Multivessel coronary revascularization and outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.
2013; 26 (11): 1080-1087
Outcomes after kidney transplantation of patients previously diagnosed with atrial fibrillation.
American journal of transplantation
2013; 13 (6): 1566-1575
Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the kidney transplant population. We compared the long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for multivessel coronary disease in a contemporary cohort of US kidney transplant recipients. From the U.S. Renal Data System, we identified all adult kidney transplant patients with ?6 months of Medicare A+B undergoing first recorded multivessel coronary revascularization from 1997 to 2009. The associations of CABG versus PCI with death and the composite of death or myocardial infarction (MI) were compared using proportional hazards regression. Of the 2272 patients included in the study, 1594 underwent CABG and 678 underwent PCI. The estimated 5-year survival rate was 55% [95% confidence interval (CI) 53% to 57%] following coronary revascularization, with no significant association between revascularization type and death [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.08; CI 0.94-1.23] or the composite of death or MI (aHR = 1.07; CI 0.96-1.18). Separate propensity score-matched analyses yielded similar results. In this analysis of kidney transplant recipients undergoing multivessel coronary revascularization, we found no difference between CABG and PCI in terms of survival or the composite of death and MI.
View details for DOI 10.1111/tri.12168
View details for PubMedID 23957580
Trends in the incidence of intestinal perforation in US dialysis patients (1992-2005).
Journal of nephrology
2013; 26 (2): 281-288
Little is known about the prevalence and outcomes of patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) who receive a kidney transplant. We identified all patients who had >1 year of uninterrupted Medicare A+B coverage before receiving their first kidney transplant (1997-2009). The presence of pretransplant AF was ascertained from diagnosis codes in Medicare physician claims. We studied the posttransplant outcomes of death, all-cause graft failure, death-censored graft failure and stroke using multivariable Cox regression. Of 62 706 eligible first kidney transplant recipients studied, 3794 (6.4%) were diagnosed with AF prior to kidney transplant. Over a mean follow up of 4.9 years, 40.6% of AF patients and 24.9% without AF died. All-cause and death-censored graft failure were 46.8% and 16.5%, respectively, in the AF group and 36.4% and 19.5%, respectively, in those without AF. Ischemic stroke occurred in 2.8% of patients with and 1.6% of patients without AF. In patients with AF, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for death, graft failure, death-censored graft failure and ischemic stroke were 1.46 (1.38-1.54), 1.41 (1.34-1.48), 1.26 (1.15-1.37) and 1.36 (1.10-1.68), respectively. Pre-existing AF is associated with poor posttransplant outcomes. Special attention should be paid to AF in pretransplant evaluation, counseling and risk stratification of kidney transplant candidates.
View details for DOI 10.1111/ajt.12197
View details for PubMedID 23721555
Trends in acute kidney injury, associated use of dialysis, and mortality after cardiac surgery, 1999 to 2008.
Annals of thoracic surgery
2013; 95 (1): 20-28
Little is known about the incidence of intestinal perforation in patients undergoing dialysis. Concerns exist that sevelamer hydrochloride may increase the risk of intestinal perforation. We examined long-term trends for the incidence of intestinal perforation among US dialysis patients.We studied all dialysis patients (1992-2005) who had Medicare as primary payer. We used ICD-9 diagnosis code 569.83 to ascertain events of intestinal perforation. We studied (a) all perforations and (b) perforations that did not appear to be associated with specific causative conditions (specific diseases or iatrogenic procedures within 7 days of perforation). We used Poisson regression to model the annual number of intestinal perforations and tested for any changes in levels and temporal trends of incidence rates before versus after January 1, 1999.Overall, 1,060,132 patients contributed 2.7 million patient-years. We observed 12,355 events of intestinal perforation and 7,814 spontaneous perforations. The corresponding incidence rates were 4.6 (total) and 2.9 (spontaneous perforation) episodes per 1,000 person-years, respectively. For both outcome definitions, 30-day mortality was 42%. Unadjusted and adjusted incidence rates were not materially different over time. Formal tests for any changes in the level or slope of incidence comparing time periods before and after January 1, 1999, indicated no evidence for any changes in the incidence of intestinal perforation over time.In US dialysis patients, incidence of intestinal perforation was low, but associated with high short-term mortality. We did not detect any significant changes in the incidence of intestinal perforation before versus after approval of sevelamer hydrochloride in late 1998.
View details for DOI 10.5301/jn.5000104
View details for PubMedID 22419235
Risk factors of short-term mortality after acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients on dialysis: a population-based study.
2013; 14: 97-?
The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and cost. The last decade has seen major changes in the complexity of cardiac surgical candidates and in the number and type of cardiac surgical procedures being performed.Using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we determined the annual rates of AKI, AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-D), and inpatient mortality after cardiac surgery in the United States in the years 1999 through 2008.Inpatient mortality with AKI and AKI-D decreased from 27.9% and 45.9%, respectively, in 1999 to 12.8% and 35.3%, respectively, in 2008. Compared with 1999, the odds of AKI and AKI-D in 2008, adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, were 3.30 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.89 to 3.77) and 2.23 (95% CI: 1.78 to 2.80), respectively. Corresponding adjusted odds of death associated with AKI and AKI-D were 0.31 (95% CI: 0.26 to 0.36) and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.34 to 0.65.) Taken together, the attributable risks for death after cardiac surgery associated with AKI and AKI-D increased from 30% and 5%, respectively, in 1999 to 47% and 14%, respectively, in 2008.In sum, despite improvements in individual patient outcomes over the decade 1999 to 2008, the population contribution of AKI and AKI-D to inpatient mortality after surgery increased over the same period.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.05.131
View details for PubMedID 23272825
Multivessel Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Versus Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in ESRD
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY
2012; 23 (12): 2042-2049
Impaired kidney function is an established predictor of mortality after acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB); however, which factors are associated with mortality after ANVUGIB among patients undergoing dialysis is unknown. We examined the associations among demographic characteristics, dialysis-specific features, and comorbid conditions with short-term mortality after ANVUGIB among patients on dialysis.Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: United States Renal Data System (USRDS), a nation-wide registry of patients with end-stage renal disease. Participants: All ANVUGIB episodes identified by validated algorithms in Medicare-covered patients between 2003 and 2007. Measurements: Demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions from 1 year of billing claims prior to each bleeding event. We used logistic regression extended with generalized estimating equations methods to model the associations among risk factors and 30-day mortality following ANVUGIB events.From 2003 to 2007, we identified 40,016 eligible patients with 50,497 episodes of ANVUGIB. Overall 30-day mortality was 10.7% (95% CI: 10.4-11.0). Older age, white race, longer dialysis vintage, peritoneal dialysis (vs. hemodialysis), and hospitalized (vs. outpatient) episodes were independently associated with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. Most but not all comorbid conditions were associated with death after ANVUGIB. The joint ability of all factors captured to discriminate mortality was modest (c=0.68).We identified a profile of risk factors for 30-day mortality after ANVUGIB among patients on dialysis that was distinct from what had been reported in non-dialysis populations. Specifically, peritoneal dialysis and more years since initiation of dialysis were independently associated with short-term death after ANVUGIB.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2369-14-97
View details for PubMedID 23621917
Trends in Acute Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Dialysis Patients
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY
2012; 23 (3): 495-506
Thirty to sixty percent of patients with ESRD on dialysis have coronary heart disease, but the optimal strategy for coronary revascularization is unknown. We used data from the United States Renal Data System to define a cohort of 21,981 patients on maintenance dialysis who received initial coronary revascularization with either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 1997 and 2009 and had at least 6 months of prior Medicare coverage as their primary payer. The primary outcome was death from any cause, and the secondary outcome was a composite of death or myocardial infarction. Overall survival rates were consistently poor during the study period, with unadjusted 5-year survival rates of 22%-25% irrespective of revascularization strategy. Using multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards regression, we found that CABG compared with PCI associated with significantly lower risks for both death (HR=0.87, 95% CI=0.84-0.90) and the composite of death or myocardial infarction (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.86-0.91). Results were similar in analyses using a propensity score-matched cohort. In the absence of data from randomized trials, these results suggest that CABG may be preferred over PCI for multivessel coronary revascularization in appropriately selected patients on maintenance dialysis.
View details for DOI 10.1681/ASN.2012060554
View details for Web of Science ID 000311819000017
View details for PubMedID 23204445
Impaired kidney function is a risk factor for upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, an event associated with poor outcomes. The burden of upper GI bleeding and its effect on patients with ESRD are not well described. Using data from the US Renal Data System, we quantified the rates of occurrence of and associated 30-day mortality from acute, nonvariceal upper GI bleeding in patients undergoing dialysis; we used medical claims and previously validated algorithms where available. Overall, 948,345 patients contributed 2,296,323 patient-years for study. The occurrence rates for upper GI bleeding were 57 and 328 episodes per 1000 person-years according to stringent and lenient definitions of acute, nonvariceal upper GI bleeding, respectively. Unadjusted occurrence rates remained flat (stringent) or increased (lenient) from 1997 to 2008; after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid conditions, however, we found a significant decline for both definitions (linear approximation, 2.7% and 1.5% per year, respectively; P<0.001). In more recent years, patients had higher hematocrit levels before upper GI bleeding episodes and were more likely to receive blood transfusions during an episode. Overall 30-day mortality was 11.8%, which declined significantly over time (relative declines of 2.3% or 2.8% per year for the stringent and lenient definitions, respectively). In summary, despite declining trends worldwide, crude rates of acute, nonvariceal upper GI bleeding among patients undergoing dialysis have not decreased in the past 10 years. Although 30-day mortality related to upper GI bleeding declined, perhaps reflecting improvements in medical care, the burden on the ESRD population remains substantial.
View details for DOI 10.1681/ASN.2011070658
View details for Web of Science ID 000301206900017
View details for PubMedID 22266666