Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Internship:Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Pediatrics (2000) PA
  • Medical Education:University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine (1999) CA
  • Residency:Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Dept of Internal Medicine (2002) PA
  • Fellowship:University of California, San Francisco (2007) CA
  • Fellowship:University of California, San Francisco (2005) CA
  • Board Certification: Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, American Board of Internal Medicine (2008)

Research & Scholarship

Clinical Trials


  • AdaptResponse Clinical Trial Recruiting

    The purpose of this clinical study is to test the hypothesis that market released Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) devices which contain the AdaptivCRT® (aCRT) algorithm have a superior outcome compared to standard CRT devices in CRT indicated patients with normal atrio-ventricular (AV) conduction and left bundle branch block (LBBB).

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Publications

All Publications


  • CAVOTRICUSPID ISTHMUS ABLATION FOR TREATMENT OF RECURRENT ATRIAL TACHYARRHYTHMIA IN PATIENT WITH DRUG-INDUCED TORSADE DE POINTES AND SEVERE SYSTOLIC HEART FAILURE Rogers, A., Viswanathan, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: 2565
  • Independent mapping methods reveal rotational activation near pulmonary veins where atrial fibrillation terminates before pulmonary vein isolation. Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology Navara, R., Leef, G., Shenasa, F., Kowalewski, C., Rogers, A. J., Meckler, G., Zaman, J. A., Baykaner, T., Park, S., Turakhia, M. P., Zei, P., Viswanathan, M., Wang, P. J., Narayan, S. M. 2018

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate mechanisms by which atrial fibrillation (AF) may terminate during ablation near the pulmonary veins before the veins are isolated (PVI).INTRODUCTION: It remains unstudied how AF may terminate during ablation before PVs are isolated, or how patients with PV reconnection can be arrhythmia-free. We studied patients in whom PV antral ablation terminated AF before PVI, using two independent mapping methods.METHODS: We studied patients with AF referred for ablation, in whom biatrial contact basket electrograms were studied by both an activation/phase mapping method and by a second validated mapping method reported not to create false rotational activity.RESULTS: In 22 patients (age 60.1 ± 10.4, 36% persistent AF), ablation at sites near the PVs terminated AF (77% to sinus rhythm) prior to PVI. AF propagation revealed rotational (n=20) and focal (n=2) patterns at sites of termination by mapping method 1 and method 2. Both methods showed organized sites that were spatially concordant (P<0.001) with similar stability (P<0.001). Vagal slowing was not observed at sites of AF termination.DISCUSSION: PV antral regions where ablation terminated AF before PVI exhibited rotational and focal activation by two independent mapping methods. These data provide an alternative mechanism for the success of PVI, and may explain AF termination before PVI or lack of arrhythmias despite PV reconnection. Mapping such sites may enable targeted PV lesion sets and improved freedom from AF.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jce.13446

    View details for PubMedID 29377478

  • Clinical Implications of Ablation of Drivers for Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology Baykaner, T., Rogers, A. J., Meckler, G. L., Zaman, J., Navara, R., Rodrigo, M., Alhusseini, M., Kowalewski, C. A., Viswanathan, M. N., Narayan, S. M., Clopton, P., Wang, P. J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 11 (5): e006119

    Abstract

    The outcomes from pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF) are suboptimal, but the benefits of additional lesion sets remain unproven. Recent studies propose ablation of AF drivers improves outcomes over PVI, yet with conflicting reports in the literature. We undertook a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to determine outcomes from ablation of AF drivers in addition to PVI or as a stand-alone procedure.Database search was done using the terms atrial fibrillation and ablation or catheter ablation and driver or rotor or focal impulse or FIRM (Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation). We pooled data using random effects model and assessed heterogeneity with I2 statistic.Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, in a cohort size of 3294 patients. Adding AF driver ablation to PVI reported freedom from AF of 72.5% (confidence interval [CI], 62.1%-81.8%; P<0.01) and from all arrhythmias of 57.8% (CI, 47.5%-67.7%; P<0.01). AF driver ablation when added to PVI or as stand-alone procedure compared with controls produced an odds ratio of 3.1 (CI, 1.3-7.7; P=0.02) for freedom from AF and an odds ratio of 1.8 (CI, 1.2-2.7; P<0.01) for freedom from all arrhythmias in 4 controlled studies. AF termination rate was 40.5% (CI, 30.6%-50.9%) and predicted favorable outcome from ablation(P<0.05).In controlled studies, the addition of AF driver ablation to PVI supports the possible benefit of a combined approach of AF driver ablation and PVI in improving single-procedure freedom from all arrhythmias. However, most studies are uncontrolled and are limited by substantial heterogeneity in outcomes. Large multicenter randomized trials are needed to precisely define the benefits of adding driver ablation to PVI.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCEP.117.006119

    View details for PubMedID 29743170

  • Identification and Characterization of Sites Where Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Is Terminated by Localized Ablation CIRCULATION-ARRHYTHMIA AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Zaman, J. B., Sauer, W. H., Alhusseini, M. I., Baykaner, T., Borne, R. T., Kowalewski, C. B., Busch, S., Zei, P. C., Park, S., Viswanathan, M. N., Wang, P. J., Brachmann, J., Krummen, D. E., Miller, J. M., Rappel, W., Narayan, S. M., Peters, N. S. 2018; 11 (1): e005258

    Abstract

    The mechanisms by which persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) terminates via localized ablation are not well understood. To address the hypothesis that sites where localized ablation terminates persistent AF have characteristics identifiable with activation mapping during AF, we systematically examined activation patterns acquired only in cases of unequivocal termination by ablation.We recruited 57 patients with persistent AF undergoing ablation, in whom localized ablation terminated AF to sinus rhythm or organized tachycardia. For each site, we performed an offline analysis of unprocessed unipolar electrograms collected during AF from multipolar basket catheters using the maximum -dV/dt assignment to construct isochronal activation maps for multiple cycles. Additional computational modeling and phase analysis were used to study mechanisms of map variability. At all sites of AF termination, localized repetitive activation patterns were observed. Partial rotational circuits were observed in 26 of 57 (46%) cases, focal patterns in 19 of 57 (33%), and complete rotational activity in 12 of 57 (21%) cases. In computer simulations, incomplete segments of partial rotations coincided with areas of slow conduction characterized by complex, multicomponent electrograms, and variations in assigning activation times at such sites substantially altered mapped mechanisms.Local activation mapping at sites of termination of persistent AF showed repetitive patterns of rotational or focal activity. In computer simulations, complete rotational activation sequence was observed but was sensitive to assignment of activation timing particularly in segments of slow conduction. The observed phenomena of repetitive localized activation and the mechanism by which local ablation terminates putative AF drivers require further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCEP.117.005258

    View details for Web of Science ID 000422637000001

    View details for PubMedID 29330332

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5769709

  • Radiation Safety in Children with Congenital and Acquired Heart Disease: A Scientific Position Statement on Multimodality Dose Optimization from the Image Gently Alliance. JACC. Cardiovascular imaging Hill, K. D., Frush, D. P., Han, B. K., Abbott, B. G., Armstrong, A. K., deKemp, R. A., Glatz, A. C., Greenberg, S. B., Herbert, A. S., Justino, H., Mah, D., Mahesh, M., Rigsby, C. K., Slesnick, T. C., Strauss, K. J., Trattner, S., Viswanathan, M. N., Einstein, A. J. 2017

    Abstract

    There is a need for consensus recommendations for ionizing radiation dose optimization during multi-modality medical imaging in children with congenital and acquired heart disease (CAHD). These children often have complex diseases and may be exposed to a relatively high cumulative burden of ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures including cardiac computed tomography, nuclear cardiology studies and fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and interventional catheterization and electrophysiology procedures. Although these imaging procedures are all essential to the care of children with CAHD and have contributed to meaningfully improved outcomes in these patients, exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with potential risks, including an increased lifetime attributable risk of cancer. The goal of these recommendations is to encourage informed imaging to achieve appropriate study quality at the lowest achievable dose. Other strategies to improve care include a patient-centered approach to imaging, emphasizing education and informed decision making and programmatic approaches to ensure appropriate dose monitoring. Looking ahead, there is a need for standardization of dose metrics across imaging modalities, so as to encourage comparative effectiveness studies across the spectrum of CAHD in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcmg.2017.04.003

    View details for PubMedID 28514670

  • Multicentre safety of adding Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation (FIRM) to conventional ablation for atrial fibrillation. Europace Krummen, D. E., Baykaner, T., Schricker, A. A., Kowalewski, C. A., Swarup, V., Miller, J. M., Tomassoni, G. F., Park, S., Viswanathan, M. N., Wang, P. J., Narayan, S. M. 2017; 19 (5): 769-774

    Abstract

    Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation (FIRM) uses 64-electrode basket catheters to identify atrial fibrillation (AF)-sustaining sites for ablation, with promising results in many studies. Accordingly, new basket designs are being tested by several groups. We set out to determine the procedural safety of adding basket mapping and map-guided ablation to conventional pulmonary vein isolation (PVI).We collected 30 day procedural safety data in five US centres for consecutive patients undergoing FIRM plus PVI (FIRM-PVI) compared with contemporaneous controls undergoing PVI without FIRM. A total of 625 cases were included in this analysis: 325 FIRM-PVI and 300 PVI-controls. FIRM-PVI patients were more likely than PVI-controls to be male (83% vs. 66%, P < 0.001) and have long-standing persistent AF (26% vs. 13%, P < 0.001) reflecting patients referred for FIRM. Total ablation time was greater for FIRM-PVI (62 ± 22 min) vs. PVI-controls (52 ± 18 min, P = 0.03). The complication rate for FIRM-PVI procedures (4.3%) was similar to controls (4.0%, P = 1) for both major and minor complications; no deaths were reported. The rate of complications potentially attributable to the basket catheter was small and did not differ between basket types (Constellation 2.8% vs. FIRMap 1.8%, P = 0.7) or between cases in which basket catheters were and were not used (P = 0.5). Complication rates did not differ between centres (P = 0.6).Procedural complications from the use of the basket catheters for AF mapping are low, and thus procedural safety appears similar between FIRM-PVI and PVI-controls in a large multicentre cohort. Future studies are required to determine the optimal approach to maximize the efficacy of FIRM-guided ablation.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/europace/euw377

    View details for PubMedID 28339546

  • The precise timing of tachycardia entrainment is determined by the postpacing interval, the tachycardia cycle length, and the pacing rate: Theoretical insights and practical applications HEART RHYTHM Kaiser, D. W., Hsia, H. H., Dubin, A. M., Liem, L. B., Viswanathan, M. N., Zei, P. C., Wang, P. J., Narayan, S. M., Turakhia, M. P. 2016; 13 (3): 695-703

    Abstract

    Previous observations have reported that the number of pacing stimuli required to entrain a tachycardia varies on the basis of arrhythmia type and location, but a quantitative formulation of the number needed to entrain (NNE) that unifies these observations has not been characterized.We sought to investigate the relationship between the number of pacing stimulations, the tachycardia cycle length (TCL), the overdrive pacing cycle length (PCL), and the postpacing interval (PPI) to accurately estimate the timing of tachycardia entrainment.First, we detailed a mathematical derivation unifying electrophysiological parameters with empirical confirmation in 2 patients undergoing catheter ablation of typical atrial flutter. Second, we validated our formula in 44 patients who underwent various catheter ablation procedures. For accuracy, we corrected for rate-related changes in conduction velocity.We derived the equations NNE = |(PPI - TCL)/(TCL - PCL)| + 1 and Tachycardia advancement = (NNE - 1) × (TCL - PCL) - (PPI - TCL), which state that the NNE and the amount of tachycardia advancement on the first resetting stimulation are determined using regularly measured intracardiac parameters. In the retrospective cohort, the observed PPI - TCL highly correlated with the predicted PPI - TCL (mean difference 5.8 ms; r = 0.97; P < .001), calculated as PPI - TCL = (NNE - 1) × (TCL - PCL) - tachycardia advancement.The number of pacing stimulations required to entrain a reentrant tachycardia is predictable at any PCL after correcting for cycle length-dependent changes in conduction velocity. This relationship unifies established empirically derived diagnostic and mapping criteria for supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia. This relationship may help elucidate when antitachycardia pacing episodes are ineffective or proarrhythmic and could potentially serve as a theoretical basis to customize antitachycardia pacing settings for improved safety and effectiveness.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.11.032

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372367800012

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4770895

  • The precise timing of tachycardia entrainment is determined by the postpacing interval, the tachycardia cycle length, and the pacing rate: Theoretical insights and practical applications. Heart rhythm Kaiser, D. W., Hsia, H. H., Dubin, A. M., Liem, L. B., Viswanathan, M. N., Zei, P. C., Wang, P. J., Narayan, S. M., Turakhia, M. P. 2016; 13 (3): 695-703

    Abstract

    Previous observations have reported that the number of pacing stimuli required to entrain a tachycardia varies on the basis of arrhythmia type and location, but a quantitative formulation of the number needed to entrain (NNE) that unifies these observations has not been characterized.We sought to investigate the relationship between the number of pacing stimulations, the tachycardia cycle length (TCL), the overdrive pacing cycle length (PCL), and the postpacing interval (PPI) to accurately estimate the timing of tachycardia entrainment.First, we detailed a mathematical derivation unifying electrophysiological parameters with empirical confirmation in 2 patients undergoing catheter ablation of typical atrial flutter. Second, we validated our formula in 44 patients who underwent various catheter ablation procedures. For accuracy, we corrected for rate-related changes in conduction velocity.We derived the equations NNE = |(PPI - TCL)/(TCL - PCL)| + 1 and Tachycardia advancement = (NNE - 1) × (TCL - PCL) - (PPI - TCL), which state that the NNE and the amount of tachycardia advancement on the first resetting stimulation are determined using regularly measured intracardiac parameters. In the retrospective cohort, the observed PPI - TCL highly correlated with the predicted PPI - TCL (mean difference 5.8 ms; r = 0.97; P < .001), calculated as PPI - TCL = (NNE - 1) × (TCL - PCL) - tachycardia advancement.The number of pacing stimulations required to entrain a reentrant tachycardia is predictable at any PCL after correcting for cycle length-dependent changes in conduction velocity. This relationship unifies established empirically derived diagnostic and mapping criteria for supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia. This relationship may help elucidate when antitachycardia pacing episodes are ineffective or proarrhythmic and could potentially serve as a theoretical basis to customize antitachycardia pacing settings for improved safety and effectiveness.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.11.032

    View details for PubMedID 26611239

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4770895

  • Right-sided subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in a patient with dextrocardia, tetralogy of Fallot, and conduction disease. HeartRhythm case reports Ceresnak, S. R., Motonaga, K. S., Rogers, I. S., Viswanathan, M. N. 2015; 1 (4): 186-189

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrcr.2015.02.001

    View details for PubMedID 28491545

  • Electrical Integration of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes in a Guinea Pig Chronic Infarct Model JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS Shiba, Y., Filice, D., Fernandes, S., Minami, E., Dupras, S. K., Van Biber, B., Trinh, P., Hirota, Y., Gold, J. D., Viswanathan, M., Laflamme, M. A. 2014; 19 (4): 368-381