Honors & Awards

  • Cardiovascular Institute: T32 Imaging Fellow, Stanford University

Professional Education

  • Bachelor of Science, Loyola Marymount University (2009)
  • Master of Science, University of Southern California (2014)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Southern California (2017)

Research & Scholarship

Lab Affiliations


All Publications

  • Quantitative perfusion mapping with induced transient hypoxia using BOLD MRI MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Vu, C., Chai, Y., Coloigner, J., Nederveen, A. J., Borzage, M., Bush, A., Wood, J. C. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.28422

    View details for Web of Science ID 000552557300001

  • Rosette Trajectories Enable Ungated, Motion-Robust, Simultaneous Cardiac and Liver T2 * Iron Assessment. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI Bush, A. M., Sandino, C. M., Ramachandran, S., Ong, F., Dwork, N., Zucker, E. J., Syed, A. B., Pauly, J. M., Alley, M. T., Vasanawala, S. S. 2020: e27196


    BACKGROUND: Quantitative T2 * MRI is the standard of care for the assessment of iron overload. However, patient motion corrupts T2 * estimates.PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a motion-robust, simultaneous cardiac and liver T2 * imaging approach using non-Cartesian, rosette sampling and a model-based reconstruction as compared to clinical-standard Cartesian MRI.STUDY TYPE: Prospective.PHANTOM/POPULATION: Six ferumoxytol-containing phantoms (26-288mug/mL). Eight healthy subjects and 18 patients referred for clinically indicated iron overload assessment.FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 1.5T, 2D Cartesian and rosette gradient echo (GRE) ASSESSMENT: GRE T2 * values were validated in ferumoxytol phantoms. In healthy subjects, test-retest and spatial coefficient of variation (CoV) analysis was performed during three breathing conditions. Cartesian and rosette T2 * were compared using correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Images were rated by three experienced radiologists on a 5-point scale.STATISTICAL TESTS: Linear regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and paired Student's t-testing were used to compare reproducibility and variability metrics in Cartesian and rosette scans. The Wilcoxon rank test was used to assess reader score comparisons and reader reliability was measured using intraclass correlation analysis.RESULTS: Rosette R2* (1/T2 *) was linearly correlated with ferumoxytol concentration (r2 = 1.00) and not significantly different than Cartesian values (P = 0.16). During breath-holding, ungated rosette liver and heart T2 * had lower spatial CoV (liver: 18.49.3% Cartesian, 8.8%3.4% rosette, P = 0.02, heart: 37.7%14.3% Cartesian, 13.4%1.7% rosette, P = 0.001) and higher-quality scores (liver: 3.3 [3.0-3.6] Cartesian, 4.7 [4.1-4.9] rosette, P = 0.005, heart: 3.0 [2.3-3] Cartesian, 4.5 [3.8-5.0] rosette, P = 0.005) compared to Cartesian values. During free-breathing and failed breath-holding, Cartesian images had very poor to average image quality with significant artifacts, whereas rosette remained very good, with minimal artifacts (P = 0.001).DATA CONCLUSION: Rosette k-sampling with a model-based reconstruction offers a clinically useful motion-robust T2 * mapping approach for iron quantification.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.27196

    View details for PubMedID 32452088

  • Quantitative perfusion mapping with induced transient hypoxia using BOLD MRI. Magnetic resonance in medicine Vu, C., Chai, Y., Coloigner, J., Nederveen, A. J., Borzage, M., Bush, A., Wood, J. C. 2020


    Gadolinium-based dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) is commonly used to characterize blood flow in patients with stroke and brain tumors. Unfortunately, gadolinium contrast administration has been associated with adverse reactions and long-term accumulation in tissues. In this work, we propose an alternative deoxygenation-based DSC (dDSC) method that uses a transient hypoxia gas paradigm to deliver a bolus of paramagnetic deoxygenated hemoglobin to the cerebral vasculature for perfusion imaging.Through traditional DSC tracer kinetic modeling, the MR signal change induced by this hypoxic bolus can be used to generate regional perfusion maps of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time. This gas paradigm and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD)-MRI were performed concurrently on a cohort of 66 healthy and chronically anemic subjects (age 23.59.7, female 64%).Our results showed reasonable global and regional agreement between dDSC and other flow techniques, such as phase contrast and arterial spin labeling.In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using transient hypoxia to generate a contrast bolus that mimics the effect of gadolinium and yields reasonable perfusion estimates. Looking forward, optimization of the hypoxia boluses and measurement of the arterial-input function is necessary to improve the accuracy of dDSC. Additionally, a cross-validation study of dDSC and DSC in brain tumor and ischemic stroke subjects is warranted to evaluate the clinical diagnostic utility of this approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.28422

    View details for PubMedID 32767413

  • Transient Hypoxia Model Revealed Cerebrovascular Impairment in Anemia Using BOLD MRI and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI Coloigner, J., Vu, C., Borzage, M., Bush, A., Choi, S., Miao, X., Chai, Y., Galarza, C., Lepore, N., Tamrazi, B., Coates, T. D., Wood, J. C. 2020


    Obstructive sleep apnea and nocturnal oxygen desaturations, which are prevalent in sickle cell disease (SCD) and chronic anemia disorders, have been linked to risks of stroke and silent cerebral infarcts (SCI). Cerebrovascular response to intermittent desaturations has not been well studied and may identify patients at greatest risk.To investigate the cerebral dynamic response to induced desaturation in SCD patients with and without SCI, chronic anemia, and healthy subjects.Prospective.Twenty-six SCD patients (age = 21??8.2, female 46.2%), including 15 subjects without SCI and nine subjects with SCI, 15 nonsickle anemic patients (age = 22??5.8, female 66.7%), and 31 controls (age = 28??12.3, female 77.4%).3T, gradient-echo echo-planar imaging.A transient hypoxia challenge of five breaths of 100% nitrogen gas was performed with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) acquisitions. Hypoxia responses were characterized by desaturation depth, time-to-peak, return-to-baseline half-life, and posthypoxia recovery in the BOLD and NIRS time courses. SCI were documented by T2 fluid-attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR).Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed between hypoxic parameters and anemia predictors. Voxelwise two-sample t-statistic maps were used to assess the regional difference in hypoxic responses between anemic and control groups.Compared to controls, SCD and chronically anemic patients demonstrated significantly higher desaturation depth (P?

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.27210

    View details for PubMedID 32648323

  • Anemia Predicts Lower White Matter Volume and Cognitive Performance in Sickle and Non-Sickle Cell Anemia Syndrome. American journal of hematology Soyoung Choi, B. A., O'Neil, S. H., Joshi, A. A., Li, J., Bush, A. M., Coates, T. D., Leahy, R. M., Wood, J. C. 2019


    Severe chronic anemia is an independent predictor of overt stroke,1-4 white matter damage,5,6 and cognitive dysfunction in the elderly.7 Severe anemia also predisposes to white matter strokes in young children, independent of the anemia subtype.6 We previously demonstrated symmetrically decreased white matter (WM) volumes in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD).8 In the current study, we investigated whether patients with non-sickle anemia also have lower WM volumes and cognitive dysfunction. MRI's were performed on 52 clinically asymptomatic SCD patients (age=21.4 7.7; F=27, M=25; hemoglobin=9.6 1.6), 26 non-sickle anemic patients (age=23.9 7.9; F=14, M=12; hemoglobin=10.8 2.5) and 40 control subjects (age=27.7 11.3; F=28, M=12; hemoglobin=13.4 1.3). Voxel-wise changes in WM brain volumes were compared to hemoglobin levels to identify brain regions that are vulnerable to anemia. White-matter volume was diffusely lower in deep, watershed areas proportionally to anemia severity. After controlling for age, sex, and hemoglobin level, brain volumes were independent of disease. WM volume loss was associated with lower Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ; p=0.0048; r2 =0.18) and an abnormal burden of silent cerebral infarctions (p=0.029) in males, but not in females. Hemoglobin count and cognitive measures were similar between subjects with and without white-matter hyperintensities. The spatial distribution of volume loss suggests chronic hypoxic cerebrovascular injury, despite compensatory hyperemia.9,10 Neurocognitive consequences of WM volume changes and silent cerebral infarction were strongly sexually dimorphic. Understanding the possible neurological consequences of chronic anemia may help inform our current clinical practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.25570

    View details for PubMedID 31259431

  • White Matter Has Impaired Resting Oxygen Delivery in Sickle Cell Patients. American journal of hematology Chai, Y., Bush, A. M., Coloigner, J., Nederveen, A. J., Tamrazi, B., Vu, C., Choi, S., Coates, T. D., Lepore, N., Wood, J. C. 2019


    Although modern medical management has lowered overt stroke occurrence in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), progressive white matter (WM) damage remains common. It is known that cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases to compensate for anemia, but sufficiency of cerebral oxygen delivery, especially in the WM, has not been systematically investigated. Cerebral perfusion was measured by arterial spin labeling in 32 SCD patients (age range: 10-42 years old, 14 males, 7 with HbSC, 25 HbSS) and 25 age and race-matched healthy controls (age range: 15-45 years old, 10 males, 12 with HbAS, 13 HbAA); 8/24 SCD patients were receiving regular blood transfusions and 14/24 non-transfused SCD patients were taking hydroxyurea. Imaging data from control subjects was used to calculate maps for CBF and oxygen delivery in SCD patients and their T-score maps. Whole brain CBF was increased in SCD patients with a mean T-score of 0.5 and correlated with lactate dehydrogenase (r2 = 0.58, p<0.0001). When corrected for oxygen content and arterial saturation, whole brain and grey matter (GM) oxygen delivery were normal in SCD, but WM oxygen delivery was 35% lower than in controls. Age and hematocrit were the strongest predictors for WM CBF and oxygen delivery in patients with SCD. There was spatial co-localization between regions of low oxygen delivery and white matter hyperintensities on T2 FLAIR imaging. To conclude, oxygen delivery is preserved in the GM of SCD patients, but is decreased throughout the WM, particularly in areas prone to WM silent strokes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for PubMedID 30697803

  • Hemolysis and Tricuspid Regurgitation Jet Velocity Predict Mortality in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease Shah, P., Bush, A., Suriany, S., Liu, H., Forman, H. J., Chalacheva, P., Thuptimdang, W., Sunwoo, J., Veluswamy, S., Denton, C., Khaleel, M., Kato, R., Perumbeti, A., Sposto, R., Khoo, M., Coates, T. D., Wood, J. C., Detterich, J. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2018
  • Diminished cerebral oxygen extraction and metabolic rate in sickle cell disease using T2 relaxation under spin tagging MRI MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Bush, A. M., Coates, T. D., Wood, J. C. 2018; 80 (1): 294?303


    T2 MRI oximetry can noninvasively determine oxygen saturation (Y) but requires empirical MR calibration models to convert the measured blood transverse relaxation (T2b ) into Y. The accuracy of existing T2b models in the presence of blood disorders such as sickle cell disease (SCD) remains unknown.A Carr Purcell Meiboom Gill T2 preparation sequence was used to make 83 whole blood measurements from 11 subjects with SCD to derive an ex vivo sickle hemoglobin (HbS) T2b model. Forearm venous blood gas, sagittal sinus T2 (T2 Relaxation Under Spin Tagging) and total brain blood flow (phase contrast MRI) were measured in 37 healthy controls and 33 SCD subjects (age 24.6??10.2 years). Cerebral oxygen saturation, extraction fraction, and metabolic rate estimates were calculated using three separate T2b models. Cerebral and forearm oxygen extraction fraction were compared.Ex vivo, SCD blood had greater saturation dependent relaxivity than control blood, with a weak dependence on HbS and no dependence on hematocrit. In vivo, the HbS T2b model predicted Yv values with lowest coefficient of variation (compared with existing T2b models) and the strongest correlation with peripheral venous oximetry (r2 ?=?.29). The HbS T2b model predicted systematically higher Yv measurements in SCD patients (73??5 and 61??6; P?

    View details for PubMedID 29194727

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5876140

  • Pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling quantification in anemic subjects with hyperemic cerebral blood flow MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Bush, A., Chai, Y., Choi, S., Vaclavu, L., Holland, S., Nederveen, A., Coates, T., Wood, J. 2018; 47: 137?46


    To investigate possible sources of quantification errors in global cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements by comparing pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) and phase contrast (PC) MRI in anemic, hyperemic subjects.All studies were performed on a Philips 3T Achieva MRI scanner. PC and PCASL CBF examinations were performed in 10 healthy, young adult subjects and 18 young adults with chronic anemia syndromes including sickle cell disease and thalassemia. CBF estimates from single and two compartment ASL kinetic models were compared. Numerical simulation and flow phantom experiments were used to explore the effects of blood velocity and B1+ on CBF quantification and labeling efficiency.PCASL CBF underestimated PC in both populations using a single compartment model (30.19.2% control, 45.217.2% anemia). Agreement substantially improved using a two-compartment model (-8.06.0% control, 11.712.3% anemia). Four of the anemic subjects exhibited venous outflow of ASL signal, suggestive of cerebrovascular shunt, possibly confounding PC-PCASL comparisons. Additionally, sub-study experiments demonstrated that B1+ was diminished at the labeling plane (82.95.1%), resulting in suboptimal labeling efficiency. Correcting labeling efficiency for diminished B1+, PCASL slightly overestimated PC CBF in controls (-15.46.8%) and resulted in better matching of CBF estimates in anemic subjects (0.710.0% without outflow, 10.59.4% with outflow).This work demonstrates that a two-compartment model is critical for PCASL quantification in hyperemic subjects. Venous outflow and B1+ under-excitation may also contribute to flow underestimation, but further study of these effects is required.

    View details for PubMedID 29229306

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5834316

  • oximetry. Magnetic resonance in medicine Bush, A., Borzage, M., Detterich, J., Kato, R. M., Meiselman, H. J., Coates, T., Wood, J. C. 2017; 77 (6): 2364-2371


    We sought a human blood T2 -oximetery calibration curve over the wide range of hematocrits commonly found in anemic patients applicable with T2 relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST).Blood was drawn from five healthy control subjects. Ninety-three in vitro blood transverse relaxation (T2b ) measurements were performed at 37C over a broad range of hematocrits (10-55%) and oxygen saturations (14-100%) at 3 Tesla (T). In vivo TRUST was performed on 35 healthy African American control subjects and 11 patients with chronic anemia syndromes.1/T2 rose linearly with hematocrit (r(2) ?=?0.96), for fully saturated blood. Upon desaturation, 1/T2 rose linearly with the square of the oxygen extraction, (1-Y)(2) , and the slope was linearly proportional to hematocrit (r(2) ?=?0.88). The resulting bilinear model between 1/T2 , (1-Y)(2) , and hematocrit had a combined r(2) of 0.96 and a coefficient of variation of 6.1%. Using the in vivo data, the bilinear model had significantly lower bias and variability than existing calibrations, particularly for low hematocrits. In vivo Bland Altman analysis demonstrated clinically relevant bias that was -6% (absolute saturation) for hematocrits near 30% and rose to?+?6% for hematocrits near 45%.This work introduces a robust bilinear calibration model that should be used for MRI oximetry. Magn Reson Med 77:2364-2371, 2017. 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.26311

    View details for PubMedID 27385283

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5218988

  • Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY Bush, A. M., Borzage, M. T., Choi, S., Vaclavu, L., Tamrazi, B., Nederveen, A. J., Coates, T. D., Wood, J. C. 2016; 91 (9): 912-917


    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated. This study examined the physiological determinants of CBF in 37 patients with sickle cell disease, 38 ethnicity matched control subjects and 16 patients with anemia of non-sickle origin. Cerebral blood flow was measured using phase contrast MRI of the carotid and vertebral arteries. CBF increased inversely to oxygen content (r(2) ?=?0.69, P?

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.24441

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385237100159

    View details for PubMedID 27263497

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4987198

Footer Links:

Stanford Medicine Resources: