and function in normal physiology and disease.
3. Differences between R and L ventricular responses to stress,
4. Immune biomarkers of risk after pediatric VAD implantation.
5. Biomarkers for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.
Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Genetics) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital and, by courtesy, of Genetics
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My interests include the genetics of autism and other developmental disorders. In collaboration with colleagues at Stanford, I am working to develop induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models of genetic disorders associated with developmental disability. I am also engaged in the application of new technologies (Whole genome sequencing, Multi-omics profiling) for the diagnosis of developmental disorders.
Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System
Current Research and Scholarly Interests molecular modeling of anesthetic-protein interactions, molecular modeling of the ligand-gated ion channels
Alice Bertaina MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Stem Cell Transplantation) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Bertaina is a highly experienced clinician and will play a key role in supporting Section Chief Dr. Rajni Agarwal and Clinical Staff in the Stem Cell Transplant Unit at Lucile Packard Children?s Hospital. She will also continue her research on immune recovery and miRNA, understanding the mechanisms underlying immune reconstitution, Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), and leukemia relapse after allogeneic HSCT in pediatric patients affected by hematological malignant and non-malignant disorders.
Director, ChEM-H, Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences and Professor, by courtesy, of Radiology and of Chemical and Systems Biology
Bio Professor Carolyn Bertozzi's research interests span the disciplines of chemistry and biology with an emphasis on studies of cell surface sugars important to human health and disease. Her research group profiles changes in cell surface glycosylation associated with cancer, inflammation and bacterial infection, and uses this information to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, most recently in the area of immuno-oncology.
Dr. Bertozzi completed her undergraduate degree in Chemistry at Harvard University and her Ph.D. at UC Berkeley, focusing on the chemical synthesis of oligosaccharide analogs. During postdoctoral work at UC San Francisco, she studied the activity of endothelial oligosaccharides in promoting cell adhesion at sites of inflammation. She joined the UC Berkeley faculty in 1996. A Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator since 2000, she came to Stanford University in June 2015, among the first faculty to join the interdisciplinary institute ChEM-H (Chemistry, Engineering & Medicine for Human Health). Named a MacArthur Fellow in 1999, Dr. Bertozzi has received many awards for her dedication to chemistry, and to training a new generation of scientists fluent in both chemistry and biology. She has been elected to the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, and American Academy of Arts and Sciences; and received the Lemelson-MIT Prize, the Heinrich Wieland Prize, and the ACS Award in Pure Chemistry, among many others. Her efforts in undergraduate education have earned the UC Berkeley Distinguished Teaching Award and the Donald Sterling Noyce Prize for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching.
Today, the Bertozzi Group at Stanford studies the glycobiology underlying diseases such as cancer, inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, and infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. The work has advanced understanding of cell surface oligosaccharides involved in cell recognition and inter-cellular communication.
Dr. Bertozzi's lab also develops new methods to perform controlled chemical reactions within living systems. The group has developed new tools for studying glycans in living systems, and more recently nanotechnologies for probing biological systems. Such "bioorthogonal" chemistries enable manipulation of biomolecules in their living environment.
Several of the technologies developed in the Bertozzi lab have been adapted for commercial use. Actively engaged with several biotechnology start-ups, Dr. Bertozzi founded Redwood Bioscience of Emeryville, California, and has served on the research advisory board of GlaxoSmithKline.
Vivek Bhalla, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Nephrology) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Bhalla's two primary research interests are in the role of the kidney in diabetes and hypertension. We use molecular, biochemical, and transgenic approaches to study: (1) mechanisms diabetic kidney disease disease including the role of the endothelium to regulate inflammation and kidney injury; and (2) regulation of tubular transport of glucose, sodium, and potassium. These latter studies have treatment implications in diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension.
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Hematology) and of Genetics
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The Bhatt lab is exploring how the microbiota is intertwined with states of health and disease. We apply the most modern genetic tools in an effort to deconvolute the mechanism of human diseases.
Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The long-term goal of our research is to understand the fundamental mechanisms that govern and reprogram cellular fate during development, regeneration and disease.
Vinod (Vinny) K. Bhutani
Professor of Pediatrics (Neonatology) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital, Emeritus
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Neonatology; newborn jaundice, bilirubin biology and kernicterus prevention; pulmonary physiology, pulmonary functions and neonatal ventilation.
Y. Katherine Bianco
Clinical Associate Professor, Obstetrics & Gynecology - Maternal Fetal Medicine
Bio My clinical interest in pregnancies complicated with birth defects has led my underlying research interests in genomic abnormalities in the human trophoblast carrying to faulty placentation. The latter began with initial work during K12 and KO8 funding. I took a great interest in the human placenta as it carries potential advantages over other tissues sources: first, this highly metabolically active organ is the potential source of many transcripts. Second, the placenta forms at a very early stage of embryonic development, potentially allowing detection of primary alterations as compared to secondary changes that may mask the underlying causal phenomena. Finally, studying early placentation may provide targets for development of novel molecular approaches, such as up-regulate or down-regulate genes, the protein products of which could potentially serve as molecular surrogates for diagnosis and treatment of pregnancy complication such as miscarriages, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension and intrauterine growth retardation. This work has led to the first Trisomy 21, Trisomy 18, trisomy 13 cell lines established from human placentas making it possible to apply gene editing in the early stages of human trophoblast development.
As my primary clinical responsibility involves treating patients needing medical care and support through their high risk pregnancies, I am interested in factors that may impact outcomes, such as prenatal screening and diagnosis, maternal heart conditions, labor and delivery management, and safety approaches for the second stage of labor. In investigating length of labor and approaches to shorten the second stage, I have found methods of improving perinatal outcomes in diverse maternal populations.
With regards to my interest in fetal medicine, I have worked in collaboration with other specialists such as radiologists and pediatric cardiologists utilizing imagining studies to assess and determine successful perinatal care and fetal survival.
Rebecca Blankenburg, MD, MPH
Clinical Professor, Pediatrics
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My educational research interests focus on building a more diverse, inclusive and equitable learning environment and helping develop a sense of belonging, professional identity formation, and competence through longitudinal coaching and scholarly mentorship.
Helen M. Blau
The Donald E. and Delia B. Baxter Foundation Professor and Director, Baxter Laboratory for Stem Cell Biology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Prof. Helen Blau's research area is regenerative medicine with a focus on stem cells. Her research on nuclear reprogramming and demonstrating the plasticity of cell fate using cell fusion is well known and her laboratory has also pioneered the design of biomaterials to mimic the in vivo microenvironment and direct stem cell fate. Current findings are leading to more efficient iPS generation, cell based therapies by dedifferentiation a la newts, and discovery of novel molecules and therapies.
Associate Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The major goal of our research is to gain insight into the prevention and control of HIV and other viral pathogens by studying the interplay between the virus and the host immune response. We investigate the role of various arms of the immune response, but with a particular focus on NK cells. We hope to gain additional insights into control of infectious diseases by studying how pregnancy modulates immune responses.
Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Maternal Fetal Medicine) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests prenatal diagnosis, genetics, clinical obstetrics
Paul D. Blumenthal, MD, MPH
Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Gynecology-Family Planning) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Improving Access to Family Planning Services in Low Resource Settings:
Through a collaboration with Population Services International, the Stanford Program for International Reproductive Education and Services (SPIRES) provides technical direction in a program designed to improve access to and uptake of family planning, particularly Long Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) such as IUDs and implants, in 14 developing countries globally. The first year saw insertion of over 280,000 IUDs.
Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Senior Fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment
Bio I am interested in pathogens in the environment including their sources, fate, and transport in natural and engineered systems. I am interested in understanding of how pathogens are transmitted to humans through contact with water, feces, and contaminated surfaces. My research is focused on key problems in both developed and developing countries with the overarching goal of designing and testing novel interventions and technologies for reducing the burden of disease.
I am also interested broadly in coastal water quality where my work addresses the sources, transformation, transport, and ecology of biocolloids - specifically fecal indicator organisms, DNA, pathogens, and phytoplankton - as well as sources and fate of nitrogen. This knowledge is crucial to formulating new management policies and engineering practices that protect human and ecosystem health at the coastal margins.
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Development) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My research interests have focused on the neural bases of eating disorders and obesity. I am particularly interested in the way emotion and reward is processed in the brain and how that may contribute to eating behavior and food restriction. I hope to eventually translate biological research findings into treatments.
Associate Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Microbiology and Immunology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests We are a translational immunology lab in the Division of Infectious Diseases at Stanford University.
C. Andrew Bonham
Associate Professor of Surgery (Abdominal Transplantation) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Tolerance induction in liver transplantation.
Burt and Marion Avery Professor of Immunology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests We are intereseted in the interaction between the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and its mammalian host. We use a combination of molecular and genetic tools to understand how this obligate intracellular parasite can invade almost any cell it encounters, how it co-opts a host cell once inside and how it evades the immune response to produce a life-long, persistent infection.
Scott Boyd, MD PhD
Associate Professor of Pathology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our goal is to understand the lymphocyte genotype-phenotype relationships in healthy human immunity and in immunological diseases. We apply new technologies and data analysis approaches to this challenge, particularly high-throughput DNA sequencing and single-cell monoclonal antibody generation, in parallel with other functional assays.
James D. Brooks
Keith and Jan Hurlbut Professor in the Stanford University School of Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly Interests We use genomic approaches to identify disease biomarkers. We are most interested in translating biomarkers into clinical practice in urological diseases with a particular focus in cancer.
Jennifer L. Bruno
Member, Maternal & Child Health Research Institute (MCHRI)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Bruno is a translational researcher at the interface of developmental cognitive neuropsychology and neurobiology. Her research is aimed at understanding the neural basis of intellectual and developmental disorders with goals of improving early diagnosis using biomarkers and designing and testing targeted interventions. Current research projects include longitudinal investigations of neurobiological and behavioral outcomes in Fragile X Syndrome and autism spectrum disorders. Dr. Bruno is also developing adaptable non-constraining functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) paradigms to assess the neural circuitry underlying cognition in healthy typically developing individuals and in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. Working towards the goal of informing the design of targeted treatments while providing important outcome and progress metrics, Dr. Bruno's research includes infant developmental studies to uncover early, objective biomarkers and epidemiological studies to investigate brain functioning correlates in populations.
Professor of Pediatrics (Endocrinology) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital, Emeritus
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My major interest is in type 1 diabetes mellitus, continuous glucose sensor, and the development of an artificial pancreas. Other research interests include using continuous glucose monitoring and algorithms to control blood glucose levels in intensive care units.
Professor of Biomedical Data Science, of Genetics and, by courtesy, of Biology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My genetics research focuses on analyzing genome wide patterns of variation within and between species to address fundamental questions in biology, anthropology, and medicine. We focus on novel methods development for complex disease genetics and risk prediction in multi-ethnic settings. I am also interested in clinical data science and development of new diagnostics.I am also interested in disruptive innovation for healthcare including modeling long-term risk shifts and novel payment models.
Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (OB) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests I perform outcomes-based research in obstetrics investigating strategies to better prevent and treat patients with postpartum hemorrhage, a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. I also have research interests in the use of point-of-care devices for investigating key changes in the maternal hematologic and hemostatic profiles that occur during the peripartum and postpartum periods.
Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics - Pulmonary Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Her scholarly work has been focused on pediatric health in vulnerable communities. Her current research is pulmonary outcomes of patients with neuromuscular disease. She is involved in clinical trials in patients with neuromuscular disease.
Professor of Genetics, Emerita
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My lab is developing innovative gene and stem cell therapies for genetic diseases, with a focus on gene therapy and regenerative medicine.
We have created novel methods for inserting therapeutic genes into the chromosomes at specific places by using homologous recombination and recombinase enzymes.
We are working on 3 forms of muscular dystrophy.
We created induced pluripotent stem cells from patient fibroblasts, added therapeutic genes, differentiated, and engrafted the cells.
Associate Professor of Bioengineering
Bio David B. Camarillo is Assistant Professor of Bioengineering, (by courtesy) Mechanical Engineering and Neurosurgery at Stanford University. Dr. Camarillo holds a B.S.E in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering from Princeton University, a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University and completed postdoctoral fellowships in Biophysics at the UCSF and Biodesign Innovation at Stanford. Dr. Camarillo worked in the surgical robotics industry at Intuitive Surgical and Hansen Medical, before launching his laboratory at Stanford in 2012. His current research focuses on precision human measurement for multiple clinical and physiological areas including the brain, heart, lungs, and reproductive system. Dr. Camarillo has been awarded the Hellman Fellowship, the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Program award, among other honors including multiple best paper awards in brain injury and robotic surgery. His research has been funded by the NIH, NSF, DoD, as well as corporations and private philanthropy. His lab?s research has been featured on NPR, the New York Times, The Washington Post, Science News, ESPN, and TED.com as well as other media outlets aimed at education of the public.
Associate Professor of Microbiology and Immunology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our research focuses on the identification of host genes that play critical roles in the pathogenesis of infectious agents including viruses. We use haploid genetic screens in human cells as an efficient approach to perform loss-of-function studies. Besides obtaining fundamental insights on how viruses hijack cellular processes and on host defense mechanisms, it may also facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Clinical Professor, Pediatrics - Adolescent Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Female athlete triad; adolescents and eating disorders; athletes and supplement use; effects of sports involvement on adolescent self-esteem.
Professor (Research) of Pediatrics (Neonatology), of Obstetrics & Gynecology (Maternal Fetal Medicine) and, by courtesy, of Health Research and Policy (Epidemiology)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Carmichael is a perinatal and nutritional epidemiologist and Professor of Pediatrics at the Stanford University School of Medicine. Her research focuses on finding ways to improve maternal and infant health. Exposure themes include nutrition, social context, care, environmental contaminants and genetics. Outcome themes include severe maternal morbidity, stillbirth, birth defects, and preterm delivery. She is particularly interested in understanding the intersectionality of these varied types of exposures and outcomes and how they interact to impact health and health disparities, for the mother-baby dyad.
John A. Turner Endowed Professor for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Examines the interplay between brain development and stress vulnerability via a multi-method approach that includes psychophysiology, neuroimaging, neuroendocrinology and phenomenology. Treatment development that focuses on individual and community-based interventions for stress related conditions in children and adolescents that experience traumatic stress.
Clinical Associate Professor, Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My research pursuits are focused on system based improvement projects. At Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford, I use system based approaches to improve the quality of care patients receive in the perioperative area and in the ICUs, with a focus on safe transitions of care. Through the Department of Graduate Medical Education at Stanford School of Medicine, I advise residency and fellowship programs on evidence based methods to improve their programs, with a focus on mentorship.
Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (Adult MSD) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests My main research interest is in clinical and translational research related to cesarean delivery and labor analgesia as well as maternal-fetal pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics drug modeling.
Instructor, Pediatrics - Stem Cell Transplantation
Bio Dr. Cepika is an immunologist with an extensive background in translational research, autoimmunity, autoinflammation, and human systems immunology. Her goal is to understand the mechanisms governing immunological tolerance, and to leverage this knowledge to cure currently incurable diseases.
Dr. Cepika received her MD degree and a PhD in Immunology from the University of Zagreb School of Medicine in Croatia. There, she focused on the immunomonitoring of patients with lupus, identifying how circulating DNA levels changed with therapy. Subsequently, she joined the lab of Dr. Virginia Pascual at the Baylor Institute for Immunology Research in Dallas, Texas. Dr. Pascual had previously discovered that IL-1beta is a key pathogenic player in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA), but the immune alterations contributing to IL-1beta-mediated inflammation remained unknown. To address this, Dr. Cepika developed a 3D in vitro stimulation assay to evaluate immune responses of blood leukocytes of pediatric sJIA patients. In combination with integrated bioinformatics analysis, this approach identified aberrant cellular responses, transcriptional pathways and genes that shed new light on immune dysregulation in sJIA. This assay can be further applied to dissect underlying immunopathogenic mechanisms in many human disorders.
Currently, Dr. Cepika is a member of the laboratory of Dr. Maria Grazia Roncarolo, in the Pediatric Division of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. There, she is working to uncover the underlying mechanisms governing type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cell differentiation and function, and use this knowledge to design Tr1 cell-based therapies for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and cancer immunotherapy.
Anne Lynn S. Chang, MD
Professor of Dermatology at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests I have two main research interests:
1) to better understand and treat patients with aggressive basal and squamous cell carcinomas
2) to better understand the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of healthy human skin aging and to translate these insights into better care of skin diseases enriched in older patients particularly skin cancer and rosacea
Howard Y. Chang, MD, PhD
Virginia and D. K. Ludwig Professor of Cancer Genomics and of Genetics
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our research is focused on how the activities of hundreds or even thousands of genes (gene parties) are coordinated to achieve biological meaning. We have pioneered methods to predict, dissect, and control large-scale gene regulatory programs; these methods have provided insights into human development, cancer, and aging.
Assistant Professor of Surgery (Pediatric Surgery) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Chao's research focuses on preventing surgical diseases minimizing the impact of surgery. She works with the Asian Liver Center towards the global eradication of hepatitis B, the leading cause of liver cancer and liver disease globally. Dr. Chao helped launch the Jade Ribbon Campaign in 2001 to improve public and physician awareness about hepatitis B. Dr. Chao also serves as the Trauma Medical Director of LPCH and is interested in preventing pediatric traumatic injuries.
Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (Pediatric) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Char's research is focused on identifying and addressing ethical concerns associated with the implementation of next generation technologies like whole genome sequencing and its attendant technologies like machine learning to bedside clinical care.