Dr. Gupta specializes in the treatment of patients with lymphoma in general, and has particular clinical and research interests in patients with primary central nervous system and immunodeficiency-related lymphomas.

Clinical Focus

  • Cancer > Lymphoma
  • AIDS-Related Lymphomas
  • Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas
  • Medical Oncology

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: Medical Oncology, American Board of Internal Medicine (2013)
  • Residency:University of Washington Medical Center Dept of Medicine (2010) WA
  • Medical Education:University of California Davis School of Medicine (2006) CA
  • Fellowship:Univ of California San Francisco (2013) CA
  • Fellowship:Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (2009) NY
  • Board Certification: Hematology, American Board of Internal Medicine (2014)
  • Board Certification: Internal Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine (2010)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

I have specific interest in the pathobiology and management of individuals with AIDS-related and primary central nervous system lymphomas.

Clinical Trials

  • Study of Tipifarnib in Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Recruiting

    This Phase II studyis designed to investigate the antitumor activity in terms of objective response rate (ORR) of tipifarnib in 18 subjects with advanced Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PTCL). The total number of patients could be extended to 30 pending on the degree of response observed at an interim analysis. Tipifarnib will be administered until disease progression then followed approximately every 12 weeks for survival until either death or 12 months after accrual of the last study subject, whichever occurs first.

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  • A Phase 1 Study to Investigate the Safety and Tolerability of REGN1979 in Patients With CD20+ B-Cell Malignancies Recruiting

    This is an open-label, multi-center, dose escalation study of REGN1979 administered as an IV (intravenous) infusion. This phase 1 study will investigate the safety and tolerability of REGN1979 in patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

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  • A Multi-Center Study of Ibrutinib in Combination With MEDI4736 in Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphomas Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the combination treatment of ibrutinib and MEDI4736 in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphomas.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Brentuximab Vedotin Combined With AVD Chemotherapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Early Stage, Unfavorable Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes across the 4 different treatment groups. The investigators hope that this treatment will improve the ability to cure more patients with HL and also limit the long-term side effects from the treatment. Although eliminating radiation in cohort 4 will eliminate the risk for long-term side effects from radiation, it is also possible that with BV+AVD chemotherapy alone there may be an increased risk of the Hodgkin lymphoma coming back after initial treatment.

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  • Nivolumab and Brentuximab Vedotin in Treating Older Patients With Untreated Hodgkin Lymphoma Recruiting

    This phase II trial studies how well nivolumab and brentuximab vedotin work in treating older patients with untreated Hodgkin lymphoma. Monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, may block cancer growth in different ways by targeting certain cells. Biological therapies, such as brentuximab vedotin, use substances made from living organisms that may stimulate or suppress the immune system in different ways and stop cancer cells from growing. Nivolumab and brentuximab vedotin may work better in treating older patients with untreated Hodgkin lymphoma.

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  • A Study to Evaluate Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Clinical Activity of Combination of RO6870810 and Venetoclax, With or Without Rituximab, in Participants With Relapsed/Refractory DLBCL and/or High-Grade B-Cell Lymphoma and/or High Grade B-Cell Lymphoma With MYC and/or BCL2 and/or BCL6 Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety, tolerability and clinical activity of RO6870810 in combination with venetoclax and when co-administered with rituximab in participants with relapse/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and/or high-grade B-cell lymphoma with myelocytomatosis oncogene (MYC) and/or B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and/or B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) gene rearrangements (HGBL-DH/TH).

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  • Combination Chemotherapy and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage II-IV Peripheral T-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This phase I/II trial studies the side effects and best dose of lenalidomide when given together with combination chemotherapy and to see how well they work in treating patients with newly diagnosed stage II-IV peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, and etoposide, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Lenalidomide may stop the growth of peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma by blocking the growth of new blood vessels necessary for cancer growth. Giving combination chemotherapy with lenalidomide may be a better treatment for peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Ranjana H. Advani, 650-725-6456.

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  • Efficacy of Axicabtagene Ciloleucel Compared to Standard of Care Therapy in Subjects With Relapsed/Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether axicabtagene ciloleucel therapy improves the clinical outcome compared with standard of care second-line therapy in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).

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  • A Study of Duvelisib in Combination With Rituximab or Obinutuzumab in Subjects With Previously Untreated CD20+ Follicular Lymphoma (CONTEMPO) Not Recruiting

    A Two-arm, Phase 1b/2 Study of duvelisib Administered in Combination with Rituximab or Obinutuzumab in Subjects with Previously Untreated CD20+ Follicular Lymphoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sipra Choudhury, 650-736-2563.

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  • Study of Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) in Participants With Relapsed or Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (MK-3475-087/KEYNOTE-087) Recruiting

    This is a study of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) for participants with relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (RRcHL) who: 1) have failed to achieve a response or progressed after autologous stem cell transplant (auto-SCT) and have relapsed after treatment with or failed to respond to brentuximab vedotin (BV) post auto-SCT or 2) were unable to achieve a Complete Response (CR) or Partial Response (PR) to salvage chemotherapy and did not receive auto-SCT, but have relapsed after treatment with or failed to respond to BV or 3) have failed to achieve a response to or progressed after auto-SCT and have not received BV post auto-SCT. The primary study hypothesis is that treatment with single agent pembrolizumab will result in a clinically meaningful overall response rate.

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  • Trial of Hu5F9-G4 in Combination With Rituximab in Relapsed/Refractory B-cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Recruiting

    This Phase 1b/2 trial will evaluate Hu5F9-G4 in combination with rituximab. Hu5F9-G4 is a monoclonal antibody which is designed to block a protein called CD47, which is widely expressed on human cancer cells. Blocking CD47 with Hu5F9-G4 may enable the body's immune system to find and destroy the cancer cells. Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody drug that is used for treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other types of cancer. The major aims of the trial are: (Phase 1b) to investigate the safety and tolerability of sequential dose cohorts and to determine a recommended Phase 2 dose for Hu5F9-G4 in combination with rituximab, and (Phase 2) to evaluate the efficacy of Hu5F9-G4 in combination with rituximab in patients with indolent lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma as measured by the overall response rate.

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All Publications

  • Long-term survival in AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma. Neuro-oncology Gupta, N. K., Nolan, A., Omuro, A., Reid, E. G., Wang, C. C., Mannis, G., Jaglal, M., Chavez, J. C., Rubinstein, P. G., Griffin, A., Abrams, D. I., Hwang, J., Kaplan, L. D., Luce, J. A., Volberding, P., Treseler, P. A., Rubenstein, J. L. 2016


    The optimal therapeutic approach for patients with AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphoma (AR-PCNSL) remains undefined. While its incidence declined substantially with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), AR-PCNSL remains a highly aggressive neoplasm for which whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is considered a standard first-line intervention.To identify therapy-related factors associated with favorable survival, we first retrospectively analyzed outcomes of AR-PCNSL patients treated at San Francisco General Hospital, a public hospital with a long history of dedicated care for patients with HIV and AIDS-related malignancies. Results were validated in a retrospective, multicenter analysis that evaluated all newly diagnosed patients with AR-PCNSL treated with cART plus high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX).We provide evidence that CD4+ reconstitution with cART administered during HD-MTX correlates with long-term survival among patients with CD4 <100. This was confirmed in a multicenter analysis which demonstrated that integration of cART regimens with HD-MTX was generally well tolerated and resulted in longer progression-free survival than other treatments. No profound differences in immunophenotype were identified in an analysis of AR-PCNSL tumors that arose in the pre- versus post-cART eras. However, we detected evidence for a demographic shift, as the proportion of minority patients with AR-PCNSL increased since advent of cART.Long-term disease-free survival can be achieved in AR-PCNSL, even among those with histories of opportunistic infections, limited access to health care, and medical non-adherence. Given this, as well as the long-term toxicities of WBRT, we recommend that integration of cART plus first-line HD-MTX be considered for all patients with AR-PCNSL.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/neuonc/now155

    View details for PubMedID 27576871

  • Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in B-cell lymphoma Scherer, F., Kurtz, D. M., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H., Craig, A. M., Esfahani, M. S., Lovejoy, A. F., Chabon, J. J., Klass, D. M., Green, M. R., Liu, C. L., Zhou, L., Glover, C., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Advani, R. H., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Davis, R., Levy, R., Ohgami, R. S., Kunder, C. A., Rossi, D., Westin, J., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. WILEY. 2018: 16–17
  • Circulating Tumor DNA Measurements As Early Outcome Predictors in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Kurtz, D. M., Scherer, F., Jin, M. C., Soo, J., Craig, A. F., Esfahani, M. S., Chabon, J. J., Stehr, H., Liu, C. L., Tibshirani, R., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Khodadoust, M. S., Advani, R. H., Levy, R., Newman, A. M., Duhrsen, U., Huttmann, A., Meignan, M., Casasnovas, R., Westin, J. R., Roschewski, M., Wilson, W. H., Gaidano, G., Rossi, D., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2018: JCO2018785246


    Purpose Outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma remain heterogeneous, with existing methods failing to consistently predict treatment failure. We examined the additional prognostic value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) before and during therapy for predicting patient outcomes. Patients and Methods We studied the dynamics of ctDNA from 217 patients treated at six centers, using a training and validation framework. We densely characterized early ctDNA dynamics during therapy using cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing to define response-associated thresholds within a discovery set. These thresholds were assessed in two independent validation sets. Finally, we assessed the prognostic value of ctDNA in the context of established risk factors, including the International Prognostic Index and interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. Results Before therapy, ctDNA was detectable in 98% of patients; pretreatment levels were prognostic in both front-line and salvage settings. In the discovery set, ctDNA levels changed rapidly, with a 2-log decrease after one cycle (early molecular response [EMR]) and a 2.5-log decrease after two cycles (major molecular response [MMR]) stratifying outcomes. In the first validation set, patients receiving front-line therapy achieving EMR or MMR had superior outcomes at 24 months (EMR: EFS, 83% v 50%; P = .0015; MMR: EFS, 82% v 46%; P < .001). EMR also predicted superior 24-month outcomes in patients receiving salvage therapy in the first validation set (EFS, 100% v 13%; P = .011). The prognostic value of EMR and MMR was further confirmed in the second validation set. In multivariable analyses including International Prognostic Index and interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans across both cohorts, molecular response was independently prognostic of outcomes, including event-free and overall survival. Conclusion Pretreatment ctDNA levels and molecular responses are independently prognostic of outcomes in aggressive lymphomas. These risk factors could potentially guide future personalized risk-directed approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2018.78.5246

    View details for PubMedID 30125215

  • Cancer in People Living With HIV, Version 1.2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK Reid, E., Suneja, G., Ambinder, R. F., Ard, K., Baiocchi, R., Barta, S. K., Carchman, E., Cohen, A., Gupta, N., Johung, K. L., Klopp, A., LaCasce, A. S., Lin, C., Makarova-Rusher, O. V., Mehta, A., Menon, M. P., Morgan, D., Nathwani, N., Noy, A., Palella, F., Ratner, L., Rizza, S., Rudek, M. A., Taylor, J., Tomlinson, B., Wang, C. J., Dwyer, M. A., Freedman-Cass, D. A. 2018; 16 (8): 986–1017


    People living with HIV (PLWH) are diagnosed with cancer at an increased rate over the general population and generally have a higher mortality due to delayed diagnoses, advanced cancer stage, comorbidities, immunosuppression, and cancer treatment disparities. Lack of guidelines and provider education has led to substandard cancer care being offered to PLWH. To fill that gap, the NCCN Guidelines for Cancer in PLWH were developed; they provide treatment recommendations for PLWH who develop non-small cell lung cancer, anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer. In addition, the NCCN Guidelines outline advice regarding HIV management during cancer therapy; drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral treatments and cancer therapies; and workup, radiation therapy, surgical management, and supportive care in PLWH who have cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.6004/jnccn.2018.0066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000441297200010

    View details for PubMedID 30099375

  • Distinct biological subtypes and patterns of genome evolution in lymphoma revealed by circulating tumor DNA SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Scherer, F., Kurtz, D. M., Newman, A. M., Stehr, H., Craig, A. F., Esfahani, M. S., Lovejoy, A. F., Chabon, J. J., Klass, D. M., Liu, C. L., Zhou, L., Glover, C., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Advani, R. H., Maeda, L. S., Gupta, N. K., Levy, R., Ohgami, R. S., Kunder, C. A., Diehn, M., Alizadeh, A. A. 2016; 8 (364)


    Patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) exhibit marked diversity in tumor behavior and outcomes, yet the identification of poor-risk groups remains challenging. In addition, the biology underlying these differences is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that characterization of mutational heterogeneity and genomic evolution using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) profiling could reveal molecular determinants of adverse outcomes. To address this hypothesis, we applied cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing (CAPP-Seq) analysis to tumor biopsies and cell-free DNA samples from 92 lymphoma patients and 24 healthy subjects. At diagnosis, the amount of ctDNA was found to strongly correlate with clinical indices and was independently predictive of patient outcomes. We demonstrate that ctDNA genotyping can classify transcriptionally defined tumor subtypes, including DLBCL cell of origin, directly from plasma. By simultaneously tracking multiple somatic mutations in ctDNA, our approach outperformed immunoglobulin sequencing and radiographic imaging for the detection of minimal residual disease and facilitated noninvasive identification of emergent resistance mutations to targeted therapies. In addition, we identified distinct patterns of clonal evolution distinguishing indolent follicular lymphomas from those that transformed into DLBCL, allowing for potential noninvasive prediction of histological transformation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ctDNA analysis reveals biological factors that underlie lymphoma clinical outcomes and could facilitate individualized therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aai8545

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389448100006

    View details for PubMedID 27831904

  • The Transfusion Tether: Bridging the Gap Between End-Stage Hematologic Malignancies and Optimal End-of-Life Care. American journal of hematology Mannis, G. N., McNey, L. M., Gupta, N. K., Gross, D. M. 2016

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.24294

    View details for PubMedID 26799788

  • Delayed hematopoietic recovery after auto-SCT in patients receiving arsenic trioxide-based therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia: a multi-center analysis BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Mannis, G. N., Logan, A. C., Leavitt, A. D., Yanada, M., Hwang, J., Olin, R. L., Damon, L. E., Andreadis, C., Ai, W. Z., Gaensler, K. M., Greene, C. C., Gupta, N. K., Kaplan, L. D., MAHINDRA, A., Miyazaki, Y., Naoe, T., Ohtake, S., Sayre, P. H., Smith, C. C., Venstrom, J. M., Wolf, J. L., Caballero, L., Emi, N., Martin, T. G. 2015; 50 (1): 40-44


    A potential link between arsenic (ATO)-based therapy and delayed hematopoietic recovery after autologous hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has previously been reported. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical histories of 58 patients undergoing autologous HSCT for APL at 21 institutions in the United States and Japan. Thirty-three (56%) of the patients received ATO-based therapy prior to stem cell collection. Delayed neutrophil engraftment occurred in 10 patients (17%): 9 of the 10 patients (90%) received prior ATO (representing 27% of all ATO-treated patients), compared with 1 of the 10 patients (10%) not previously treated with ATO (representing 4% of all ATO-naïve patients; P<0.001). Compared with ATO-naïve patients, ATO-treated patients experienced significantly longer times to ANC recovery (median 12 days vs 9 days, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, the only significant independent predictor of delayed neutrophil engraftment was prior treatment with ATO (hazard ratio 4.87; P<0.001). Of the available stem cell aliquots from APL patients, the median viable post-thaw CD34+ cell recovery was significantly lower than that of cryopreserved autologous stem cell products from patients with non-APL AML. Our findings suggest that ATO exposure prior to CD34+ cell harvest has deleterious effects on hematopoietic recovery after autologous HSCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2014.201

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347806800008

    View details for PubMedID 25243620

  • New Meets Old: A Case Study and Review of Novel Therapeutics for the Treatment of CLL in Older Patients JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK Gupta, N. K., Andreadis, C. 2014; 12 (10): 1371-1375
  • Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Cancers in People with HIV and AIDS Gupta, N. K., Kaplan, L. D. Springer. 2014: 175–182
  • How I treat CNS lymphomas BLOOD Rubenstein, J. L., Gupta, N. K., Mannis, G. N., LaMarre, A. K., Treseler, P. 2013; 122 (14): 2318-2330


    The pathogenesis of primary and secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma poses a unique set of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic challenges. During the past 10 years, there has been significant progress in the elucidation of the molecular properties of CNS lymphomas and their microenvironment, as well as evolution in the development of novel treatment strategies. Although a CNS lymphoma diagnosis was once assumed to be uniformly associated with a dismal prognosis, it is now reasonable to anticipate long-term survival, and possibly a cure, for a significant fraction of CNS lymphoma patients. The pathogenesis of CNS lymphomas affects multiple compartments within the neuroaxis, and proper treatment of the CNS lymphoma patient requires a multidisciplinary team with expertise not only in hematology/oncology but also in neurology, neuroradiology, neurosurgery, clinical neuropsychology, ophthalmology, pathology, and radiation oncology. Given the evolving principles of management and the evidence for improvements in survival, our goal is to provide an overview of current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of CNS lymphomas and to highlight promising strategies that we believe to be most effective in establishing diagnosis, staging, and therapeutic management.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-06-453084

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326078200015

    View details for PubMedID 23963042

  • Outcome of patients with relapsed/refractory acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related lymphoma diagnosed 1999-2008 and treated with curative intent in the AIDS Malignancy Consortium LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA Bayraktar, U. D., Ramos, J. C., Petrich, A., Gupta, N., Lensing, S., Moore, P. C., Reid, E. G., Aboulafia, D. M., Ratner, L., Mitsuyasu, R., Cooley, T., Henry, D. H., Barr, P., Noy, A. 2012; 53 (12): 2383-2389


    No comparative studies exist for relapsed/refractory (rel/rfr) acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL). To determine practices over the last decade and to assess the outcomes of salvage chemotherapy with curative intent and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT), we retrospectively evaluated treatment outcomes in patients with rel/rfr ARL who were treated in 13 national AIDS Malignancy Consortium (AMC) sites between 1999 and 2008 (n = 88). The most commonly used second-line therapies were ICE (ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide, n = 34), dose adjusted EPOCH (etoposide/prednisone/vincristine/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin, n = 17) and ESHAP (etoposide/methylprednisolone/cytarabine/cisplatin, n = 11). The odds of achieving a response were lower for those with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) than for those with HL and for those with primary refractory disease than for those with relapse. Overall survival (OS) was significantly longer for those with relapsed disease compared to those with refractory disease and for those with non-Burkitt NHL compared to those with Burkitt. OS was longer in patients who underwent ASCT compared to those who did not (1-year OS: 63.2% vs. 37.2%). However, among 32 patients (36%) who achieved a complete or partial response (CR/PR) after second-line therapy, 1-year OS was not different between the two groups (87.5% for ASCT vs. 81.8% for non-ASCT). Long-term survival in some patients with rel/rfr ARL may be possible without transplant, although transplant remains the standard of care for chemotherapy sensitive disease.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/10428194.2012.697559

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310709000011

    View details for PubMedID 22642936

  • Fourth complete remission with immunosuppression withdrawal and irinotecan after both autologous and allogeneic transplants for diffuse large B cell lymphoma LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA Gupta, N. K., Barker, J. N., Young, J. W., Noy, A. 2009; 50 (12): 2075-2077

    View details for DOI 10.3109/10428190903144642

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272753000025

    View details for PubMedID 19637088

  • Differential effects of neurotoxic destruction of descending noradrenergic pathways on acute and persistent nociceptive processing PAIN Martin, W. J., Gupta, N. K., Loo, C. M., Rohde, D. S., Basbaum, A. I. 1999; 80 (1-2): 57-65


    Although many pharmacological studies indicate that bulbospinal noradrenergic projections contribute to antinociception, lesions of the major brainstem noradrenergic cell groups have provided conflicting evidence. Here we used a new immunotoxin, anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase-saporin, to re-examine the contribution of noradrenergic pathways to nociception and to morphine analgesia. We treated rats intrathecally by lumbar puncture with the immunotoxin and examined dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) immunoreactivity seven and 14 days after treatment. There was no change in DbetaH staining at 7 days; however, 14 days after treatment we demonstrated significant destruction of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and in the A5 and A7 cell groups. There was a concomitant loss of noradrenergic axons in the dorsal and ventral horns of the lumbosacral and cervical cord. Consistent with the lack of anatomical changes, we found no difference in nociceptive responses in the hot-plate, tail-flick or formalin tests one week post-toxin. On day 14 we examined the behavioral response to injection of formalin into the hindpaw and found that responses during the second phase of pain behavior were significantly reduced. There was no change during the first phase. Formalin-evoked fos expression in the spinal cord was also reduced. We also evaluated morphine analgesia in the formalin test and found that toxin-treated animals exhibited enhanced morphine analgesia. These results establish the utility of using this immunotoxin to selectively destroy subpopulations of noradrenergic cell groups and provide evidence that acute and persistent nociception are differentially regulated by descending noradrenergic pathways.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079378600007

    View details for PubMedID 10204718