Variation in specialists' reported hospitalization practices of children sustaining blunt head trauma.
The western journal of emergency medicine
2013; 14 (1): 29-36
Variation in specialists' reported hospitalization practices of children sustaining blunt abdominal trauma.
The western journal of emergency medicine
2013; 14 (1): 37-46
Questions surround the appropriate emergency department (ED) disposition of children who have sustained blunt head trauma (BHT). Our objective was to identify physician disposition preferences of children with blunt head trauma (BHT) and varying computed tomography (CT) findings.WE SURVEYED PEDIATRIC AND GENERAL EMERGENCY PHYSICIANS (EP), PEDIATRIC NEUROSURGEONS (PNSURG), GENERAL NEUROSURGEONS (GNSURG), PEDIATRIC SURGEONS (PSURG) AND TRAUMA SURGEONS REGARDING CARE OF TWO HYPOTHETICAL PATIENTS: Case 1: a 9-year-old who fell 10 feet and Case 2: an 11-month-old who fell 5 feet. We presented various CT findings and asked physicians about disposition preferences. We evaluated predictors of patient discharge using multivariable regression analysis adjusting for hospital and ED characteristics and clinician experience. Pediatric EPs served as the reference group.Of 2,341 eligible surveyed, 715 (31%) responded. Most would discharge children with linear skull fractures (Case 1, 71%; Case 2, 62%). Neurosurgeons were more likely to discharge children with small subarachnoid hemorrhages (Case 1 PNSurg OR 6.87, 95% CI 3.60, 13.10; GNSurg OR 6.54, 95% CI 2.38, 17.98; Case 2 PNSurg OR 5.38, 95% CI 2.64, 10.99; GNSurg OR 6.07, 95% CI 2.08, 17.76). PSurg were least likely to discharge children with any CT finding, even linear skull fractures (Case 1 OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.08, 0.23; Case 2 OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.11, 0.30). Few respondents (<6%) would discharge children with small intraventricular, subdural, or epidural bleeds.Substantial variation exists between specialties in reported hospitalization practices of neurologically-normal children with BHT and traumatic CT findings.
View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2012.3.6924
View details for PubMedID 23447754
A Medical Simulation-based Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents in Neonatal Resuscitation
ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE
2012; 19 (5): 577-585
Children with blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) are often hospitalized despite no intervention. We identified factors associated with emergency department (ED) disposition of children with BAT and differing computed tomography (CT) findings.We surveyed pediatric and general emergency physicians (EPs), pediatric and trauma surgeons regarding care of 2 hypothetical asymptomatic patients: a 9-year-old struck by a slow-moving car (Case 1) and an 11-month-old who fell 10 feet (Case 2). We presented various abdominal CT findings and asked physicians about disposition preferences. We evaluated predictors of patient discharge using multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for hospital and ED characteristics, and clinician experience. Pediatric EPs served as the reference group.Of 2,003 eligible surveyed, 636 (32%) responded. For normal CTs, 99% would discharge in Case 1 and 88% in Case 2. Prominent specialty differences included: for trace intraperitoneal fluid (TIF), 68% would discharge in Case 1 and 57% in Case 2. Patients with TIF were less likely to be discharged by pediatric surgeons (Case 1: OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.82; Case 2: OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.79). Patients with renal contusions were less likely to be discharged by pediatric surgeons (Case 1: OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32, 0.95) and more likely by general EPs (Case 1: OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.25, 2.69; Case 2: OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.14, 4.89).Substantial variation exists between specialties in reported hospitalization practices of asymptomatic children after abdominal trauma with minor CT findings. Better evidence is needed to guide disposition decisions.
View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2012.3.6911
View details for PubMedID 23447755
IS THE SELF-REPORT OF RECENT COCAINE OR METHAMPHETAMINE USE RELIABLE IN ILLICIT STIMULANT DRUG USERS WHO PRESENT TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT WITH CHEST PAIN?
JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE
2009; 37 (2): 237-240
The objective was to determine if a medical simulation-based neonatal resuscitation educational intervention is a more effective teaching method than the current emergency medicine (EM) curriculum at one 4-year EM residency program.A prospective, randomized study of second-, third-, and fourth-year EM residents was performed. Of 36 potential subjects, 27 residents were enrolled. Each resident was assessed at baseline and after the intervention using 1) a questionnaire to evaluate confidence in leading adult, pediatric, and neonatal resuscitation and prior neonatal resuscitation experience and 2) a neonatal resuscitation simulation scenario in which each participant was the code leader to evaluate knowledge and skills. Assessments were digitally recorded and reviewed independently by two Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) instructors using a validated neonatal resuscitation scoring tool. Controls (15 participants) received the current EM curriculum. The intervention group (12 participants) experienced an educational session, which incorporated didactics, skills station, and medical simulation about neonatal resuscitation. Outcomes measured included changes in overall neonatal resuscitation score, number of critical actions, time to initial steps of neonatal resuscitation, and changes in confidence level leading neonatal resuscitation.Baseline neonatal resuscitation scores were similar for the control and intervention groups. At the final assessment, the intervention group's neonatal resuscitation score improved (p = 0.016) and the control group's score did not. The intervention group performed 2.31 more critical actions overall and the time to achieve warming (p = 0.0002), drying (p < 0.0001), tactile stimulation (p = 0.002), and placing a hat on the patient (p <0.0001) were also improved compared to controls. At the baseline assessment, 80% of the control group and 75% of the intervention group reported being "not at all confident" in leading neonatal resuscitation. At the final assessment, the proportion of residents who were "not at all confident" leading neonatal resuscitation decreased to 35% in the intervention group compared to 67% of the control group. The majority of the intervention group (65%) reported an increased level of confidence in leading neonatal resuscitation.Medical simulation can be an effective tool to assess the knowledge and skills of EM residents in neonatal resuscitation. Our simulation-based educational intervention significantly improved EM residents' knowledge and performance of the critical initial steps in neonatal resuscitation. A medical simulation-based educational intervention may be used to improve EM residents' knowledge and performance with neonatal resuscitation.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2012.01361.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000304133300013
View details for PubMedID 22594362
Significance of appendiceal thickening in association with typhlitis in pediatric oncology patients
2004; 34 (3): 245-249
Use of illicit drugs results in an increased risk of morbidity and mortality, which is often seen in the Emergency Department (ED). Chest pain is frequently associated with cocaine and methamphetamine use.To determine if the self-report of recent cocaine or methamphetamine use is reliable in illicit stimulant drug users who present to the ED with chest pain.A retrospective review of patients presenting to the ED from July 1, 2004 through June 30, 2006 was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were: age >or= 18 years, chief complaint of chest pain, documented social history of drug abuse, positive urine toxicology screen and myoglobin and troponin levels measured, sent from the ED.For the 318 patients who met the inclusion criteria, the self-report rate of cocaine or methamphetamine use was 51.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.57). No difference was found in the self-report rate between users of methamphetamine vs. cocaine (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% CI 0.7-1.7). There also was no difference in the self-report rate by patient age < 50 years compared to patient age >or= 50 years (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.42-1.08). The self-report rate for males compared to females was not significantly different (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.54-1.4). Patients who had a positive troponin were not significantly more likely to self-report drug use than patients who did not have a positive troponin (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.55-2.2).The self-report rate among cocaine- or methamphetamine-using patients presenting to the ED with chest pain was 51.8%. There seems to be no significant difference in the self-report rate among those who use methamphetamine vs. those who use cocaine, nor by gender, nor stratified by age over 50 years.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jemermed.2008.05.024
View details for Web of Science ID 000269813600019
View details for PubMedID 19081702
The management of pediatric oncology patients with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening is complex because they are generally poor surgical candidates and often have confounding clinical findings.We sought to determine the significance of appendiceal thickening in pediatric oncology patients who also had typhlitis. Specifically, we evaluated the impact of this finding on the duration of typhlitis, its clinical management, and outcome.From a previous review of the management of typhlitis in 90 children with cancer at our institution, we identified 4 with imaging evidence of appendiceal thickening. We compared colonic wall measurements, duration of typhlitis symptoms, management, and outcome of patients with appendiceal thickening and typhlitis to patients with typhlitis alone.There was no significant difference in duration of typhlitis symptoms between patients with typhlitis only (15.6+/-1.2 days) and those with typhlitis and appendiceal thickening (14.5+/-5.8 days; P=0.9). Two patients with appendiceal thickening required surgical treatment for ischemic bowel, and two were treated medically. Only one patient in the typhlitis without appendiceal thickening group required surgical intervention. There were no deaths in children with appendiceal thickening; two patients died of complications of typhlitis alone.Our findings suggest that appendiceal thickening does not predict a prolonged course of typhlitis in pediatric oncology patients, but it may indicate an increased risk of serious complications from this disease process.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00247-003-1122-3
View details for Web of Science ID 000220090000010
View details for PubMedID 14722695