Varicella-Zoster Virus Immediate-Early Protein 62 Blocks Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3) Phosphorylation at Key Serine Residues: a Novel Mechanism of IRF3 Inhibition among Herpesviruses
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
2010; 84 (18): 9240-9253
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that is restricted to humans. VZV infection of differentiated cells within the host and establishment of latency likely require evasion of innate immunity and limited secretion of antiviral cytokines. Since interferons (IFNs) severely limit VZV replication, we examined the ability of VZV to modulate the induction of the type I IFN response in primary human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF). IFN-beta production was not detected, and transcription of two interferon response factor 3 (IRF3)-dependent interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), ISG54 and ISG56, in response to poly(I:C) stimulation was downregulated in VZV-infected HELF. Inhibition of IRF3 function did not require VZV replication; the viral immediate-early protein 62 (IE62) alone was sufficient to produce this effect. IE62 blocked TBK1-mediated IFN-beta secretion and IRF3 function, as shown in an IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE)-luciferase reporter assay. However, IRF3 function was preserved if constitutively active IRF3 (IRF3-5D) was expressed in VZV-infected or IE62-transfected cells, indicating that VZV interferes with IRF3 phosphorylation. IE62-mediated inhibition was mapped to blocking phosphorylation of at least three serine residues on IRF3. However, IE62 binding to TBK1 or IRF3 was not detected and IE62 did not perturb TBK1-IRF3 complex formation. IE62-mediated inhibition of IRF3 function was maintained even if IE62 transactivator activity was disrupted. Thus, IE62 has two critical but discrete roles following VZV entry: to induce expression of VZV genes and to disarm the IFN-dependent antiviral defense through a novel mechanism that prevents IRF3 phosphorylation.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.01147-10
View details for Web of Science ID 000281110500025
View details for PubMedID 20631144
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2937611
The NY-1 hantavirus Gn cytoplasmic tail coprecipitates TRAF3 and inhibits cellular interferon responses by disrupting TBK1-TRAF3 complex formation
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
2008; 82 (18): 9115-9122
Pathogenic hantaviruses replicate within human endothelial cells and cause two diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. In order to replicate in endothelial cells pathogenic hantaviruses inhibit the early induction of beta interferon (IFN-beta). Expression of the cytoplasmic tail of the pathogenic NY-1 hantavirus Gn protein is sufficient to inhibit RIG-I- and TBK1-directed IFN responses. The formation of TBK1-TRAF3 complexes directs IRF-3 phosphorylation, and both IRF-3 and NF-kappaB activation are required for transcription from the IFN-beta promoter. Here we report that the NY-1 virus (NY-1V) Gn tail inhibits both TBK1-directed NF-kappaB activation and TBK1-directed transcription from promoters containing IFN-stimulated response elements. The NY-1V Gn tail coprecipitated TRAF3 from cellular lysates, and analysis of TRAF3 deletion mutants demonstrated that the TRAF3 N terminus is sufficient for interacting with the NY-1V Gn tail. In contrast, the Gn tail of the nonpathogenic hantavirus Prospect Hill virus (PHV) failed to coprecipitate TRAF3 or inhibit NF-kappaB or IFN-beta transcriptional responses. Further, expression of the NY-1V Gn tail blocked TBK1 coprecipitation of TRAF3 and infection by NY-1V, but not PHV, blocked the formation of TBK1-TRAF3 complexes. These findings indicate that the NY-1V Gn cytoplasmic tail forms a complex with TRAF3 which disrupts the formation of TBK1-TRAF3 complexes and downstream signaling responses required for IFN-beta transcription.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.00290-08
View details for Web of Science ID 000259152000016
View details for PubMedID 18614628
The formation of viroplasm-like structures by the rotavirus NSP5 protein is calcium regulated and directed by a C-terminal helical domain
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
2007; 81 (21): 11758-11767
The rotavirus NSP5 protein directs the formation of viroplasm-like structures (VLS) and is required for viroplasm formation within infected cells. In this report, we have defined signals within the C-terminal 21 amino acids of NSP5 that are required for VLS formation and that direct the insolubility and hyperphosphorylation of NSP5. Deleting C-terminal residues of NSP5 dramatically increased the solubility of N-terminally tagged NSP5 and prevented NSP5 hyperphosphorylation. Computer modeling and analysis of the NSP5 C terminus revealed the presence of an amphipathic alpha-helix spanning 21 C-terminal residues that is conserved among rotaviruses. Proline-scanning mutagenesis of the predicted helix revealed that single-amino-acid substitutions abolish NSP5 insolubility and hyperphosphorylation. Helix-disrupting NSP5 mutations also abolished localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NSP5 fusions into VLS and directly correlate VLS formation with NSP5 insolubility. All mutations introduced into the hydrophobic face of the predicted NSP5 alpha-helix disrupted VLS formation, NSP5 insolubility, and the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated NSP5 isoforms. Some NSP5 mutants were highly soluble but still were hyperphosphorylated, indicating that NSP5 insolubility was not required for hyperphosphorylation. Expression of GFP containing the last 68 residues of NSP5 at its C terminus resulted in the formation of punctate VLS within cells. Interestingly, GFP-NSP5-C68 was diffusely dispersed in the cytoplasm when calcium was depleted from the medium, and after calcium resupplementation GFP-NSP5-C68 rapidly accumulated into punctate VLS. A potential calcium switch, formed by two tandem pseudo-EF-hand motifs (DxDxD), is present just upstream of the predicted alpha-helix. Mutagenesis of either DxDxD motif abolished the regulatory effect of calcium on VLS formation and resulted in the constitutive assembly of GFP-NSP5-C68 into punctate VLS. These results reveal specific residues within the NSP5 C-terminal domain that direct NSP5 hyperphosphorylation, insolubility, and VLS formation in addition to defining residues that constitute a calcium-dependent trigger of VLS formation. These studies identify functional determinants within the C terminus of NSP5 that regulate VLS formation and provide a target for inhibiting NSP5-directed VLS functions during rotavirus replication.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.01124-07
View details for Web of Science ID 000250417400023
View details for PubMedID 17699573
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2168809
Degrons at the C terminus of the pathogenic but not the nonpathogenic hantavirus G1 tail direct proteasomal degradation
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
2007; 81 (8): 4323-4330
Pathogenic hantaviruses cause two human diseases: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The hantavirus G1 protein contains a long, 142-amino-acid cytoplasmic tail, which in NY-1 virus (NY-1V) is ubiquitinated and proteasomally degraded (E. Geimonen, I. Fernandez, I. N. Gavrilovskaya, and E. R. Mackow, J. Virol. 77: 10760-10768, 2003). Here we report that the G1 cytoplasmic tails of pathogenic Andes (HPS) and Hantaan (HFRS) viruses are also degraded by the proteasome and that, in contrast, the G1 tail of nonpathogenic Prospect Hill virus (PHV) is stable and not proteasomally degraded. We determined that the signals which direct NY-1V G1 tail degradation are present in a hydrophobic region within the C-terminal 30 residues of the protein. In contrast to that of PHV, the NY-1V hydrophobic domain directs the proteasomal degradation of green fluorescent protein and constitutes an autonomous degradation signal, or "degron," within the NY-1V G1 tail. Replacing 4 noncontiguous residues of the NY-1V G1 tail with residues present in the stable PHV G1 tail resulted in a NY-1V G1 tail that was not degraded by the proteasome. In contrast, changing a different but overlapping set of 4 PHV residues to corresponding NY-1V residues directed proteasomal degradation of the PHV G1 tail. The G1 tails of pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, hantaviruses contain intervening hydrophilic residues within the C-terminal hydrophobic domain, and amino acid substitutions that alter the stability or degradation of NY-1V or PHV G1 tails result from removing or adding intervening hydrophilic residues. Our results identify residues that selectively direct the proteasomal degradation of pathogenic hantavirus G1 tails. Although a role for the proteasomal degradation of the G1 tail in HPS or HFRS is unclear, these findings link G1 tail degradation to viral pathogenesis and suggest that degrons within hantavirus G1 tails are potential virulence determinants.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.02279-06
View details for Web of Science ID 000245692900063
View details for PubMedID 17267477
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1866138
The pathogenic NY-1 hantavirus G1 cytoplasmic tail inhibits RIG-I- and TBK-1-directed interferon responses
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
2006; 80 (19): 9676-9686
Hantaviruses cause two diseases with prominent vascular permeability defects, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. All hantaviruses infect human endothelial cells, although it is unclear what differentiates pathogenic from nonpathogenic hantaviruses. We observed dramatic differences in interferon-specific transcriptional responses between pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses at 1 day postinfection, suggesting that hantavirus pathogenesis may in part be determined by viral regulation of cellular interferon responses. In contrast to pathogenic NY-1 virus (NY-1V) and Hantaan virus (HTNV), nonpathogenic Prospect Hill virus (PHV) elicits early interferon responses following infection of human endothelial cells. We determined that PHV replication is blocked in human endothelial cells and that RNA and protein synthesis by PHV, but not NY-1V or HTNV, is inhibited at 2 to 4 days postinfection. The addition of antibodies to beta interferon (IFN-beta) blocked interferon-directed MxA induction by >90% and demonstrated that hantavirus infection induces the secretion of IFN-beta from endothelial cells. Coinfecting endothelial cells with NY-1V and PHV resulted in a 60% decrease in the induction of interferon-responsive MxA transcripts by PHV and further suggested the potential for NY-1V to regulate early IFN responses. Expression of the NY-1V G1 cytoplasmic tail inhibited by >90% RIG-I- and downstream TBK-1-directed transcription from interferon-stimulated response elements or beta-interferon promoters in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, expression of the NY-1V nucleocapsid or PHV G1 tail had no effect on RIG-I- or TBK-1-directed transcriptional responses. Further, neither the NY-1V nor PHV G1 tails inhibited transcriptional responses directed by a constitutively active form of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3 5D), and IRF-3 is a direct target of TBK-1 phosphorylation. These findings indicate that the pathogenic NY-1V G1 protein regulates cellular IFN responses upstream of IRF-3 phosphorylation at the level of the TBK-1 complex. These findings further suggest that the G1 cytoplasmic tail contains a virulence element which determines the ability of hantaviruses to bypass innate cellular immune responses and delineates a mechanism for pathogenic hantaviruses to successfully replicate within human endothelial cells.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.00508-06
View details for Web of Science ID 000240647200032
View details for PubMedID 16973572
Translation of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase by ribosomal shunting
JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
2004; 78 (21): 11751-11757
The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) polymerase (P) is translated by de novo initiation from a downstream open reading frame (ORF) that partially overlaps the core (C) ORF on the bicistronic pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). The DHBV P AUG is in a poor context for translational initiation and is preceded by 14 AUGs that could intercept scanning ribosomes, yet P translation is unanticipatedly rapid. Therefore, we assessed C and P translation in the context of the pgRNA. Mutating the upstream C ORF revealed that P translation was inversely related to C translation, primarily due to occlusion of P translation by ribosomes translating C. Translation of the pgRNA was found to be cap dependent, because inserting a stem-loop (BamHI-SL) that blocked >90% of scanning ribosomes at the 5' end of the pgRNA greatly inhibited C and P synthesis. Neither mutating AUGs between the C and P start sites in contexts similar to that of the P AUG nor blocking ribosomal scanning by inserting the BamHI-SL between the C and P start codons greatly altered P translation, indicating that most ribosomes that translate P do not scan through these sequences. Finally, optimizing the P AUG context did not increase P translation. Therefore, the majority of the ribosomes that translate P are shunted from a donor region near the 5' end of the pgRNA to an acceptor site at or near the P AUG, and the shunt acceptor sequences may augment initiation at the P AUG.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.78.21.11751-11757.2004
View details for Web of Science ID 000224540900029
View details for PubMedID 15479816
Assessment of evolution of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus by multilocus sequence typing
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
2004; 42 (3): 1280-1282
The genetic relatedness of 81 isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was assessed by multilocus sequence typing. The strain with serotype O3:K6 emerged as a pandemic pathogen in 1996, with subsequent expansion to include strains having serotypes O1:KUT, O4:K68, and O1:K25. Sequence data from gyrB, recA, dnaE, and gnd revealed that 16 distinct serogroups isolated prior to the pandemic were highly variable and only isolates of serogroup O3:K6 shared two alleles with the pandemic strains. The pandemic strains regardless of serotype were clonal, with 51 of 54 isolates having the identical allelic profile (AP). Serotype alone did not adequately define a pandemic strain: among O1:KUT strains tested, seven strains with the identical pandemic AP carried previously described pandemic markers, while five nonpandemic strains had five distinct APs. Our sequence data provide strong molecular support for the clonal origin of pandemic V. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and suggest that strains within such a clonal group may acquire previously identified serotypes.
View details for Web of Science ID 000220376900059
View details for PubMedID 15004094
Incidence and molecular analysis of Vibrio cholerae associated with cholera outbreak subsequent to the super cyclone in Orissa, India
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION
2002; 128 (2): 131-138
An epidemiological study was carried out to find out the aetiological agent for diarrhoeal disorders in the cyclone and flood affected areas of Orissa, India. Rectal swabs collected from 107 hospitalized diarrhoea patients were bacteriologically analysed to isolate and identify the various enteropathogens. Detection of toxic genes among E. coli and V. cholerae was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Of the 107 rectal swabs analysed, 72.3% were positive for V. cholerae O1 Ogawa, 7.2% for V. cholerae O139, 1.2% for E. coli (EAggEC) and 1.2% for Shigella flexneri type 6. Using multiplex PCR assay it was found that all V. cholerae isolates were ctxA positive and El Tor biotype. Strains of V. cholerae O1 were observed to be resistant to nalidixic acid, furazolidone, streptomycin, co-trimoxazole and ampicillin. Except for nalidixic acid, the resistance pattern for O139 was identical to that of O1 strains. Representative strains of V. cholerae were further characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and ribotyping. Both O1 and O139 V. cholerae strains exhibited the R3 pattern of ribotype and belonged to a similar pattern of RAPD compared with that of Calcutta strains. Early bacteriological and epidemiological investigations have revealed the dominance of V. cholerae O1 among the hospitalized patients in cyclone affected areas of Orissa. Drinking water scarcity and poor sanitation were thought to be responsible for these diarrhoeal outbreaks. Timely reporting and implementation of appropriate control measures could contain a vital epidemic in this area.
View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268801006720
View details for Web of Science ID 000175381700003
View details for PubMedID 12002529
Prevalence of the pandemic genotype of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and significance of its distribution across different serotypes
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
2002; 40 (1): 284-286
Sixty-six strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus belonging to 14 serotypes were isolated from hospitalized patients in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January 1998 to December 2000. Among these, 48 strains belonging to four serotypes had the pandemic genotype and possessed the tdh gene. A marker (open reading frame ORF8) for a filamentous phage previously thought to correspond to the pandemic genotype was found to have a poor correlation with the pandemic genotype.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JCM.40.1.284-286.2002
View details for Web of Science ID 000173121800052
View details for PubMedID 11773134
Prevalence and genetic profiling of virulence determinants of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, beef, and humans, Calcutta, India
EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2002; 8 (1): 54-62
We investigated the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in hospitalized diarrhea patients in Calcutta, India, as well as in healthy domestic cattle and raw beef samples collected from the city's abattoir. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for stx1 and stx2 detected STEC in 18% of cow stool samples, 50% of raw beef samples, and 1.4% and 0.6% of bloody and watery stool samples, respectively, from hospitalized diarrhea patients. Various virulence genes in the STEC isolates indicated that stx1 allele predominated. Plasmid-borne markers, namely, hlyA, katP, espP, and etpD, were also identified. Bead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Vero cell assay were performed to detect and evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the Shiga toxins produced by the strains. STEC is not an important cause of diarrhea in India; however, its presence in domestic cattle and beef samples suggests that this enteropathogen may become a major public health problem in the future.
View details for Web of Science ID 000173411200010
View details for PubMedID 11749749
Molecular comparison of toxigenic clinical & non-toxigenic environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa isolated during an outbreak of cholera in south India
INDIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH
2001; 114: 83-89
While investigating a cholera outbreak in south India, toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 were isolated from patients and from the environment, respectively. This study was performed to compare the genetic relatedness of the patient and environmental strains to determine clonal relationships among these strains and thereby determine the source of the cholera outbreak.The 16 strains of V. cholerae isolated from hospitalized patients and 8 environmental V. cholerae strains isolated from the environment were phenotypically and genotypically characterized using a variety of standard techniques.Sixteen toxigenic clinical strains and 2 nontoxigenic environmental strains belonged to O1 serogroup, Ogawa serotype and El Tor biotype. The remaining 6 nontoxigenic environmental strains were classified as non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae. The drug resistance pattern of the clinical and environmental strains of V. cholerae showed marked differences with the patient strains being resistant to more number of drugs as compared to the environmental strains. DNA fingerprinting of the strains showed considerable diversity between toxigenic clinical and nontoxigenic environmental O1 Ogawa isolates and between the O1 and non-O1, non-O139 isolates.In this outbreak of cholera, the O1 strains of V. cholerae from clinical and environmental sources belonged to two different clones and the environmental strains could perhaps be the future cholera outbreak causing clones.
View details for Web of Science ID 000173999700002
View details for PubMedID 11873402
Molecular evidence of clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus pandemic strains
EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2000; 6 (6): 631-636
The upsurge in worldwide incidence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in the last 5 years has been attributed to the recent appearance of three serotypes with pandemic potential: O3:K6, O4:K68, and O1:K untypeable (KUT). Thirty-five strains of these serotypes, isolated from different countries over 4 years, were characterized by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine their origin. The ribotypes of the strains of these serotypes were indistinguishable, except for a Japanese tdh- negative O3:K6 strain and a U.S. clinical O3:K6 isolate, which had slightly different profiles. The migration patterns of the NotI-digest of the total DNA of the strains were similar, and only slight variations were observed between the serotypes. By contrast, the O3:K6 and O1:KUT strains isolated before 1995 and strains of other serotypes had markedly different profiles. The O4:K68 and O1:KUT strains most likely originated from the pandemic O3:K6 clone.
View details for Web of Science ID 000165815700012
View details for PubMedID 11076722
Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Inaba from the prevailing O1 Ogawa serotype strains in India
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
2000; 38 (11): 4249-4253
The toxigenic Inaba serotype of Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor reappeared in India in 1998 and 1999, almost 10 years after its last dominance in Calcutta in 1989. Extensive molecular characterization by ribotyping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that recent Inaba strains are remarkably different from the earlier Inaba strains but are very similar to the prevailing V. cholerae O1 Ogawa El Tor biotype strains. The antibiograms of the Inaba strains were also similar to those of the recent V. cholerae Ogawa strains. These V. cholerae O1 Inaba strains appear to have evolved from the currently prevailing Ogawa strains and are likely to dominate in the coming years.
View details for Web of Science ID 000166892900058
View details for PubMedID 11060101
Cluster-analysis & patterns of dissemination of multidrug resistance among clinical strains of Vibrio cholerae in Calcutta, India
INDIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL RESEARCH
2000; 112: 78-85
Antimicrobial resistance among Vibrio cholerae has been monitored for several years in Calcutta. To investigate the changing trends in multidrug resistance (MDR) among different serogroups of V. cholerae and to perform software assisted cluster analysis the current study was undertaken.Strains isolated from patients with cholera and "cholera-like" diarrhoea admitted in the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta were analysed. Eight hundred and forty V. cholerae strains isolated from 1992 through 1997 were tested for susceptibility to 11 antibiotics. Cluster analysis was done using SPSS software.Most of the strains exhibited MDR with fluctuating trends as the resistance profile diverged each year. A total of 119 different resistance profiles exhibited by V. cholerae O1, O139 and non-O1, non-O139 serogroups were analysed by cluster combination method. During 1993 and 1994, 53 per cent of V. cholerae O139 and 82 per cent of V. cholerae O1 serogroups, respectively, exhibited maximal number of new resistance patterns. The frequency of new resistance patterns among V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 was constantly high (33-47%) during 1995 to 1997.With a few exceptions, preponderance of the resistance profiles was generally not confined to any serogroup. The cluster analysis depicted dissemination of some of the resistance patterns commonly found among V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 belonging to different serogroups to the O139 serogroup in the succeeding years. In this study we have shown that the V. cholerae strains are resistant to several antibiotics with constant change in the MDR profiles. It is imperative to define the susceptibility pattern of the strains to determine the effective drug of choice for the treatment of cholera.
View details for Web of Science ID 000165173100002
View details for PubMedID 11094852
Clonal dissemination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus displaying similar DNA fingerprint but belonging to two different serovars (O3 : K6 and O4 : K68) in Thailand and India
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION
2000; 125 (1): 17-25
Active surveillance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection among hospitalized patients in Calcutta, India, showed the appearance of the O4:K68 serovar for the first time in March 1998 alongside the continued predominant incidence of the O3:K6 serovar. Strains belonging to both these serovars have been reported to possess pandemic potential. The genomes of O3:K6 and O4:K68 strains and for comparison, non-O3:K6 and non-O4:K68 strains isolated from two different countries, India and Thailand, were examined by different molecular techniques to determine their relatedness. The O3:K6 and O4:K68 strains from Calcutta and Bangkok carried the tdh gene but not the trh gene. Characterization of representative strains of these two serovars by ribotyping and by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) showed that the isolates had identical ribotype and DNA fingerprint. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) performed with the same set of strains yielded nearly similar restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns for the O3:K6 and O4:K68 isolates from Calcutta and Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis of the NotI RFLP showed that the O3:K6 and O4:K68 strains formed a cluster with 78-91% similarity thus indicating close genetic relationship between the two different serovars isolated during the same time-frame but from widely separated geographical regions. The non-O3:K6 and non-O4:K68, in contrast, showed different ribotype, AP-PCR and PFGE patterns.
View details for Web of Science ID 000090109000004
View details for PubMedID 11057955