School of Medicine
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Professor of Photon Science and of Structural Biology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Ubiquitin signaling: structure, function, and therapeutics
Ubiquitin is a small protein modifier that is ubiquitously produced in the cells and takes part in the regulation of a wide range of cellular activities such as gene transcription and protein turnover. The key to the diversity of the ubiquitin roles in cells is that it is capable of interacting with other cellular proteins either as a single molecule or as different types of chains. Ubiquitin chains are produced through polymerization of ubiquitin molecules via any of their seven internal lysine residues or the N-terminal methionine residue. Covalent interaction of ubiquitin with other proteins is known as ubiquitination which is carried out through an enzymatic cascade composed of the ubiquitin-activating (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating (E2), and ubiquitin ligase (E3) enzymes. The ubiquitin signals are decoded by the ubiquitin-binding domains (UBDs). These domains often specifically recognize and non-covalently bind to the different ubiquitin species, resulting in distinct signaling outcomes.
We apply a combination of the structural (including protein crystallography, small angle x-ray scattering, cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) etc.), biocomputational and biochemical techniques to study the ubiquitylation and deubiquitination processes, and recognition of the ubiquitin chains by the proteins harboring ubiquitin-binding domains. Current research interests including SARS-COV2 proteases and their interactions with polyubiquitin chains and ubiquitin pathways in host cell responses, with an ultimate goal of providing strategies for effective therapeutics with reduced levels of side effects.
Protein self-assembly processes and applications.
The Surface layers (S-layers) are crystalline protein coats surrounding microbial cells. S-layer proteins (SLPs) regulate their extracellular, self-assembly by crystallizing when exposed to an environmental trigger. We have demonstrated that the Caulobacter crescentus SLP readily crystallizes into sheets both in vivo and in vitro via a calcium-triggered multistep assembly pathway. Observing crystallization using a time course of Cryo-EM imaging has revealed a crystalline intermediate wherein N-terminal nucleation domains exhibit motional dynamics with respect to rigid lattice-forming crystallization domains. Rate enhancement of protein crystallization by a discrete nucleation domain may enable engineering of kinetically controllable self-assembling 2D macromolecular nanomaterials. In particular, this is inspiring designing robust novel platform for nano-scale protein scaffolds for structure-based drug design and nano-bioreactor design for the carbon-cycling enzyme pathway enzymes. Current research focuses on development of nano-scaffolds for high throughput in vitro assays and structure determination of small and flexible proteins and their interaction partners using Cryo-EM, and applying them to cancer and anti-viral therapeutics.
Multiscale imaging and technology developments.
Multimodal, multiscale imaging modalities will be developed and integrated to understand how molecular level events of key enzymes and protein network are connected to cellular and multi-cellular functions through intra-cellular organization and interactions of the key machineries in the cell. Larger scale organization of these proteins will be studied by solution X-ray scattering and Cryo-EM. Their spatio-temporal arrangements in the cell organelles, membranes, and cytosol will be further studied by X-ray fluorescence imaging and correlated with cryoEM and super-resolution optical microscopy. We apply these multiscale integrative imaging approaches to biomedical, and environmental and bioenergy research questions with Stanford, DOE national labs, and other domestic and international collaborators.
Rebecca D. Walker
Clinical Associate Professor, Emergency Medicine
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Interests include international development in emergency care, healthcare disparities, wilderness medicine, human rights, administration
Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Systems Medicine), of Biomedical Data Science and, by courtesy, of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Systems biology for design of clinical solutions that detect and treat disease
Associate Professor of Surgery (Pediatric Surgery) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital and, by courtesy, of Bioengineering
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Health Technology Innovation
Brian A. Wandell
Isaac and Madeline Stein Family Professor and Professor, by courtesy, of Electrical Engineering, of Ophthalmology and at the Graduate School of Education
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Models and measures of the human visual system. The brain pathways essential for reading development. Diffusion tensor imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and computational modeling of visual perception and brain processes.
C. Jason Wang, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics (General Pediatrics) at the Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital and of Medicine (PCOR) and, by courtesy, of Epidemiology and Population Health
Bio Dr. Wang is the Director of Center for Policy, Outcomes and Prevention. Prior to coming to Stanford in 2011, he was a faculty member at Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health. His other professional experiences include working as a management consultant with McKinsey and Company and serving as the project manager for Taiwan's National Health Insurance Reform Task-force. His current interests include: 1) COVID-19 related policies; 2) developing tools for assessing and improving the value of healthcare; 3) facilitating the use of mobile technology in improving quality of care; 4) supporting competency-based medical education curriculum, and 5) engaging in healthcare delivery and payment reforms.
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Radiation Biology
Bio Jinglong was trained in a single-molecule lab in Institute Jacques Monod and ╔cole Normale SupÚrieure Paris and obtained his PhD degree from University of Paris in 2019, France. He dissected the molecular machinery of human and bacterial Non-homologous end joining, and interrogated the mechanism of SpCas9 plasticity on targeting DNA with deviant PAMs using single-molecule nanomanipulation tools. Jinglong joined the Frock lab in Jan 2020, and he is working on DSB-related chromosome topological changes and genomic interactions.
Kevin Wang, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Dermatology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The Wang lab takes an interdisciplinary approach to studying fundamental mechanisms controlling gene expression in mammalian cells, and how epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, chromatin modifications, and RNA influence chromatin dynamics to affect gene regulation.
Clinical Associate Professor, Pediatrics
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Evaluation and management of the febrile young infant and infections in hospitalized children (eg, UTIs, CNS infections, pneumonia); promotion of appropriate antibiotic use.
Professor of Emergency Medicine and, by courtesy, of Pediatrics (Hospital Medicine) at the Stanford University Medical Center
Current Research and Scholarly Interests - Disparities in Emergency Medical Services for children.
- Efficacy of novel interventions for pediatric access to care.
- Teaching and supporting community-initiated interventions and programs internationally.
Paul J. Wang, MD
Professor of Medicine (Cardiovascular Medicine) at the Stanford University Medical Center and, by courtesy, of Bioengineering
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Dr. Wang's research centers on the development of innovative approaches to the treatment of arrhythmias, including more effective catheter ablation techniques, more reliable implantable devices, and less invasive treatments. Dr. Wang's clinical research interests include atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, syncope, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Dr. Wang has active collaborations with Bioengineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Electrical Engineering Departments at Stanford.
Leland T. Edwards Professor in the School of Engineering and Professor of Electrical Engineering and, by courtesy, of Radiology (Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Shan Wang was named the Leland T. Edwards Professor in the School of Engineering in 2018. He directs the Center for Magnetic Nanotechnology and is a leading expert in biosensors, information storage and spintronics. His research and inventions span across a variety of areas including magnetic biochips, in vitro diagnostics, cancer biomarkers, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic sensors, magnetoresistive random access memory, and magnetic integrated inductors.
Sui Wang, PhD
Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Our research focuses on understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie retinal development and diseases. We utilize genetic and genomic tools to uncover how different types of retinal cells, including retinal neurons, glia and the vasculature, respond to developmental cues and disease insults at the epigenomic and transcriptional levels, and how they interact and collectively contribute to the integrity of the retina.
1. Retinal cell fate specification.
We are using genetic tools and methods, such as in vivo plasmid electroporation and CRISPR, to dissect the roles of cis-regulatory elements and transcription factors in controlling retinal cell fate specification.
2. The multicellular responses elicited by diabetes in the retina.
Diabetes can induce multicellular responses in the retina, including vascular lesions, glial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, all of which contribute to retinopathy. We are using diabetic rats as models to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the diabetes-induced multicellular responses, and the disease mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy.
3. Molecular tools that allow for cell type-specific labeling and manipulation in vivo.
Cis-regulatory elements, such as enhancers, play essential roles in directing tissue/cell type-specific and stage-specific expression. We are interested in identifying enhancers that can drive cell type-specific expression in the retina and brain, and incorporating them into plasmid or AAV based delivery systems.
Taia T. Wang, MD, PhD, MSCI
Assistant Professor of Medicine (Infectious Diseases) and of Microbiology and Immunology
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Laboratory of Mechanisms in Human Immunity and Disease Pathogenesis
Studies in our lab are aimed at defining mechanisms in human immunity and disease. We are particularly interested the hypothesis that IgG repertoire diversity leading to diversity in antibody-based signaling, is a central driver of heterogeneity in human immune functioning and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Our work is defining how diversity that exists in the IgG Fc domain repertoire among people, which we define by serum IgG subclass and Fc glycoform distributions, impacts immune processes such as vaccine responses and recruitment of effector cells. IgG subclass and Fc glycoform distributions are key regulators of immunity because these determine the structure of Fc domains within immune complexes that form during vaccination or infection. Fc structure, in turn, determines the affinity of immune complexes for various Fc receptors on effector cells. Thus, we are studying how the Fc domain repertoire of an individual impacts the quality of effector cell responses that can be recruited during immune activation and how selectivity of effector responses contributes to immunity and disease.
Current clinical studies:
An Open Label Study of IgG Fc Glycan Composition in Human Immunity
Principal Investigator: Taia T. Wang, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Neurosurgery
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dynamics and function, and their implications in neurological disorders.
Katja Gabriele Weinacht, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Stem Cell Transplantation and Regenerative Medicine)
Current Research and Scholarly Interests Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Genetic Immune Diseases