Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Ped Infectious Disease
  • Pediatric Hematology-Oncology

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Member, Board of Directors, Stanford Hospital & Clinics (2001 - 2012)
  • Member, Board of Directors, Lucille Packard Children's Hospital (2001 - 2012)
  • Dean, School of Medicine, Stanford University (2001 - 2012)

Honors & Awards


  • John and Emma Bonica Public Service Award, American Pain Society (2013)
  • Philip M Lippe Award, The American Academy of Pain (2012)
  • John Howland Award, American Pediatric Society (2012)
  • Award of Excellence, Ronald McDonald Foundation (2009)
  • Elizabeth kubler Ross Award, Children's Hospice International (2008)
  • ScD. Honorary Degree, Fordham University (1996)
  • M.A. Honorary Degree, Harvard University (1996)
  • Phi Beta Kappa, Fordham University (1966)
  • Alpha Omega Alpha, University of Rochester (1970)
  • M.D. with Honors and Distinction in Research, University of Rochester (1970)
  • Commendation Medal, U.S. Public Health Service (1980)
  • Meritorious Service Award, U.S. Public Health Service (1985)
  • Washingtonian-of-the-Year Award, National Cancer Institute (1990)
  • Fordham College alumni Achievement Award, Fordham College (1991)
  • Barbara Bohen Pfeifer Award for Scientific Excellence, American-Italian Foundation for Cancer Research (1991)
  • Citation, Best Doctors in America (1992)
  • Outstanding Service Medal, U.S. Public Health Service (1995)
  • Elected to Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Science (1997)

Professional Education


  • Medical Education:University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry (1970) NY
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1975)
  • Residency:Children's Hospital Boston (1973) MA
  • Residency:Children's Hospital Boston (1972) MA
  • Internship:Children's Hospital Boston (1971) MA
  • B.A., Fordham University, Philosophy & Biology (1966)
  • M.D., University of Rochester, Medicine (1970)
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, American Board of Pediatrics (1976)
  • Fellowship:National Cancer Institute (1976) MD

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Infections in patients with cancer Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Koh A, Pizzo PA ; in press
  • Febrile Neutropenia Alexander S, Pizzo PA ; in press
  • Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections. AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, treatment and Prevention Mueller BU, Pizzo PA ; in press
  • Empirical therapy for granulocytopenia patients with fever. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Koh A, Pizzo PA ; in press
  • Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology Pizzo PA, Poplack DG ; 5th Ed.: in press
  • HIV Infection in Infnts, Children and adolescents Pediatrics in Review Burchett S, Pizzo PA ; in press
  • Infectiuos complications in children with cancer and children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical Approach to Infections in the Compromised Host Alexander SW, Mueller BU, Pizzo PA ; in press
  • Children with immunodeficiencies. Infection Control in the Child Care Center and Preschool Pizzo PA ; in press
  • Cytokines and biological response modifiers in the treatment of infection. management of Infectious Complications in Cancer Patients Pizzo PA, Mueller BU ; in press
  • Fever and Neutropenia practical Strategies in pediatric Diagnosis and Therapy Pizzo PA ; in press
  • Infections in Hospitalized Immunoincompetent Child Kugman's Infectious Diseases in Children Lewis LL, Pizzo PA n/ a: 191-209
  • malignancies in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. ASCO Education Series Mueller BU, Gromovsky M, Pizzo PA
  • American Pediatric Society's 2012 John Howland Award Lecture: pediatricians should be the model for the convergence of science and medicine PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Pizzo, P. A. 2012; 72 (3): 324-328

    View details for DOI 10.1038/pr.2012.83

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308280500015

    View details for PubMedID 22717690

  • Alleviating Suffering 101-Pain Relief in the United States NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pizzo, P. A., Clark, N. M. 2012; 366 (3): 197-199

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299201400002

    View details for PubMedID 22256802

  • Commentary: To Genotype or Not to Genotype? Addressing the Debate Through the Development of a Genomics and Personalized Medicine Curriculum ACADEMIC MEDICINE Salari, K., Pizzo, P. A., Prober, C. G. 2011; 86 (8): 925-927

    Abstract

    As technologic innovation helps broaden and refine our knowledge base of genetic associations, a growing interest in translating these genetic discoveries to clinically useful laboratory tests has given rise to the potential of personalized medicine. To fully realize this potential, medical schools must educate trainees on genetic and genomic testing in clinical settings. An emerging debate in academic medical centers is not about the need for this education but, rather, the most effective educational models that should be deployed. At Stanford School of Medicine, several proposals to offer personal genotyping in the educational curriculum argued that learning genetics and the attendant cutting-edge molecular techniques would be more powerful and sustained if students were applying their knowledge to their personal genotypes. Given the complex ethical, legal, and social issues involved in implementing such a program, a schoolwide task force was formed to evaluate the risks and benefits of offering personal genotyping to students and residents. In this commentary, the authors discuss the salient issues raised by the task force and describe the safeguards adopted into the ultimate approval and implementation of the course, which included the opportunity for students to analyze their own genomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182223acf

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293215200009

    View details for PubMedID 21795901

  • The changing face of febrile neutropenia-from monotherapy to moulds to mucositis. Where do we go from here? journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy Pizzo, P. A. 2009; 63: i16-7

    Abstract

    The initiation of monotherapy with a third- or fourth-generation cephalosporin, or with a carbapenem antibiotic, is now established medical practice for the neutropenic patient who becomes febrile. However, when the duration of neutropenia is prolonged (generally more than a week), additions to, or modifications of, the initial antibiotic regimen are necessary based on the evolving clinical and microbiological course of the patient. The rationale for these modifications of the initial therapy in high-risk neutropenic patients is reviewed along with the prospects for reducing the risk status of the neutropenic patient by bolstering or improving the host's immunological system and/or the time to haematological recovery.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jac/dkp076

    View details for PubMedID 19372174

  • Toward a 21st-Century Health Care System: Recommendations for Health Care Reform ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Arrow, K., Auerbach, A., Bertko, J., Brownlee, S., Casalino, L. P., Cooper, J., Crosson, F. J., Enthoven, A., Falcone, E., Feldman, R. C., Fuchs, V. R., Garber, A. M., Gold, M. R., Goldman, D., Hadfield, G. K., Hall, M. A., Horwitz, R. I., Hooven, M., Jacobson, P. D., Jost, T. S., Kotlikoff, L. J., Levin, J., Levine, S., Levy, R., Linscott, K., Luft, H. S., Mashal, R., McFadden, D., Mechanic, D., Meltzer, D., Newhouse, J. P., Noll, R. G., Pietzsch, J. B., Pizzo, P., Reischauer, R. D., Rosenbaum, S., Sage, W., Schaeffer, L. D., Sheen, E., Silber, M., Skinner, J., Shortell, S. M., Thier, S. O., Tunis, S., Wulsin, L., Yock, P., Bin Nun, G., Bryan, S., Luxenburg, O., van de Ven, W. P. 2009; 150 (7): 493-?

    Abstract

    The coverage, cost, and quality problems of the U.S. health care system are evident. Sustainable health care reform must go beyond financing expanded access to care to substantially changing the organization and delivery of care. The FRESH-Thinking Project (www.fresh-thinking.org) held a series of workshops during which physicians, health policy experts, health insurance executives, business leaders, hospital administrators, economists, and others who represent diverse perspectives came together. This group agreed that the following 8 recommendations are fundamental to successful reform: 1. Replace the current fee-for-service payment system with a payment system that encourages and rewards innovation in the efficient delivery of quality care. The new payment system should invest in the development of outcome measures to guide payment. 2. Establish a securely funded, independent agency to sponsor and evaluate research on the comparative effectiveness of drugs, devices, and other medical interventions. 3. Simplify and rationalize federal and state laws and regulations to facilitate organizational innovation, support care coordination, and streamline financial and administrative functions. 4. Develop a health information technology infrastructure with national standards of interoperability to promote data exchange. 5. Create a national health database with the participation of all payers, delivery systems, and others who own health care data. Agree on methods to make de-identified information from this database on clinical interventions, patient outcomes, and costs available to researchers. 6. Identify revenue sources, including a cap on the tax exclusion of employer-based health insurance, to subsidize health care coverage with the goal of insuring all Americans. 7. Create state or regional insurance exchanges to pool risk, so that Americans without access to employer-based or other group insurance could obtain a standard benefits package through these exchanges. Employers should also be allowed to participate in these exchanges for their employees' coverage. 8. Create a health coverage board with broad stakeholder representation to determine and periodically update the affordable standard benefit package available through state or regional insurance exchanges.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265117600008

    View details for PubMedID 19258550

  • Case Study: The Stanford University School of Medicine and Its Teaching Hospitals ACADEMIC MEDICINE Pizzo, P. A. 2008; 83 (9): 867-872

    Abstract

    There is wide variation in the governance and organization of academic health centers (AHCs), often prompted by or associated with changes in leadership. Changes at AHCs are influenced by institutional priorities, economic factors, competing needs, and the personality and performance of leaders. No organizational model has uniform applicability, and it is important for each AHC to learn what works or does not on the basis of its experiences. This case study of the Stanford University School of Medicine and its teaching hospitals--which constitute Stanford's AHC, the Stanford University Medical Center--reflects responses to the consequences of a failed merger of the teaching hospitals and related clinical enterprises with those of the University of California-San Francisco School of Medicine that required a new definition of institutional priorities and directions. These were shaped by a strategic plan that helped define goals and objectives in education, research, patient care, and the necessary financial and administrative underpinnings needed. A governance model was created that made the medical school and its two major affiliated teaching hospitals partners; this arrangement requires collaboration and coordination that is highly dependent on the shared objectives of the institutional leaders involved. The case study provides the background factors and issues that led to these changes, how they were envisioned and implemented, the current status and challenges, and some lessons learned. Although the current model is working, future changes may be needed to respond to internal and external forces and changes in leadership.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267654400014

    View details for PubMedID 18728444

  • Fostering innovation without compromising integrity. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine Pizzo, P. A. 2007; 74: S10-1

    Abstract

    Industry's interaction with academia has created vast opportunity for innovation but also the potential for undue financial influence. Potential conflicts of interest can occur at the level of the individual researcher or the institution. Implementing guidelines and policies on conflicts of interest can help maintain appropriate separation between academic medicine and industry while permitting medical innovation to proceed. In an effort to retain public trust, Stanford University School of Medicine has enacted policies to identify and manage potential conflicts among its faculty, to divest of holdings in companies conducting studies involving Stanford investigators, and to ban all industry marketing and gifts from Stanford facilities.

    View details for PubMedID 17469467

  • HIV infection in infants, children, and adolescents PEDIATRICS IN REVIEW Burchett, S. K., Pizzo, P. A. 2003; 24 (6): 186-194

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186730400003

    View details for PubMedID 12777610

  • Methodology for clinical trials involving patients with cancer who have febrile neutropenia: Updated guidelines of the Immunocompromised Host Society/Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer, with emphasis on outpatient studies CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Feld, R., Paesmans, M., Freifeld, A. G., Klastersky, J., Pizzo, P. A., Rolston, K. V., Rubenstein, E., Talcott, J. A., Walsh, T. J. 2002; 35 (12): 1463-1468

    Abstract

    Two multinational organizations, the Immunocompromised Host Society and the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer, have produced for investigators and regulatory bodies a set of guidelines on methodology for clinical trials involving patients with febrile neutropenia. The guidelines suggest that response (i.e., success of initial empirical antibiotic therapy without any modification) be determined at 72 h and again on day 5, and the reasons for modification should be stated. Blinding and stratification are to be encouraged, as should statistical consideration of trials specifically designed for showing equivalence. Patients enrolled in outpatient studies should be selected by use of a validated risk model, and patients should be carefully monitored after discharge from the hospital. Response and safety parameters should be recorded along with readmission rates. If studies use these guidelines, comparisons between studies will be simpler and will lead to further improvements in patient therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179707200006

    View details for PubMedID 12471564

  • 2002 guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Hughes, W. T., Armstrong, D., Bodey, G. P., Bow, E. J., Brown, A. E., Calandra, T., Feld, R., Pizzo, P. A., Rolston, K. V., Shenep, J. L., Young, L. S. 2002; 34 (6): 730-751

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174047300002

    View details for PubMedID 11850858

  • Empirical oral antibiotic therapy for low risk febrile cancer patients with neutropenia CANCER INVESTIGATION Koh, A., Pizzo, P. A. 2002; 20 (3): 420-433

    Abstract

    For over 30 years, fever and neutropenia in cancer patients has been treated with the utmost urgency, necessitating inpatient evaluation and immediate initiation of empirical broad-spectrum parenteral (i.v.) antibiotics. This practice is based on the recognition that delays in starting antibiotic therapy in febrile neutropenic patients have been associated with life-threatening infections and sometimes fatal consequences. Over the past decade, it has become evident that neutropenic cancer patients are not a homogeneous group and that practice guidelines may vary on their risk status. In fact, attempts have been made to stratify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups and differentiate treatment options respectively. Recent studies suggest that those neutropenic cancer patients who are at low risk may even be successfully treated with oral therapy, thus opening the possibility for ambulatory or home-based management. Oral antibiotic therapy, especially if safely delivered at home, offers a number of advantages including lower cost, improved quality of life (although the impact of shifting the burden of care from the hospital to the home setting on the patient, parent or care provider needs careful assessment) and a decreased risk for nosocomial infection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175495700014

    View details for PubMedID 12025236

  • Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology Pizzo PA, Poplack DG 2002
  • Long-term protease inhibitor-containing therapy results in limited improvement in T cell function but not restoration of interleukin-12 production in pediatric patients with AIDS JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Chougnet, C., Jankelevich, S., Fowke, K., Liewehr, D., STEINBERG, S. M., Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A., Yarchoan, R., Shearer, G. M. 2001; 184 (2): 201-205

    Abstract

    This study investigated whether immune restoration occurred in 26 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected children treated first with indinavir for 16 weeks and then with combination antiretroviral therapy for >2 years. Compared with baseline, a significant, although modest, decrease in virus loads (maximum median, -0.86 log(10)) and increase in the number of CD4(+) lymphocytes, especially naive cells, were observed at several time points after 2 years. A maximum of 7% of treated children achieved undetectable viremia. There was a marked increase in the proliferative response and skin reactivity to recall antigens. However, responses to an HIV antigen remained depressed, and the production of interleukin-12 remained unchanged and abnormally low. The magnitude of virus suppression did not correlate with these measures of functional immune reconstitution. These findings suggest that long-term nonsuppressive antiretroviral therapy can induce limited improvement in immune function in pediatric AIDS patients and that the effect of suppressive treatments should be investigated.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169554500013

    View details for PubMedID 11424019

  • Will current training programs prepare pediatricians to meet the health care needs of children in the 21st century? An opinion JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Pizzo, P. A., Lovejoy, F. H. 2001; 138 (6): 789-790

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169176400001

    View details for PubMedID 11391315

  • Work-family issues and perceptions of stress among pediatric faculty and house staff AMBULATORY PEDIATRICS KAHN, J. A., Parsons, S. K., Pizzo, P. A., Newburger, J. W., Homer, C. J. 2001; 1 (3): 141-149

    Abstract

    To examine work-family balance issues and predictors of stress related to work-family balance among pediatric house staff and faculty.Data were obtained through an anonymous mail survey. Univariate analyses assessed associations between work-family issues (work-related factors that affect work-family balance, perceived support, work-family--related stress, and proposed solutions) and the following variables: gender, parental status, working status of spouse, and academic rank. Multiple linear regression examined independent predictors of perceived stress.Fifty percent of the 327 respondents cared for dependent children, and 20% expected to care for an elderly person in the next 5 years. Only 5% strongly agreed that their division or department was concerned about supporting members' work-family balance, and 4% strongly agreed that existing programs supported their needs. Eighty-three percent reported feeling stressed as a result of efforts to balance work and family. Independent predictors of stress included perceived need to choose between career and family, increasing age, dependent children, less support from colleagues and supervisors, and female gender.Work-family balance issues are responsible for substantial perceived stress. Academic departments should consider a commitment to supporting faculty who are struggling with these issues, including creation of work-family policies and programs, development of mentoring systems, and reexamination of existing expectations for work practices.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171076700005

    View details for PubMedID 11888391

  • Febrile Neutropenia Pizzo PA 2001
  • Acquired Immnuodeficiency Syndrome in the Infant Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant Mueller BU, PizzoPA 2001: 447-476
  • Correlations between reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration 1 week after start of antiretroviral treatment and longer-term efficacy. Lancet Polis MA, Sidorov I A, yoder C, Jankelevich S, Metcalf J, Mueller BU, Dimitrov MA, Pizzo PA, yarchoan R, Dimit 2001; 358: 1760-65
  • 2000 update of recommendations for the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors: Evidence-based, clinical practice guidelines JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Ozer, H., Armitage, J. O., Bennett, C. L., Crawford, J., Demetri, G. D., Pizzo, P. A., Schiffer, C. A., Smith, T. J., Somlo, G., Wade, J. C., Wade, J. L., Winn, R. J., Wozniak, A. J., Somerfield, M. R. 2000; 18 (20): 3558-3585

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090077100016

    View details for PubMedID 11032599

  • The Compromised Host Cecil Textbook of Medicine Pizzo PA 2000: 1569-80
  • Clinical approach to infections in the compromised host Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice Freifeld A, Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 2000: 1443-1500
  • Practical Management of Infections in the Immunocompromised Patient Glauser M, Pizzo PA 2000
  • The Pancytopenias Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics Pizzo PA, D'Andrea A 2000: 1495-1498
  • Pediatric Malignancies AIDS-Related Cancers and Their Treatment Mueller B, Pizzo PA 2000: 241-254
  • Infections in the compromised host. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics Hughes, W., Pizzo PA 2000: 780-87
  • Fever in immunocompromised patients NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pizzo, P. A. 1999; 341 (12): 893-900

    View details for Web of Science ID 000082569100007

    View details for PubMedID 10486422

  • A double-blind comparison of empirical oral and intravenous antibiotic therapy for low-risk febrile patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Freifeld, A., Marchigiani, D., Walsh, T., Chanock, S., Lewis, L., Hiemenz, J., Hiemenz, S., Hicks, J. E., Gill, V., STEINBERG, S. M., Pizzo, P. P. 1999; 341 (5): 305-311

    Abstract

    Among patients with fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer who have a low risk of complications, oral administration of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics may be an acceptable alternative to intravenous treatment.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of patients (age, 5 to 74 years) who had fever and neutropenia during chemotherapy for cancer. Neutropenia was expected to be present for no more than 10 days in these patients, and they had to have no other underlying conditions. Patients were assigned to receive either oral ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate or intravenous ceftazidime. They were hospitalized until fever and neutropenia resolved.A total of 116 episodes were included in each group (84 patients in the oral-therapy group and 79 patients in the intravenous-therapy group). The mean neutrophil counts at admission were 81 per cubic millimeter and 84 per cubic millimeter, respectively; the mean duration of neutropenia was 3.4 and 3.8 days, respectively. Treatment was successful without the need for modifications in 71 percent of episodes in the oral-therapy group and 67 percent of episodes in the intravenous-therapy group (difference between groups, 3 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, -8 percent to 15 percent; P=0.48). Treatment was considered to have failed because of the need for modifications in the regimen in 13 percent and 32 percent of episodes, respectively (P<0.001) and because of the patient's inability to tolerate the regimen in 16 percent and 1 percent of episodes, respectively (P<0.001). There were no deaths. The incidence of intolerance of the oral antibiotics was 16 percent, as compared with 8 percent for placebo (P=0.07).In hospitalized low-risk patients who have fever and neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy, empirical therapy with oral ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate is safe and effective.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081666900001

    View details for PubMedID 10423464

  • Adherence of Candida albicans to bladder mucosa: development and application of a tissue explant assay MYCOSES Lyman, C. A., Navarro, E., Garrett, K. F., Roberts, D. D., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1999; 42 (4): 255-259

    Abstract

    In order to study the interactions between Candida species and uroepithelial tissue, a tissue explant assay was developed using bladder mucosa harvested from New Zealand white rabbits. Blastoconidia of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata attached to the uroepithelial tissue in similar quantities. However, there was significantly more adherence to the uroepithelium by pre-germinated C. albicans compared with C. albicans blastoconidia. Furthermore, the amount of uroepithelial tissue injury was directly related to the length of exposure of the tissue to Candida. Thus, this tissue explant assay may provide a useful method for investigating properties related to fungal adherence to transitional uroepithelium and organism-mediated tissue injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081495700005

    View details for PubMedID 10424092

  • Immunoreconstitution after ritonavir therapy in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection involves multiple lymphocyte lineages JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Sleasman, J. W., Nelson, R. P., Goodenow, M. M., Wilfret, D., Hutson, A., Baseler, M., Zuckerman, J., Pizzo, P. A., Mueller, B. U. 1999; 134 (5): 597-606

    Abstract

    To evaluate lymphocyte reconstitution after protease inhibitor therapy in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.Forty-four HIV-infected children receiving ritonavir monotherapy followed by the addition of zidovudine and didanosine were evaluated during a phase I/II clinical trial. The cohort had a median age of 6.8 years and advanced disease (57% Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage C, 73% immune stage 3) and was naive to protease inhibitor therapy.After 4 weeks of therapy, there was a significant increase in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. CD4(+) T cells continued to increase, whereas CD8(+) T cells returned to baseline by 24 weeks. Unexpectedly, there was a significant increase in B cells. Changes in CD4(+) T-cell subsets revealed an initial increase in CD4(+) CD45RO T cells followed by a sustained increase in CD4(+) CD45RA T cells. Children <6 years of age had the highest increase in all lymphocyte populations. Significant improvement in CD4(+) T-cell counts was observed even in those children whose viral burden returned to pre-therapy levels.Early increases in lymphocytes after ritonavir therapy are a result of recirculation, as shown by increases in B cells and CD4(+) CD45RO and CD8(+) T cells. Children exhibited a high potential to reconstitute CD4(+) CD45RA T cells even with advanced disease and incomplete viral suppression.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080244600017

    View details for PubMedID 10228296

  • Fever and neutropenia Practical Strategies for Pediatric Diagnosis and Therapy Mueller BU, Pizzo PA 1999: 995-1008
  • Current considerations in the management of fever and neutropenia. Current clinical topics in infectious diseases Alexander, S. W., Pizzo, P. A. 1999; 19: 160-180

    View details for PubMedID 10472485

  • Infectious Complications in the Pediatric Cancer Patient Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology Freifeld A, Hathorn JW, Pizzo PA 1999: 987-1019
  • Growth factors, immunomodulations and cytokines Clincial Infectious Diseases Mueller BU, Pizzo PA 1999: 427-438
  • Protease inhibitor and triple-drug therapy: cellular immune parameters are not restored in pediatric AIDS patients after 6 months of treatment AIDS Chougnet, C., Fowke, K. R., Mueller, B. U., Smith, S., Zuckerman, J., Jankelevitch, S., STEINBERG, S. M., Luban, N., Pizzo, P. A., Shearer, G. M. 1998; 12 (18): 2397-2406

    Abstract

    To assess whether treatment of HIV-positive children by antiretroviral drugs for a 6-month period would improve immune function significantly.Immunological assessment of 89 HIV-positive children who received protease inhibitor monotherapy for 12-16 weeks as part of phase I/II studies, followed by triple antiretroviral therapy for an additional 12 weeks, was conducted. Immunological parameters were assessed in vitro at four time points (at enrollment, at weeks 2-4, at weeks 12-16, and at weeks 24-28). Assessments included: cytokine production by monocytes, T-cell proliferation to mitogen or recall antigens (including an HIV antigen) and apoptotic cell death. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R) were also measured, in addition to CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and viral load. In addition, limited analyses were performed on samples from 17 children after 120 weeks of therapy, including 104 weeks of triple therapy.At enrollment, the 89 children exhibited severe immune defects. Antiretroviral therapy raised CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts significantly and decreased viral loads. In contrast, the in vitro immune parameters studied were not improved, except for plasma levels of sTNF-RII which decreased in parallel with the decrease in viral load. In addition, there was a trend towards increased skin test reactivity for the ritonavir-treated children. No differences were seen in the immune parameters whether the patients were treated with mono- or triple therapy. Results obtained after 120 weeks of therapy demonstrated that defective interleukin-12 production was not restored by long-term therapy.After 6 months of therapy, with the exception of decreased sTNF-RII levels, and a trend towards increased skin test reactivity, restoration of several defective cellular immune responses did not occur despite significantly decreased viral loads and increased CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077550000008

    View details for PubMedID 9875577

  • Serum and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral lamivudine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Mueller, B. U., Lewis, L. L., Yuen, G. J., Farley, M., Keller, A., Church, J. A., Goldsmith, J. C., VENZON, D. J., Rubin, M., Pizzo, P. A., BALIS, F. M. 1998; 42 (12): 3187-3192

    Abstract

    We studied the pharmacokinetics of intravenously and orally administered lamivudine at six dose levels ranging from 0.5 to 10 mg/kg of body weight in 52 children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination from the central compartment was simultaneously fitted to the serum drug concentration-time data obtained after intravenous and oral administration. The maximal concentration at the end of the 1-h intravenous infusion and the area under the concentration-time curve after oral and intravenous administration increased proportionally with the dose. The mean clearance of lamivudine (+/- standard deviation) in the children was 0.53 +/- 0.19 liter/kg/h (229 +/- 77 ml/min/m2 of body surface area), and the mean half-lives at the distribution and elimination phases were 0.23 +/- 0.18 and 2.2 +/- 2.1 h, respectively. Clearance was age dependent when normalized to body weight but age independent when normalized to body surface area. Lamivudine was rapidly absorbed after oral administration, and 66% +/- 25% of the oral dose was absorbed. Serum lamivudine concentrations were maintained above 1 microM for >/=8 h of 24 h on the twice daily oral dosing schedule with doses of >/=2 mg/kg. The cerebrospinal fluid drug concentration measured 2 to 4 h after the dose was 12% (range, 0 to 46%) of the simultaneously measured serum drug concentration. A limited-sampling strategy was developed to estimate the area under the concentration-time curve for concentrations in serum at 2 and 6 h.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077358500024

    View details for PubMedID 9835513

  • Individual prognoses of long-term responses to antiretroviral treatment based on virological, immunological and pharmacological parameters measured during the first week under therapy AIDS Mueller, B. U., Zeichner, S. L., Kuznetsov, V. A., Heath-Chiozzi, M., Pizzo, P. A., Dimitrov, D. S. 1998; 12 (15): F191-F196

    Abstract

    To predict long-term (12 weeks or longer) virological responses to antiretroviral treatment from measurements made during the first few days on therapy.Forty-one HIV-1-infected children were treated with ritonavir for 12 weeks followed by triple drug combination treatment, and the kinetics of virus decay in plasma, ritonavir concentration and CD4 cell counts were measured. A robust multivariate pattern recognition method was used for prediction of the longterm virological responses.The virus decay rate constants calculated from measurements of plasma viral RNA concentrations on the first, second, third, fourth and seventh day on therapy, the drug concentrations in the plasma on day seven, and the pretreatment levels of viral RNA and CD4 cell counts, correlated with long-term levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA. The combination of these parameters contained sufficient information for correct and robust prediction of the long-term response in 88% of the treated children. The predictions of individual responses were stable as demonstrated by a cross-validation analysis, which was highly statistically significant (r=0.87) and specific.These results demonstrate that multiple parameters determine the response to antiretroviral therapy and offer a very early measure of individual long-term responses, suggesting that treatment could be optimized after few days of therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076653100006

    View details for PubMedID 9814861

  • Pharmacokinetics of the protease inhibitor KNI-272 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in nonhuman primates after intravenous dosing and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children after intravenous and oral dosing ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Mueller, B. U., Anderson, B. D., Farley, M. Q., Murphy, R., Zuckerman, J., Jarosinski, P., Godwin, K., McCully, C. L., Mitsuya, H., Pizzo, P. A., BALIS, F. M. 1998; 42 (7): 1815-1818

    Abstract

    KNI-272 is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with potent activity in vitro. We studied the pharmacokinetics of KNI-272 in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a nonhuman primate model and after intravenous and oral administration to children with HIV infection. Plasma and CSF were sampled over 24 h after the administration of an intravenous dose of 50 mg of KNI-272 per kg of body weight (approximately 1,000 mg/m2) to three nonhuman primates. The pharmacokinetics of KNI-272 were also studied in 18 children (9 males and 9 females; median age, 9.4 years) enrolled in a phase I trial of four dose levels of KNI-272 (100, 200, 330, and 500 mg/m2 per dose given four times daily). The plasma concentration-time profile of KNI-272 in the nonhuman primate model was characterized by considerable interanimal variability and rapid elimination (clearance, 2.5 liters/h/kg; terminal half-life, 0.54 h). The level of drug exposure achieved in CSF, as measured by the area under the KNI-272 concentration-time curve, was only 1% of that achieved in plasma. The pharmacokinetics of KNI-272 in children were characterized by rapid elimination (clearance, 276 ml/min/m2; terminal half-life, 0.44 h), limited (12%) and apparently saturable bioavailability, and limited distribution (volume of distribution at steady state, 0.11 liter/kg). The concentrations in plasma were maintained above a concentration that is active in vitro for less than half of the 6-h dosing interval. There was no significant increase in CD4 cell counts or decrease in p24 antigen or HIV RNA levels. The pharmacokinetic profile of KNI-272 may limit the drug's efficacy in vivo. It appears that KNI-272 will play a limited role in the treatment of HIV-infected children.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074535500050

    View details for PubMedID 9661027

  • A phase I/II study of the protease inhibitor indinavir in children with HIV infection PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Sleasman, J., Nelson, R. P., Smith, S., Deutsch, P. J., Ju, W., STEINBERG, S. M., BALIS, F. M., Jarosinski, P. F., Brouwers, P., Mistry, G., Winchell, G., Zwerski, S., Sei, S. Z., Wood, L. V., Zeichner, S., Pizzo, P. A. 1998; 102 (1): 101-109

    Abstract

    Indinavir, an inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease, is approved for the treatment of HIV infection in adults when antiretroviral therapy is indicated. We evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of the indinavir free-base liquid suspension and the sulfate salt dry-filled capsules in HIV-infected children, and studied its preliminary antiviral and clinical activity in this patient population. In addition, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic profile of a jet-milled suspension after a single dose.Previously untreated children or patients with progressive HIV disease despite antiretroviral therapy or with treatment-associated toxicity were eligible for this phase I/II study. Three dose levels (250 mg/m2, 350 mg/m2, and 500 mg/m2 per dose given orally every 8 h) were evaluated in 2 age groups (<12 years and >/=12 years). Indinavir was initially administered as monotherapy and then in combination with zidovudine and lamivudine after 16 weeks.Fifty-four HIV-infected children (ages 3.1 to 18.9 years) were enrolled. The indinavir free-base suspension was less bioavailable than the dry-filled capsule formulation, and therapy was changed to capsules in all children. Hematuria was the most common side effect, occurring in 7 (13%) children, and associated with nephrolithiasis in 1 patient. The combination of indinavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine was well tolerated. The median CD4 cell count increased after 2 weeks of indinavir monotherapy by 64 cells/mm3, and this was sustained at all dose levels. Plasma ribonucleic acid levels decreased rapidly in a dose-dependent way, but increased toward baseline after a few weeks of indinavir monotherapy.Indinavir dry-filled capsules are relatively well tolerated by children with HIV infection, although hematuria occurs at higher doses. Future studies need to evaluate the efficacy of indinavir when combined de novo with zidovudine and lamivudine.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074795800017

    View details for PubMedID 9651421

  • A phase I/II study of the protease inhibitor ritonavir in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Nelson, R. P., Sleasman, J., Zuckerman, J., Heath-Chiozzi, M., STEINBERG, S. M., BALIS, F. M., Brouwers, P., Hsu, A., Saulis, R., Sei, S., Wood, L. V., Zeichner, S., Katz, T. T., Higham, C., Aker, D., Edgerly, M., Jarosinski, P., Serchuck, L., WHITCUP, S. M., Pizzuti, D., Pizzo, P. A. 1998; 101 (3): 335-343

    Abstract

    Ritonavir, a potent antiretroviral protease inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of adults and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In a phase I/II study, we assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of the oral solution of ritonavir in HIV-infected children and studied the preliminary antiviral and clinical effects.HIV-infected children between 6 months and 18 years of age were eligible. Four dose levels of ritonavir oral solution (250, 300, 350, and 400 mg/m given every 12 hours) were evaluated in two age groups (2 years). Ritonavir was administered alone for the first 12 weeks and then in combination with zidovudine and/or didanosine. Clinical and laboratory parameters were monitored every 2 to 4 weeks.A total of 48 children (median age, 7.7 years; range, 0.5 to 14.4 years) were included in this analysis. Dose-related nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain were the most common toxicities and resulted in discontinuation of ritonavir in 7 children. Ritonavir was well absorbed at all dose levels, and plasma concentrations reached a peak 2 to 4 hours after a dose. CD4 cells counts increased by a median of 79 cells/mm3 after 4 weeks of monotherapy and were maintained throughout the study. Plasma HIV RNA decreased by 1 to 2 log10 copies/mL within 4 to 8 weeks of ritonavir monotherapy, and this level was sustained in patients enrolled at the highest dose level of 400 mg/m for the 24-week period.The oral solution of ritonavir has potent antiretroviral activity as a single agent and is relatively well tolerated by children when administered alone or in combination with zidovudine or didanosine.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072362800002

    View details for PubMedID 9480994

  • Infectious Complicatoins in Children with hematologic disorders. Hematology of Infancy and Childhood Pizzo PA, Mueller BU 1998; 2: 1738-1759
  • Cytokines and biological response modifiers in the treatment of infection. Cancer treatment and research Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A. 1998; 96: 201-222

    View details for PubMedID 9711401

  • Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Inrfection Infectious Diseases Mueller BU, Pizzo PA 1998: 1184-1207
  • Therapy of HIV Infection of the Central Nervous Systems in Children Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Manifestations on HIV-1 Infection Mueller BU, Pizzo PA 1998: 486-498
  • Pediatric AIDS: The Challenge of HIV Infection inInfants Pizzo Pa, Wilfert CM 1998; 3rd Ed.
  • Safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex in children with hepatosplenic candidiasis ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Walsh, T. J., Whitcomb, P., Piscitelli, S., Figg, W. D., Hill, S., Chanock, S. J., Jarosinski, P., Gupta, R., Pizzo, P. A. 1997; 41 (9): 1944-1948

    Abstract

    The safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) were studied in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients. Six children with hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC) received 2.5 mg of ABLC/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks for a total dosage of 105 mg/kg. Mean serum creatinine (0.85 +/- 0.12 mg/dl at baseline) was stable at the end of therapy at 0.85 +/- 0.18 mg/dl and at 1-month follow-up at 0.72 +/- 0.12 mg/dl. There was no increase in hepatic transaminases. Mean plasma concentrations over the dosing interval (C(ave)) and area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24h)) increased between the first and seventh doses but were similar between doses 7 and 42, suggesting that steady state was achieved by day 7 of therapy. Following the final (42nd) dose of ABLC, mean AUC(0-24h) was 11.9 +/- 2.6 microg h/ml, C(ave) was 0.50 +/- 0.11 microg/ml, maximum concentration of the drug in whole blood was 1.69 +/- 0.75 microg/ml, and clearance was 3.64 +/- 0.78 ml/min/kg. Response of hepatic and splenic lesions was monitored by serial computerized tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging scans. The five evaluable patients responded to ABLC with complete or partial resolution of physical findings and of lesions of HSC. During the course of ABLC infusions and follow-up, there was no progression of HSC, breakthrough fungemia, or posttherapy recurrence. Hepatic lesions continued to resolve after the completion of administration of ABLC. Thus, ABLC administered in multiple doses to children was safe, was characterized by a steady state attainable within 1 week of therapy, and was effective in treatment of HSC.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XV70100019

    View details for PubMedID 9303390

  • Multilocular thymic cysts in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection: Clinical and pathologic aspects JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Kontny, H. U., Sleasman, J. W., Kingma, D. W., Jaffe, E. S., Avila, N. A., Pizzo, P. A., Mueller, B. U. 1997; 131 (2): 264-270

    Abstract

    Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have an increased susceptibility to severe and unusual infections, malignancies, and disorders characterized by abnormal lymphoproliferation (e.g., lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis). We report a novel disease entity associated with pediatric HIV infection that is characterized by massive enlargement of the thymus as a result of lymphoid hyperplasia and multicystic changes.Eight patients with HIV infection and cystic enlargement of the thymus are subject of this report. The status of their HIV disease and its clinical and radiologic manifestations at the time of diagnosis of the mediastinal mass are described. Tissue specimens were obtained from six patients and examined by microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The specimens were also evaluated for the evidence of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus by in situ hybridization.Patients were between 2.1 and 12.1 years of age, with CD4+ cell counts between 102 and 733 cells/mm3. In all eight cases an anterior mediastinal mass was discovered incidentally on radiography of the chest, and computed tomography of the chest revealed a multicystic appearance. Histologic examination demonstrated distortion of the thymic architecture by focal cystic changes, lymphoid follicular hyperplasia, diffuse plasmacytosis, and multinucleated giant cells. In situ hybridization revealed HIV particles on the surface of follicular dendritic cells. Further, results of in situ hybridization for EBV were positive in lymphoid cells from biopsy samples of four patients. The patients were followed between 8 months and 4.8 years. In five patients the mass either decreased in size or resolved completely.We describe a series of children with HIV infection and multilocular thymic cysts. We hypothesize that aberrant immunoregulation in these HIV-infected children leads to follicular hyperplasia and multicystic changes in the thymus, causing massive enlargement. EBV infection might also contribute to the pathogenesis of this process. Because none of our patients had symptoms from the mass, and there was no evidence of malignancy in the examined biopsy samples, it seems prudent to manage such children with careful follow-up examinations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XU68000021

    View details for PubMedID 9290614

  • Progression of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children is related to the interaction of the virus, the immune system, and then some. Clinical infectious diseases Pizzo, P. A. 1997; 24 (5): 975-976

    View details for PubMedID 9142804

  • Cytomegalovirus infection in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Kitchen, B. J., Engler, H. D., Gill, V. J., Marshall, D., STEINBERG, S. M., Pizzo, P. A., Mueller, B. U. 1997; 16 (4): 358-363

    Abstract

    To determine retrospectively the prevalence of positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) cultures in pediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.We reviewed the records of 273 children with human immunodeficiency virus infection referred to the Pediatric Branch of the National Cancer Institute for whom CMV cultures were performed between January, 1991, and October, 1994.Of this group 189 patients (69%) had negative CMV cultures and 84 (31%) had positive cultures. The prevalence of CMV-related disease was 9% for the entire group, including 4 (2.1%) patients with negative CMV cultures. Among the 84 patients with positive CMV cultures, 21 (25%) had evidence of CMV disease. Patients with positive CMV cultures had a statistically significant decrease in survival in the presence of severe immunocompromise defined as an age-corrected CD4 count of < 21%. Nine of 35 (26%) autopsies performed demonstrated evidence of CMV disease, including 7 patients with disseminated CMV disease.Although CMV disease appears to be less frequent in children than adults, CMV infection still contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in this population, especially when combined with severe immunosuppression.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WU18500004

    View details for PubMedID 9109136

  • Invasive aspergillosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Shetty, D., Giri, N., Gonzalez, C. E., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1997; 16 (2): 216-221

    Abstract

    Aspergillosis is an uncommon yet serious opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. It has been extensively reported in HIV-infected adult patients. To our knowledge there are no studies that describe the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and outcome of aspergillosis in a large HIV-infected pediatric population.We reviewed the records of all 473 HIV-infected children followed in the Pediatric Branch of the National Cancer Institute for 9 years from 1987 through 1995 for the presence of Aspergillus infection.Seven (1.5%) patients developed invasive aspergillosis during the study period. All patients had low CD4 counts reflecting severe immunosuppression. Sustained neutropenia (> 7 days) or corticosteroid therapy as a predisposing factor for invasive aspergillosis was encountered in only two patients (28%). Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis developed in five patients and cutaneous aspergillosis in two. The most common presenting features in patients with pulmonary aspergillosis were fever, cough and dyspnea. Patients with cutaneous aspergillosis were diagnosed during life and successfully treated with amphotericin B and surgery, whereas diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis was made clinically in only one patient.Aspergillosis is an uncommon but highly lethal opportunistic infection in HIV-infected children. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in febrile, HIV-infected children with persistent pulmonary infiltrates.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WH26300009

    View details for PubMedID 9041604

  • Infectious complications of patients undergoing therapy for acute leukemia: Current status and future prospects SEMINARS IN ONCOLOGY Chanock, S. J., Pizzo, P. A. 1997; 24 (1): 132-140

    Abstract

    The success of managing the infectious complications of acute leukemia has permitted oncologists to develop new approaches to induction and high-dose therapy. The single most important risk factor for infection is the duration of absolute neutropenia. Historically, most attention was directed towards gram negative aerobes, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but in recent years gram positive bacteria, generally considered to be less virulent, have become the most frequent isolates in most centers. A recent disturbing trend is the isolation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. A recent controversy has been whether to use empirical vancomycin; the Centers for Disease Control has issued a formal recommendation discouraging empirical vancomycin in the febrile neutropenic patient. Empirical monotherapy has replaced combination therapy in many institutions except where there has been an increase in resistant isolates. In patients who remain profoundly neutropenic, fungal infections represent a serious source of secondary infection, especially species of Candida and Aspergillus. Recently lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B have offered reduced nephrotoxicity. Less toxic antifungals, the azoles, which include fluconazole and itraconazole, offer an attractive alternative to amphotericin B. New patterns of invasive mycoses have emerged, as for example hepatosplenic candidiasis, presenting new problems in diagnosis and therapy. The successful management of virus infections with herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster, and Epstein Barr virus is based on early recognition and careful attention to prevention.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WH66800015

    View details for PubMedID 9045299

  • Infectious complications Principles and Practice of Oncology Freifeld A, Walsh T, Pizzo PA 1997: 2569-2704
  • Antimicrobial Therapy of infectious Complications in the patinet with cancer. Supportive Care of the Cancer Patient Freifeld A, Pizzo PA 1997: 16-41
  • 1997 Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with unexplained fever. Clin Infect Dis Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP, Brown AE, Edwards JE, Feld R, Pizzo PA, Rolston KIV, Shenep JL, Young LS 1997; 25: 551-73
  • The Use of Fluoroquinolones for Empirical Mangement of Febrile Neutropenia in Pediatric Cancer Patients. Ped Infect Dis J Freifeld A, Pizzo PA 1997; 16: 140-6
  • Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology Pizzo PA, Poplack DG 1997
  • Empirical therapy for granulocytopenic patients with fever. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Lewis LL, Pizzo PA 1997: 640-647
  • Pediatric AIDS and Childhood Cancer Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology Mueller BU, Pizzo PA 1997: 1005-1024
  • Pediatric HIV Infections AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Mueller BU, Pizzo PA 1997: 443-466
  • Antiretroviral Treatment The Challenge of HIV infections with Infants, Children and Adolescents Mueller BU, Kline MW, Pizzo PA 1997: 463-486
  • Infections in Patients with Cancer Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Lewis LL, Pizzo PA 1997: 648-653
  • Fever in the neutropenic host INFECTIOUS DISEASE CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Chanock, S. J., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 10 (4): 777-?

    Abstract

    Fever in the neutropenic patient following myelosuppressive chemotherapy is a medical emergency. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy can dramatically reduce infection-related morbidity and mortality. This article reviews the rationale and methodology of treatment as well as its applicability to other neutropenic states. The utility of adjunct therapy with granulocyte- stimulating compounds is also discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VX66500006

    View details for PubMedID 8958168

  • Evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid and viral resistance to zidovudine in children with HIV encephalopathy JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Sei, S., Stewart, S. K., Farley, M., Mueller, B. U., LANE, J. R., ROBB, M. L., Brouwers, P., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 174 (6): 1200-1206

    Abstract

    The amount of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA and the presence of a codon 215 mutation indicative of zidovudine resistance were evaluated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma obtained from HIV-1-infected children. The level of HIV-1 RNA in CSF was highest in children with severe encephalopathy (n = 25; median, 430 copies/mL; range, 0-2.2 x 10(5) copies/mL) followed by the moderately encephalopathic (n = 7; median, 330; range, 0-1130) and nonencephalopathic groups (n = 9; median, 0; range, 0-566) (P = .007). There was no correlation between CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Five of 7 children with the codon 215 mutation in CSF had a progression of encephalopathy, while all 8 children with wild type codon 215 had improved or stable disease during zidovudine treatment (P = .007). These findings suggest that increased viral replication and emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants within the central nervous system may play a role in progression of HIV encephalopathy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VV27200008

    View details for PubMedID 8940209

  • Kinetics of HIV-1 RNA concentration changes in pediatric patients PATHOBIOLOGY Zeichner, S. L., Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A., Dimitrov, D. S. 1996; 64 (6): 289-294

    Abstract

    Recent studies have used potent antiviral agents to investigate the kinetics of HIV infection in vivo. They provided estimates for important kinetic parameters, including the decay constants for circulating virus and infected CD4+cells. However, since all of these studies fundamentally rely on the use of antiviral agents, it would be useful to develop other approaches capable of independently verifying the values of the kinetic parameters through other means. Since CD4+ cells are known to exhibit diurnal variations and since there have been suggestions that circulating virus concentrations also vary in a diurnal fashion, as well as nonperiodically, we developed a mathematical model to describe those natural variations. The model predicted variations in viral RNA concentrations and produced estimates of the values of viral kinetic parameters without the use of antiviral agents. To compare the model with experimental data we measured the temporal dependence of the concentration of plasma viral RNA obtained from pediatric HIV-1 patients. The data analysis led to finding diurnal variation in the viral RNA and an estimate of the circulating virus half-life in the order of few hours, in reasonable agreement with the estimates obtained using antiviral agents. These results are the first demonstration of diurnal variations in AIDS patients and confirm the order of magnitude of the virus half-life found by using antiviral drugs. These findings may have implications for understanding HIV-1 pathogenesis and the development of therapeutic protocols.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996WY18600001

    View details for PubMedID 9159022

  • Factors associated with disclosure of diagnosis to children with HIV/AIDS PEDIATRIC AIDS AND HIV INFECTION-FETUS TO ADOLESCENT Wiener, L. S., Battles, H. B., Heilman, N., SIGELMAN, C. K., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 7 (5): 310-324

    Abstract

    Disclosure of the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to a child is a controversial and emotionally laden issue. To understand the factors that affect the process of disclosure and its consequences, we studied 99 parent-child dyads recruited from patients being treated at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Parents and HIV-infected children were interviewed and administered several standardized measures. Parental depression, family environment, social support satisfaction, socioeconomic status, child and parent gender, child's age, parental HIV serostatus, and disease severity were used to predict disclosure status. Results indicate that the majority of caregivers do disclose the diagnosis to the child, usually with no ill effects, and that age is the most significant predictor of whether or not a child has been told. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently estimate that there are over 6611 children with AIDS (under age 13), and 2184 adolescents with AIDS (ages 13-19) in America. As an increasing number of children who are born infected with HIV live to older ages, the question of when and how to talk with them about their illness becomes more crucial. In addition to the growing number of children infected with HIV, there are many thousands of children profoundly affected by the impact of this disease on a close family member--a mother, father, sibling, or other relative in the kinship network. Yet, the initial reaction most adults have upon learning of their own, or of a family member's, HIV diagnosis is that the diagnosis must be kept a closely guarded secret. One reason frequently cited by parents and family members is their fear that the stigma of AIDS will have a negative impact on their children and their families. Disclosure of an HIV diagnosis to a child is a controversial and emotionally laden issue in the pediatric health-care community as well. However, no systematic research has studied the issues that surround disclosure of an HIV diagnosis to the patient and the factors that predict disclosure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VP36800002

    View details for PubMedID 11361489

  • Multilocular thymic cysts: Imaging features in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection RADIOLOGY Avila, N. A., Mueller, B. U., Carrasquillo, J. A., Kontny, H. U., Jaffe, E. S., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 201 (1): 130-134

    Abstract

    To evaluate the radiologic and follow-up features of multilocular thymic cysts in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.Four HIV-infected children with large anterior mediastinal masses depicted at routine chest radiography underwent ultrasonography (US), unenhanced and contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of the chest. Gallium scanning was also performed in three of the four children. The patients underwent follow-up radiologic examinations for 8-15 months.The multiloculated nature of the masses was depicted at contrast-enhanced but not unenhanced CT. Similarly, the septations were depicted on T2-weighted, short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted, MR images but not on the unenhanced T1-weighted images. US scans depicted the septations within each mass, but findings were technically limited because only portions of each mass were depicted. Gallium scans in three masses depicted uptake of radionuclide in two and no uptake in one. Surgical biopsy was performed in each mass: Follicular hyperplasia and diffuse plasmacytosis of the thymus were found but not evidence of neoplastic or infectious origin. At follow-up, the mass decreased in volume in two patients, did not change in one patient, and increased in volume in one patient.HIV-infected patients with asymptomatic mediastinal masses depicted at routine chest radiography should undergo contrast-enhanced CT. If a solid mass is depicted, biopsy should be performed to exclude neoplastic or infectious origins. If a multiloculated anterior mediastinal mass is depicted, symptomatic follow-up is adequate since the finding represents a rare multilocular thymic cyst that does not have negative clinical implications.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VJ11400029

    View details for PubMedID 8816533

  • Neurobehavioral manifestations of symptomatic HIV-1 disease in children: can nutritional factors play a role? journal of nutrition Brouwers, P., Decarli, C., Heyes, M. P., Moss, H. A., Wolters, P. L., Tudor-Williams, G., Civitello, L. A., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 126 (10): 2651S-2662S

    Abstract

    Central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities are significant and frequent complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection in infants and children. Although the predominant cause of neurological and neuropsychological abnormalities appears to be related to HIV infection of the CNS, other factors including malnutrition may also play a role. We retrospectively evaluated the association of change in body weight with changes in neurocognitive function, ventricular brain ratio, and cerebrospinal quinolinic acid levels in a small cohort of children (n=15; mean age 6.3 years) with symptomatic HIV-1 disease before and after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy with continuous intravenous infusion of zidovudine (ZVD). Significant increases in weight and neurocognitive function as well as decreases in ventricular brain ratio and cerebrospinal quinolinic acid levels were noted after therapy. Only the relation between increase in weight and decrease in ventricular brain ratio was statistically significant (P< .01); contrary to expectations, an increase in weight seemed to correlate with a decrease in neurocognitive function (NS). Another group of children treated at the same time with oral intermittent ZVD, but otherwise receiving the same care did not show the same magnitude of improvement in neurocognitive function. These results seem to suggest that general supportive and medical care as well as nutritional factors may only play a limited role in the neurocognitive improvements after antiretroviral therapy with continuous infusion ZVD. Our sample size was, however, small and the nutritional measure rather global; thus these findings have to be considered as very preliminary.

    View details for PubMedID 8861929

  • Pain in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection: Incidence and characteristics in a single-institution pilot study PEDIATRICS Hirschfeld, S., Moss, H., Dragisic, K., Smith, W., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 98 (3): 449-452

    Abstract

    Children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have multiple complications associated with the disease process. Many of these complications are potentially painful and could affect the patient's quality of life. We examined the incidence and characteristics of the perception of pain in a cohort of families with children with HIV infection.A questionnaire was developed and validated with a cohort of families with children with cancer. In a survey of families at the Pediatric Branch of the National Cancer Institute, 61 children with HIV infection and their care givers, along with 19 children with cancer and their care givers, were interviewed to determine the incidence and impact of pain.Fifty-nine percent of the HIV-infected children and 55% of their care givers described pain as a component of their illness that impacted on their lives. Younger children and girls tended to report more pain. There was also a tendency for biological parents to expect and to treat more pain than foster parents, although there was no difference in the incidence of pain that biological and foster parents reported for their children. No differences were found between parents who were HIV positive and those who were not. In addition, no correlations were noted in incidence, expectation, or impact of pain with disease progression or surrogate markers such as CD4 counts. Pain in HIV-infected patients tended to be either in the gastrointestinal tract or limbs and usually responded to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy. The patients with cancer reported an incidence (47%) and impact of pain similar to those of previously reported studies on pediatric patients with cancer.Pain is common among children infected with HIV and can adversely impact on their lives, and its management should be a component of the general care of these patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VF50600017

    View details for PubMedID 8784372

  • Cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Gonzalez, C. E., Shetty, D., Lewis, L. L., Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1996; 15 (9): 796-800

    Abstract

    Cryptococcosis is a common opportunistic infection in adults with AIDS. Few cases of cryptococcosis complicating pediatric AIDS have been reported. To our knowledge there are no studies that describe the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and outcome of cryptococcosis in a large population of HIV-infected children.We identified the cases of cryptococcosis through a retrospective review of the hospital records of the 473 HIV-infected children prospectively monitored in the Pediatric Branch of the National Cancer Institute during the 8 years from 1987 to 1995.Four (0.85%) patients developed cryptococcosis during the study period. All patients had profound depression of the absolute CD4 counts, a history of previous opportunistic infections, and onset of cryptococcosis in the second decade of life. Cryptococcosis developed as a disseminated infection or a localized process of the lungs. Intermittent fever was the most common presenting manifestation. Serum cryptococcal antigen was positive in all patients and gradually declined after the institution of the antifungal therapy. All patients were treated with amphotericin B with or without flucytosine as initial therapy. Suppressive therapy consisted of fluconazole with or without flucytosine. There were no deaths due to Cryptococcus neoformans.Cryptococcosis is an infrequent yet treatable opportunistic infection of advanced pediatric AIDS that may present with subtle manifestations and warrants careful consideration in the evaluation of febrile HIV-infected children.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VG53800011

    View details for PubMedID 8878224

  • Risk factors for fungemia in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus: a case-control study. Clinical infectious diseases Gonzalez, C. E., Venzon, D., Lee, S., Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1996; 23 (3): 515-521

    Abstract

    To define the risk factors related to the occurrence of fungemia in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we performed a matched case-control study. During a 6-year period (1987-1993), fungemia developed in 22 (6.3%) of 347 HIV-infected children observed at the Pediatric Branch of the National Cancer Institute. Each of these 22 cases was matched by age and gender with three controls. Multiple logistic regression indicated that the best predictor of fungemia in this population was the presence of a central venous catheter placed for > 90 days (P < .00001), followed by a group of risk factors composed of 10 independent variables adjusted for a CD4 cell count of < 100/MicroL (P < .045). Those variables included treatment with more than three antibiotics, treatment with more than three parenteral antibiotics, > 30 days of antibiotic treatment, bacterial infections, > 30 days in the hospital, hypoalbuminemia, C3 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) classification of HIV infection, and malnourishment. We conclude that prolonged placement of central venous catheters is the most important risk factors for fungemia in HIV-infected children and that the risk of fungemia is further influenced by antibacterial therapy, catheter manipulation, and host response.

    View details for PubMedID 8991477

  • Comparison of virus burden in blood and sequential lymph node biopsy specimens from children infected with human immunodeficiency virus JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Sei, S., Anderson, B., Luzuriaga, K., Farley, M., VENZON, D. J., TUDORWILLIAMS, G., Schwartzentruber, D. J., Fox, C., Sullivan, J. L., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 129 (3): 410-418

    Abstract

    Lymph nodes serve as reservoirs for the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. Comparison of serial measurements of virus burden in lymph nodes and peripheral blood after a change in antiretroviral therapy may provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms and permit a more accurate assessment of a therapeutic response.Nevirapine was added to the drug regiment of eight children with HIV infection treated with the combination of zidovudine and didanosine who had increasing levels of serum p24 antigen. Lymph node biopsies were performed at entry and after 12 weeks of therapy.Neither CD4 counts nor p24 antigen level correlated with the degree of viremia as measured by ribonucleic acid copy numbers in plasma. Correlations were found between HIV DNA copy number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HIV DNA copy number in lymph nodes (p = 0.02), as well as between peripheral blood CD4 counts and lymph node architecture. The HIV signals in the lymph nodes conformed to the anatomic organization of apical light zones in the germinal centers; however, in more advanced disease stages, organized germinal centers disappeared as evidence by a decline in the extent of the follicular dendritic network.Lymph node biopsies in this small number of HIV-infected children revealed a progressive loss of an organized architecture, especially of the follicular dendritic network. This correlated with a progressive loss of CD4+ cells but not with other measures of disease stage, including viral load, as measured by ribonucleic acid copy numbers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VK79800014

    View details for PubMedID 8804331

  • Bone marrow aspirates and biopsies in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGY ONCOLOGY Mueller, B. U., Tannenbaum, S., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 18 (3): 266-271

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic abnormalities are common in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We evaluated the role of diagnostic bone marrow aspirations and biopsies in HIV-infected children.Seventy-eight bone marrow biopsies and aspirates performed during the last 8 years at the Pediatric Branch of the National Cancer Institute from 60 children with symptomatic HIV infection were reviewed retrospectively. The results were correlated with clinical stage, use of antiretroviral therapy or hematopoietic growth factors, and hematopoietic parameters.Most patients (84%) showed a normal or hypercellular marrow, associated with diffuse lymphocytosis (50%) or therapy with hematopoietic growth factors (33%). Dyspoietic features were very common in all three cell lineages. Twenty-seven (44%) of the patients had decreased iron stores in the bone marrow that correlated with iron deficiency as documented by serum tests in more than one-third of our study population. Bone marrow cultures were not more helpful than peripheral cultures in establishing the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection.Although bone marrow abnormalities are very common in HIV-infected children, they are rarely specific. The role of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates and biopsies appears to be limited, and this invasive procedure should be reserved for specific situations (e.g., to rule out a malignancy).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VA00200006

    View details for PubMedID 8689339

  • Lamivudine in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a phase I/II study. The National Cancer Institute Pediatric Branch-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Working Group. journal of infectious diseases Lewis, L. L., Venzon, D., Church, J., Farley, M., Wheeler, S., Keller, A., Rubin, M., Yuen, G., Mueller, B., SLOAS, M., Wood, L., Balis, F., Shearer, G. M., Brouwers, P., Goldsmith, J., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 174 (1): 16-25

    Abstract

    The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic profile, and preliminary activity of lamivudine (2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine), a novel cytidine nucleoside analogue with antiretroviral activity, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children beyond the neonatal period were studied. Ninety children received dosages of 1-20 mg/kg/day. Pharmacokinetic evaluation demonstrated serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations that increased proportionally to dose. As of January 1994, 11 children had been withdrawn from study for disease progression and 10 because of possible lamivudine-related toxicity, and 6 had died. CD4 and CD8 cell counts remained stable over 24 weeks in therapy-naive children and decrease slightly in previously treated children. Quantitative immune complex-dissociated p24 antigen and HIV RNA were decreased significantly at 12 and 24 weeks. In vitro resistance to lamivudine was documented in sequential virus isolates from some patients by 12 weeks. Lamivudine was well-tolerated and exhibited virologic activity in children, although future use in children is likely to be in combination antiretroviral regimens.

    View details for PubMedID 8655986

  • Dynamics of virus versus host interaction in children with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Sei, S., Akiyoshi, H., Bernard, J., VENZON, D. J., Fox, C. H., Schwartzentruber, D. J., Anderson, B. D., Kopp, J. B., Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 173 (6): 1485-1490

    Abstract

    To investigate the dynamic interplay between human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) replication and the extent of immune destruction in HIV-1-infected children, virus burden in lymphoid tissues (LN) and peripheral blood was compared with changes in LN architecture and cytokine levels constitutively expressed in LN. In agreement with results of a preliminary study, the plasma HIV-1 RNA level correlated with the amount of provirus in LN. However, the level was also associated with a degree of destruction of lymphoid follicular architecture and an alteration of immune cytokine expression. Expression of interleukin (IL)-4 was higher in LN with higher virus replication. Reduction of plasma viremia was associated with an increase in IL-2 mRNA levels in LN. These findings suggest that measurable virus burden in the peripheral blood is not a simple reflection of viral replication in LN but is also influenced by the extent of progressive immune destruction.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UM11500027

    View details for PubMedID 8648226

  • Impairment of expressive behavior in pediatric HIV-infected patients with evidence of CNS disease JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY Moss, H. A., Wolters, P. L., Brouwers, P., Hendricks, M. L., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 21 (3): 379-400

    Abstract

    Rated observations of videotapes were made of 16 variables representing 5 behavioral domains (task orientation, positive social-emotional, motor skills, expressive speech, and activity) on a sample of 83 HIV-infected children. Comparisons were made on the rated behaviors between children classified as either encephalopathic or nonencephalopathic. Analyses were conducted separately for infants (M age = 1.80 years) and older children (M age = 5.15 years). The nonencephalopathic infants exhibited higher activity levels and were superior in motor and verbal skills and showed more social and emotional responsiveness than did the encephalopathic group. The older nonencephalopathic children functioned in a more adaptive and appropriate manner than did the encephalopathic children in all domains of behavior. Independently made Q-sort ratings of behaviors during developmental testing were highly correlated with conceptually congruent ratings of the videotaped behaviors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UL05900007

    View details for PubMedID 8935240

  • The outpatient management of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients. Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) Freifeld, A. G., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 10 (4): 599-?

    Abstract

    Treatment of fever and neutropenia in cancer patients has been recognized for 30 years as a medical emergency, requiring prompt in-hospital evaluation and institution of broad-spectrum intravenous (i.v.) antibiotics. This action was deemed necessary due to the high frequency of life-threatening infections in febrile neutropenic patients, with no way to distinguish patients who are infected from those who are not. In recent years, it has become clear that not all neutropenic cancer patients are at the same level of risk for developing severe infections or life-threatening complications during neutropenia. Those who are at low risk may be candidates for treatment outside the hospital setting, either with i.v. regimens or potent oral antibiotics. The identification of low-risk febrile neutropenic patients and the specific outpatient approaches that have been tested to date are discussed. Outpatient management of fever during neutropenia could obviously be much less costly than standard inpatient care and could improve quality of life for low-risk patients undergoing cancer therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 8723296

  • Randomized trial of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in pediatric patients receiving intensive myelosuppressive chemotherapy JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Wexler, L. H., WEAVERMCCLURE, L., STEINBERG, S. M., Jacobson, J., Jarosinski, P., Avila, N., Pizzo, P. A., Horowitz, M. E. 1996; 14 (3): 901-910

    Abstract

    To evaluate whether recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) reduces the hematologic toxicities and supportive care requirements of an intensive combination chemoradiotherapy regimen in pediatric and young adult sarcoma patients.Thirty-seven newly diagnosed patients age 1 to 25 years were randomized to receive 18 cycles of chemotherapy alone or with GM-CSF beginning in cycle 3. GM-CSF (5 to 15 micrograms/kg/d subcutaneously) was begun 24 hours after the completion of chemotherapy and continued through day 19 of each cycle or until the absolute granulocyte count (AGC) was > or = 500/microliter on 2 consecutive days.GM-CSF reduced the median duration of grade 4 granulocytopenia from 9.0 days (range, 2 to 24) to 7.0 days (range, 1 to 21) (P < .0001), but did not significantly affect the grade of granulocyte nadir. No differences were seen in the incidence or types of infectious complications, incidence or duration of hospitalization and antimicrobial therapy, response to chemotherapy, or event-free or overall survival. GM-CSF was associated with more severe and protracted thrombocytopenia (median platelet nadir, 29,500/microliter [range, 3,000 to 288,000] v 59,000/microliter [range, 3,000 to 309,000], P < .0001; median time to recovery > 75,000/microliter, 16.0 days [range, 0 to 61] v 14.0 days [range, 0 to 38], P < .0001).GM-CSF does not produce clinically meaningful reductions in the degree or duration of severe granulocytopenia following intensive multiagent chemotherapy, but is associated with worsened thrombocytopenia. GM-CSF also does not reduce the need for hospitalization or the incidence of febrile neutropenia and infectious complications. We conclude that the costs and increased toxicities associated with the use of this agent are not justified by its minimal clinical benefit for regimens of this level of intensity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TZ73200027

    View details for PubMedID 8622038

  • Malignancies in pediatric AIDS. Current opinion in pediatrics Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 8 (1): 45-49

    Abstract

    Patients with immunodeficiency disorders, including children infected with HIV type 1, are at increased risk to develop a malignancy. Although the exact incidence is not clear, an excess of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, soft tissue tumors, and, in the case of adolescent girls, cervical carcinomas, has been reported in HIV-infected children. Kaposi's sarcoma is rare in children as compared with HIV-infected adults. To understand the pathogenesis of these disorders, one must take into account the multiple interactions between the immunodeficient host, the cytokine dysregulations, and the concurrent infection with many, potentially oncogenic, viruses. Treatment is often complicated by multiple HIV-associated organ dysfunctions as well as drug interactions and infectious complications secondary to severe immmunosuppression. Nonetheless, preliminary results with dose-intensive short-duration chemotherapeutic regimens have been encouraging, and HIV-infected children who develop cancer are likely to benefit from antineoplastic therapy and supportive care.

    View details for PubMedID 8680514

  • Role of tissue diagnosis in pulmonary involvement in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Izraeli, S., Mueller, B. U., Ling, A., Temeck, B. K., Lewis, L. L., Chang, R., Shad, A. T., PASS, H. I., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 15 (2): 112-116

    Abstract

    Pulmonary complications occur commonly during HIV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of lung tissue examination in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary disorders in children with HIV infection.The medical records of 347 children enrolled between January, 1990, and April, 1994, into various antiretroviral therapy protocols were reviewed to identify patients who underwent a lung biopsy.Fourteen patients underwent diagnostic lung biopsies on 16 separate occasions. The most common radiologic findings were nodular infiltrates which were localized in 7 patients and diffuse in 6. Eight patients presented with fever and progressive respiratory distress unresponsive to empiric therapy, whereas the rest had progressive nodular infiltrates. The pathologic diagnoses included opportunistic infection in 7 patients, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis in 5, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 3 and interstitial fibrosis in 1. The biopsy led to a major change in the treatment of 7 patients which resulted in a significant improvement of the pulmonary process in all of them. In an additional patient the excisional biopsy proved curative.When patients are selected appropriately, lung biopsy might have a significant impact on therapy and outcome in HIV-infected children with pulmonary infiltrates.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TV34400003

    View details for PubMedID 8822282

  • Ex vivo effects of macrophage colony-stimulating factor on human monocyte activity against fungal and bacterial pathogens CYTOKINE Roilides, E., Lyman, C. A., Mertins, S. D., Cole, D. J., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A., Chanock, S. J., Walsh, T. J. 1996; 8 (1): 42-48

    Abstract

    The ex vivo effects of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on antifungal and antibacterial activities of human elutriated monocytes were studied. Cells were isolated prior to the initiation of therapy, on day 3 and at week 7, in six patients with an advanced malignancy receiving M-CSF in a phase I study. Superoxide anion production by monocytes in response to N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine was enhanced at day 3 of therapy (P = 0.011). In addition, at day 3, fungicidal activity against blastoconidia of Candida albicans was enhanced by M-CSF treatment (P = 0.026), whereas antifungal activity against hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus was not significantly changed. Bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus was increased at day 3 (P = 0.004). By Northern blot analysis, M-CSF does not upregulate the expression of components of the NADPH-oxidase, the multicomponent enzyme system responsible for generation of superoxide radicals by monocytes. Instead, the predominant effect of M-CSF on circulating monocytes is probably a post-transcriptional effect. In conclusion, these findings suggest that administration of M-CSF to patients may enhance microbicidal activities and thus may provide a useful adjunct to conventional antimicrobial therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TT98200006

    View details for PubMedID 8742065

  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Fungal Infections of the Respiratory Tract Principles and Practice of Clinical Mycology Walsh TJ, Karp J, Pizzo PA 1996: 235-268
  • Children with Immunodeficiencies infection Control in the Child Care Center and Preschool Pizzo PA 1996: 31-45
  • The Compromised Host Cecil Textbook of Medicine Pizzo PA 1996
  • Invasive fungal infections in children: recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Advances in pediatric infectious diseases Walsh, T. J., Gonzalez, C., Lyman, C. A., Chanock, S. J., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 11: 187-290

    View details for PubMedID 8718464

  • Thyroid abnormalities in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Hirschfeld, S., Laue, L., Cutler, G. B., Pizzo, P. A. 1996; 128 (1): 70-74

    Abstract

    To study thyroid function in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and determine whether there are correlates of thyroid dysfunction with disease progression.Total and free thyroxine, triiodothyronine, reverse triiodothyronine, thyrotropin, and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) were measured in 167 children with HIV infection (age, 1 to 19 years; mean, 9.15 years).Pediatric Branch, National Cancer Institute.Free thyroxine was at or below the lower limit of normal (normal, 1.0 to 1.9 ng/dl) in 18% of the children; thyrotropin and TBG levels were above the normal range in 31% and 30%, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between CD4+ cell count and thyrotropin, and between CD4+ cell count and TBG. No correlation was found between thyroid function and other disease symptoms or medications.These findings indicate that thyroid abnormalities occur more frequently in children with HIV infection than was previously reported, have a different profile from the thyroid abnormalities associated with other chronic disease conditions, and correlate with disease progression.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TQ16700009

    View details for PubMedID 8551423

  • Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Immunologic Disordrs in Infants and Children Tudor-Wiulliams G, Pizzo PA 1996: 510-52
  • Exploratory Study of Residents' Perceptions of a Housing Facility for Pediatric Patients and Family Members. J Psychol Onc Wiener L, Riekert K, Pizzo PA, Siegel K, Battles H 1996; 14 (3): 69-80
  • Neurobehavioral manifestations of symptomatic HIV-1 disease in children: Can nutritional factors play a role? J Nutrition Brouwers P, De C Carli C, Heyes MP, moss HA, Wolters PL, Tudor-Williams G, Civitello LA, Pizzo PA 1996; 126 (10): S2651-62
  • Infectious Complications of Chemotherapy and supportive therapy for patients with hematologic malignancies Hematology: Current Prractice of Medicine Pizzo PA 1996; 9: 1-12
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interferon-gamma prevent dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression of antifungal monocyte activity against Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY MYCOLOGY Roilides, E., Blake, C., Holmes, A., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1996; 34 (1): 63-69

    Abstract

    Treatment with corticosteroids is an important risk factor for development of invasive aspergillosis. We evaluated the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on superoxide anion (O2-) release and damage caused by elutriated human monocytes (EHM) on unopsonized hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, we studied the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on these functions of DEX-treated EHM. Treatment of EHM with concentrations of DEX ranging from 5 to 500 nM (1.4-140 ng ml-1) for 48 h suppressed O2- release in response to phorbol myristate acetate in a dose-dependent fashion. Similarly, DEX significantly suppressed hyphal damage caused by EHM as measured by colorimetric MTT assay. Both GM-CSF (5 ng ml-1) and IFN-gamma (1.2 ng ml-1) added at day 0 to the EHM together with DEX (500 nM) significantly enhanced O2- release and percentage hyphal damage, preventing the DEX-induced suppression of EHM function. Thus, GM-CSF and IFN-gamma prevented the deleterious effects of DEX on antifungal activity of EHM against Aspergillus suggesting a potential therapeutic role in patients at risk for or suffering from invasive aspergillosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UB62500009

    View details for PubMedID 8786473

  • SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF HEPATOSPLENIC CANDIDIASIS THROUGH REPEATED CYCLES OF CHEMOTHERAPY AND NEUTROPENIA CANCER Walsh, T. J., Whitcomb, P. O., Revankar, S. G., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 76 (11): 2357-2362

    Abstract

    Hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC) or chronic disseminated candidiasis is an increasingly recognized problem in patients with cancer. Whether patients with HSC should continue to receive antineoplastic therapy, which may cause neutropenia with the risk for progressive HSC or breakthrough fungemia, can be a major dilemma. Patients with HSC at the National Cancer Institute continue antineoplastic therapy, when possible during antifungal therapy for HSC, despite repeated bouts of neutropenia. Therefore, whether this strategy resulted in breakthrough fungemia or progression of HSC was investigated.All patients consecutively treated at the National Cancer Institute at the Warren-Grant Magnuson Clinical Center from 1982-1992 for HSC were prospectively studied for therapeutic and outcome variables of antifungal and antineoplastic management. Each case was summarized on a time-event line to quantify the duration of simultaneous periods of antineoplastic therapy and antifungal therapy (AFT).Sixteen patients (median age, 22 years) with HSC were studied. Eleven patients had relapsed tumor and 5 had newly diagnosed tumor. During antifungal therapy for HSC, 12 of 16 patients were neutropenic for a median of 10 days (range, 6-91 days) and 11 were profoundly neutropenic for a median of 13 days (range, 1-55 days). Hepatosplenic candidiasis was successfully treated with complete antifungal response in 12 patients and a partial response in 2; 2 patients continued to receive AFT. No patient had breakthrough fungemia and two patients had progression of HSC, only one episode of which occurred during neutropenia.Hepatosplenic candidiasis in patients with cancer may be treated successfully under careful observation through repeated courses of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia without progression of hepatosplenic candidiasis or breakthrough fungemia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TF10400025

    View details for PubMedID 8635043

  • Combined intravenous ganciclovir and foscarnet for children with recurrent cytomegalovirus retinitis OPHTHALMOLOGY Walton, R. C., WHITCUP, S. M., Mueller, B. U., Lewis, L. L., Pizzo, P. A., NUSSENBLATT, R. B. 1995; 102 (12): 1865-1870

    Abstract

    Children with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis may not complain of symptoms despite the presence of advanced sight-threatening disease. Although little data exist regarding CMV retinitis in this population, the treatment of this disease may be difficult because of frequent, extensive recurrences after reduction of drug dose from induction to maintenance levels. The authors reported the results of the use of combined ganciclovir and foscarnet for treatment of recurrent CMV retinitis in three children with AIDS.Three children with recurrent CMV retinitis were treated with combined ganciclovir and foscarnet administered intravenously. All patients initially received induction dosages of ganciclovir followed by maintenance therapy, at which time they experienced reactivation of their disease. The dosing regimen for induction with the combined therapy was foscarnet (60 mg/kg every 8 hours) and ganciclovir (5 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks). Maintenance with combined therapy consisted of foscarnet (90 mg/ kg daily) and ganciclovir (5 mg/kg daily).All patients showed complete healing of the retinitis during the first 3 weeks of combined therapy. Median survival after initiation of combined therapy was 15 weeks (range, 12-33 weeks). None of the children experienced reactivation of CMV retinitis during combined therapy with ganciclovir and foscarnet. Combined therapy was well tolerated in all patients without major side effects. No patient required discontinuation or interruption of either drug during combined therapy.Children with recurrent CMV retinitis may not report visual symptoms, which can delay therapeutic intervention. Therefore, recurrent disease in children should be treated aggressively to avoid potentially devastating visual loss. A combination of ganciclovir and foscarnet appears to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for treatment of recurrent CMV retinitis in children with AIDS. This approach causes no additional toxic reactions and may provide improved long-term control of recurrent CMV retinitis in children.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TL78300027

    View details for PubMedID 9098289

  • EFFECTS OF MACROPHAGE-COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR ON ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTES AGAINST ASPERGILLUS-FUMIGATUS JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Roilides, E., Sein, T., Holmes, A., Chanock, S., Blake, C., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1995; 172 (4): 1028-1034

    Abstract

    The effects of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on antifungal activity of human monocytes (MNC), MNC-derived macrophages (MDM), and rabbit pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) against Aspergillus fumigatus were studied. MNC-induced hyphal damage was augmented by incubation with M-CSF (P = .027); PAM-induced hyphal damage was moderately enhanced by M-CSF (P = .046). Phagocytosis of Aspergillus conidia by MDM and PAM was strongly enhanced by M-CSF (P < .01). MNC pretreated with M-CSF exhibited enhanced superoxide anion production in response to PMA (P = .026). This effect was not associated with increased levels of mRNA transcripts of the components of NADPH oxidase, the enzyme responsible for superoxide anion production. M-CSF augments antifungal activity of mononuclear phagocytes against both conidia and hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus partly by enhancement of oxidation-dependent mechanisms and may have an important immunomodulatory role in prevention and treatment of invasive aspergillosis in leukopenic patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RW06200017

    View details for PubMedID 7561176

  • PARENTAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ADAPTATION AND CHILDREN WITH HIV - A FOLLOW-UP-STUDY AIDS PATIENT CARE Wiener, L., Riekert, K. A., THEUT, S., STEINBERG, S. M., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 9 (5): 233-239

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TG26100004

    View details for PubMedID 11361403

  • INCREASED HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS (HIV) TYPE-1 DNA CONTENT AND QUINOLINIC ACID CONCENTRATION IN BRAIN-TISSUES FROM PATIENTS WITH HIV ENCEPHALOPATHY JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Sei, S., Saito, K., Stewart, S. K., Crowley, J. S., Brouwers, P., Kleiner, D. E., Katz, D. A., Pizzo, P. A., Heyes, M. P. 1995; 172 (3): 638-647

    Abstract

    Levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) DNA and quinolinic acid were examined in areas of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid organs (LN) from 5 AIDS patients with no clinically apparent CNS compromise (group I), 7 with CNS opportunistic diseases (group II), and 8 with HIV encephalopathy (group III). The brains from patients with HIV encephalopathy not only contained higher levels of HIV-1 DNA (cerebrum, P < .01; cerebellum, P < .05) as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction but also showed a higher rate of viral pol region mutations suggestive of zidovudine or didanosine resistance than brains from patients in group I or II (P < .01). CNS quinolinic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group II and III patients than in group I (P = .03), even though quinolinic acid levels in LN were comparable among the 3 groups. These data suggest that CNS inflammatory changes associated with HIV encephalopathy may be triggered by a local productive HIV-1 infection within the CNS.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RR07300004

    View details for PubMedID 7658054

  • PATHOGENESIS OF PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS - GRANULOCYTOPENIA VERSUS CYCLOSPORINE AND METHYLPREDNISOLONE-INDUCED IMMUNOSUPPRESSION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Berenguer, J., Allende, M. C., Lee, J. W., GARRET, K., Lyman, C., Ali, N. M., Bacher, J., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1995; 152 (3): 1079-1086

    Abstract

    Patients with chemotherapy-induced granulocytopenia for neoplastic diseases and those receiving cyclosporin A plus corticosteroids for prevention and treatment of organ transplant rejection are two immunologically distinct patient populations with high risks for development of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. In order to compare the pathogenesis of aspergillosis in these two high-risk populations and to further characterize the role of cyclosporin A in development of pulmonary aspergillosis, we studied the patterns of infection and inflammation in two clinically applicable rabbit models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. There were striking differences in the patterns of infection and inflammation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis according to the type of underlying immune defect. Among rabbits challenged with the same intratracheal inoculum, there was a 100% mortality for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in profoundly granulocytopenic rabbits in comparison with a 100% mortality for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in profoundly granulocytopenic rabbits in comparison with a 100% survival in rabbits immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A plus methylprednisolone (CsA+MP). Lesions of pulmonary aspergillosis in granulocytopenic rabbits consisted predominantly of coagulative necrosis, intraalveolar hemorrhage, and scant mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. By comparison, pulmonary foci in rabbits immunosuppressed by CsA+MP consisted mainly of neutrophilic and monocytic infiltrates, inflammatory necrosis, and scant intraalveolar hemorrhage. There was extensive infiltration by hyphae with angioinvasion in granulocytopenic rabbits, whereas conidia in various stages of germination predominated in CsA+MP treated animals in which there was a paucity of hyphae or angioinvasion. Extrapulmonary disease predominated in granulocytopenic rabbits. Methylprednisolone was the major immunosuppressive drug in rabbits treated with CsA+MP. Cyclosporin A alone did not increase the progression of pulmonary aspergillosis and did so only when used chronically with methylprednisolone.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RT88700036

    View details for PubMedID 7663787

  • EFFECT OF ZIDOVUDINE AND DIDANOSINE TREATMENT ON HEART FUNCTION IN CHILDREN INFECTED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Domanski, M. J., SLOAS, M. M., Follmann, D. A., SCALISE, P. P., Tucker, E. E., Egan, D., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 127 (1): 137-146

    Abstract

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children can be complicated by the development of cardiac disease. Decreased left ventricular function has been temporally associated with the use of zidovudine (azidothymidine; AZT) in adults with HIV and has been associated with changes in cardiac muscle mitochondria in animal models. This study was done in an attempt to determine whether the cardiac disease is related to the antiretroviral therapy or to progressive HIV infection.We retrospectively reviewed echocardiograms, clinical records, and laboratory data from 137 HIV-infected children who were being treated by the Pediatric Branch, National Cancer Institute, and who were receiving AZT or didanosine, both drugs, or no antiretroviral therapy.Despite correction of the echocardiographic results for HIV disease severity with markers such as CD4+ lymphocyte count, time since infection, mode of acquisition of HIV, and age, children who were treated with AZT had a lower average fractional shortening than those who were not treated with AZT (p < 0.00001). There was a nonlinear relation between days of AZT use and this There was a nonlinear relation between days of AZT use and this decrease in fractional shortening. The odds that a cardiomyopathy would develop was 8.4 times greater in children who had previously used AZT than in those who had never taken AZT (95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 42.0). Didanosine was not associated with the development of a cardiomyopathy.Treatment of HIV-infected children with AZT may be associated with the development of a cardiomyopathy; didanosine does not appear to increase the risk of cardiomyopathy. The continued use of AZT in a child in whom a cardiomyopathy develops should be carefully assessed, and all children receiving AZT should be followed by serial cardiac examination and echocardiograms.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RH63700026

    View details for PubMedID 7608800

  • RELATION BETWEEN STAGE OF DISEASE AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL MEASURES IN CHILDREN WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIV DISEASE AIDS Brouwers, P., TUDORWILLIAMS, G., Decarli, C., Moss, H. A., Wolters, P. L., Civitello, L. A., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 9 (7): 713-720

    Abstract

    To study the relationships between stage of HIV disease, reflected by CD4+ lymphocyte percentages and p24 antigen levels, and HIV-associated central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities, measured by computed tomography (CT) brain-scan ratings and neurobehavioral tests.Consecutive case series.Government medical research center.Eighty-six previously untreated children with symptomatic HIV-1 disease.CD4% measures correlated significantly with overall CT brain-scan severity ratings (r = -0.45; P < 0.001) as well as with its component parts (cortical atrophy, white matter abnormalities, and intracerebral calcifications); they were of comparable magnitude for vertically and transfusion-infected children. CD4% measures were also associated with the general level of cognitive function (r = 0.32; P < 0.005). Furthermore, patients with detectable serum p24 antigen levels (n = 39) had CT brain scans that were more abnormal than patients with undetectable p24 levels (n = 20; CT abnormality ratings of 21.3 versus 35.9; P < 0.02); similar differences were found for the cortical atrophy and calcification ratings. p24 levels also correlated with the overall CT brain-scan severity rating (r = 0.34; P < 0.01).Degree of CT brain-scan abnormality and level of cognitive dysfunction were significantly associated with the stage of HIV-1 disease, as reflected by either CD4 leukocyte measures or elevations of p24 antigen. The relation between the CT brain-scan lesions and markers of HIV disease (both CD4 and p24) suggest that these CNS abnormalities are most likely associated with HIV-1 infection, and further support the hypothesis that the interaction between systemic disease progression and CNS manifestations is continuous rather than discrete.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RF92200008

    View details for PubMedID 7546416

  • ACTIVITIES OF AMPHOTERICIN-B AND ANTIFUNGAL AZOLES ALONE AND IN COMBINATION AGAINST PSEUDALLESCHERIA-BOYDII ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Walsh, T. J., Peter, J., MCGOUGH, D. A., Fothergill, A. W., Rinaldi, M. G., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 39 (6): 1361-1364

    Abstract

    In order to develop new approaches to treatment of infections due to Pseudallescheria boydii, the in vitro antifungal activity of amphotericin B alone and in combination with miconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole was studied. Combinations of amphotericin B and antifungal azoles were synergistic, additive, or indifferent in their interaction against P. boydii. Antagonism was not observed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RB37000026

    View details for PubMedID 7574531

  • EFFECT OF INCREASING INOCULUM SIZES OF PATHOGENIC FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON MICS OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS BY BROTH MICRODILUTION METHOD JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Gehrt, A., Peter, J., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1995; 33 (5): 1302-1307

    Abstract

    Inoculum size is a critical variable in development of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing for filamentous fungi. In order to investigate the influence of different inoculum sizes on MICs of amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, itraconazole, and miconazole, 32 clinical isolates (8 Aspergillus fumigatus, 8 Aspergillus flavus, 5 Rhizopus arrhizus, 8 Pseudallescheria boydii, and 3 Fusarium solani isolates) were studied by the broth microdilution method. Four inoculum sizes were studied: 1 x 10(2) to 5 x 10(2), 1 x 10(3) to 5 x 10(3), 1 x 10(4) to 5 x 10(4), and 1 x 10(5) to 5 x 10(5) CFU/ml. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards reference method for antifungal susceptibility testing in yeasts was modified and applied to filamentous fungi. The inoculum was spectrophotometrically adjusted, and all tests were performed in buffered medium (RPMI 1640) at pH 7.0 with incubation at 35 degrees C for 72 h. MICs were read at 24, 48, and 72 h. Amphotericin B showed a minimum effect of inoculum size on MICs for all species with the exception of P. boydii (P < 0.05). A significant effect of inoculum size on MICs was observed with 5-fluorocytosine, for which there was an increase of more than 10-fold in MICs against all Aspergillus spp. between inoculum concentrations of 10(2) and 10(4) CFU/ml (P < 0.001). For itraconazole, the results showed a more species-dependent increase of MICs, most strikingly for R. arrhizus and P. boydii. Miconazole, which was tested only with P. boydii, did not demonstrate a significant effect of inoculum size on MICs. In summary, the effect of inoculum size on MICs for filamentous fungi was dependent upon the organism and antifungal compound tested. Thus, among antifungal compounds, itraconazole and 5-fluorocytosine demonstrated significant inoculum effects, while amphotericin B and miconazole showed comparatively minimum inoculum effects against pathogenic filamentous fungi. Moreover, among filamentous fungi, P. boydii and R. arrhizus exhibited the greatest inoculum effect.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QT30600049

    View details for PubMedID 7615745

  • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING OF EXPERIMENTAL INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS BY ULTRAFAST COMPUTERIZED-TOMOGRAPHY, A NOVEL, NONINVASIVE METHOD FOR MEASURING RESPONSES TO ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Walsh, T. J., Garrett, K., Feuerstein, E., GIRTON, M., ALLENDE, M., Bacher, J., Francesconi, A., Schaufele, R., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 39 (5): 1065-1069

    Abstract

    Pulmonary infiltrates in neutropenic hosts with invasive aspergillosis are due to vascular invasion and hemorrhagic infarction. In order to measure the effect of antifungal compounds on this organism-mediated tissue injury, we monitored the course of pulmonary infiltrates by serial ultrafast computerized tomography (UFCT) in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits with experimental invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The course of pulmonary lesions measured by serial UFCT scans was compared with those measured by conventional chest radiography, histopathological resolution of lesions, and microbiological clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus. Treatment groups included either amphotericin B colloidal dispersion in dosages of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg of body weight per day intravenously or conventional desoxycholate amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day intravenously. Therapeutic monitoring of pulmonary lesions by UFCT demonstrated a significant dose-response relationship. Lesions continued to progress in untreated controls, whereas lesions in treated rabbits initially increased and then decreased in response to antifungal therapy in a dosage-dependent manner (P < or = 0.05 to P < or = 0.005, depending upon the groups compared). This same trend of resolution of lesions in response to antifungal therapy was also demonstrated by postmortem examination and by microbiological clearance of the organism. These data indicated that amphotericin B colloidal dispersion at 5 and 10 mg/kg/day exerted a more rapid rate of clearance of lesions than conventional amphotericin B. UFCT was more sensitive than conventional chest radiography in detecting lesions due to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (P < 0.05 to P < 0.005, depending upon the groups compared). These findings establish a correlation among UFCT-defined lesions, microbiological response, and resolution of pathologically defined lesions in experimental invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Serial monitoring of UFCT-defined lesions of aspergillosis provides a novel system for determining the antifungal response of organism-mediated tissue injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QW01900008

    View details for PubMedID 7625790

  • DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION ASSOCIATED WITH GRANULOCYTE-COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR THERAPY IN A CHILD WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Burt, R., Gulick, L., Jacobsen, F., Pizzo, P. A., Horne, M. 1995; 126 (5): 749-752

    Abstract

    We report a case of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, apparently caused by exposure to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The medical records of patients treated for more than 30 consecutive days with subcutaneously administered G-CSF were reviewed for the occurrence of thrombocytopenia or coagulation abnormalities. New-onset thrombocytopenia with a platelet count less than 100 x 10(9) cells/L (< 100,000 cells/mm3) developed in 9 of 23 patients (39%) after a median of 11 weeks of treatment with G-CSF at dosages between 1 and 10 micrograms/kg per day.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QY15100012

    View details for PubMedID 7538574

  • EFFECTS OF GRANULOCYTE-COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR AND INTERFERON-GAMMA ON ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHILS AGAINST PSEUDOHYPHAE OF DIFFERENT MEDICALLY IMPORTANT CANDIDA SPECIES JOURNAL OF LEUKOCYTE BIOLOGY Roilides, E., Holmes, A., Blake, C., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1995; 57 (4): 651-656

    Abstract

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the major host defense against pseudohyphae, the invasive form of Candida species. We studied the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on the PMN-induced damage of pseudo-hyphae of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis in vitro by using two antifungal assays: a modified limiting dilution assay and a colorimetric metabolic 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. PMNs from healthy volunteers were incubated with either G-CSF (100-10,000 U/ml) or IFN-gamma (10-5000 U/ml) or buffer at 37 degrees C for 90 min and their capacity to damage nonopsonized pseudohyphae was then measured. C. tropicalis appeared to be the most susceptible species, whereas C. parapsilosis showed the highest rate of resistance to PMN damage. G-CSF (500-10,000 U/ml) and IFN-gamma (100-1000 U/ml) enhanced the antifungal activity of PMNs against C. albicans pseudo-hyphae (P < .01 and P < .05). Among the others, G-CSF enhanced PMN-induced damage of C. parapsilosis at concentrations 500-10,000 U/ml (P < .05), whereas it enhanced damage of C. tropicalis only at 10,000 U/ml (P < .01). IFN-gamma (100-1000 U/ml)-primed PMNs also caused augmented damage of C. parapsilosis (P < .05) but not of C. tropicalis at the same concentrations. Species-dependent differences exist in the responses of PMNs to Candida pseudohyphae and G-CSF as well as IFN-gamma are important immunomodulators of phagocytic host defenses against them.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QU08500020

    View details for PubMedID 7536791

  • FUNGEMIA IN CHILDREN INFECTED WITH THE HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS - NEW EPIDEMIOLOGIC PATTERNS, EMERGING PATHOGENS, AND IMPROVED OUTCOME WITH ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Walsh, T. J., Gonzalez, C., Roilides, E., Mueller, B. U., AIL, N., Lewis, L. L., WHITCOMB, T. O., Marshall, D. J., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 20 (4): 900-906

    Abstract

    We characterized 27 episodes of fungemia in 22 children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Fungemia in these patients presented as a community-acquired infection in the setting of outpatient total parenteral nutrition or intravenous antibiotic therapy through a chronically indwelling central venous catheter (CVC). Fungemia developed only in patients with CVCs (P < .001). Non-albicans Candida species, Torulopsis glabrata, Rhodotorula rubra, and Bipolaris spicifera constituted 52% of all causes. Fungemia was detected early, within a median of 2.4 days after the onset of new fever, which permitted prompt administration of amphotericin B (mean dosage, 0.7 mg/[kg.day]; median duration, 19 days). CVCs were removed in 23 (85%) of the episodes. We conclude that fungemia in HIV-infected children often presents as a community-acquired infection, is frequently due to newly emerging opportunistic fungi, and can be managed, with a high level of success (95% survival with no posttherapeutic sequelae), by early diagnosis, prompt initiation of amphotericin B therapy, and removal of the CVC.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QP66200027

    View details for PubMedID 7795092

  • CYTOMEGALOVIRUS URETERITIS AS A CAUSE OF RENAL-FAILURE IN A CHILD INFECTED WITH THE HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Mueller, B. U., MACKAY, K., CHESHIRE, L. B., Choyke, P. L., Kitchen, B., Widemann, B., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 20 (4): 1040-1043

    Abstract

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is common in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Hemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis have been recognized as complications of CMV infection, and these complications lead to hematuria and compromised renal function. We describe a case of CMV infection of the ureters in a child with vertically acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection; the child presented with severe suprapubic pain, and prolonged macroscopic hematuria and intermittent acute renal failure developed subsequently.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QP66200043

    View details for PubMedID 7795047

  • PNEUMONIA AND BACTEREMIA BY PNEUMOCOCCAL SEROTYPE-16 IN A HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED CHILD WITH NORMAL SERUM ANTIBODY-RESPONSE TO 23-VALENT PNEUMOVAX VACCINE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Hirschfeld, S., SCHIFFMAN, G., TUDORWILLIAMS, G., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 171 (3): 761-762

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QJ45500048

    View details for PubMedID 7876638

  • Monotherapy for fever and neutropenia in cancer patients: A randomized comparison of ceftazidime versus imipenem. J Clin Oncol Freiefeld AG, Walsh T, marshall D, Gress J, Steinberg SM, Hathorn J, Rubin M, Jarosinski P, Gill V, Young RC, Pizzo PA 1995; 13: 165-76
  • Empirical Therapy and Prevention of Infection in the Immunocompromised Host Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases Pizzo PA 1995: 2686-96
  • CANCER IN CHILDREN WITH PRIMARY OR SECONDARY IMMUNODEFICIENCIES JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 126 (1): 1-10

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QB18400001

    View details for PubMedID 7815195

  • DETECTION AND QUANTITATION OF THE GLUCURONOXYLOMANNAN-LIKE POLYSACCHARIDE ANTIGEN FROM CLINICAL AND NONCLINICAL ISOLATES OF TRICHOSPORON BEIGELII AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PATHOGENICITY JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Lyman, C. A., DEVI, S. J., Nathanson, J., Frasch, C. E., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1995; 33 (1): 126-130

    Abstract

    Sera from patients with systemic infections caused by the opportunistic fungus Trichosporon beigelii have been shown to cross-react with anticryptococcal antibodies. We quantitatively compared the amounts of antigen produced and examined the expression of O-acetyl epitopes from 35 strains of T. beigelii isolated from deep and superficial infections. By counterimmunoelectrophoresis, 10 of 10 isolates from deep infections were positive for polysaccharide, compared with 7 of 13 isolates from superficial infections (P = 0.02). All 23 strains tested were positive for polysaccharide when screened by immunodot. By enzyme immunoassay, the cross-reactive antigen produced by deep isolates (n = 9) had a mean titer of 1:5,500. In contrast, superficial isolates (n = 22) produced significantly less antigen than the deep isolates (P < 0.001), with a mean titer of 1:700. Isolates from environmental sources (n = 3) were similar to the superficial isolates, with a mean titer of 1:600. The mean concentrations +/- standard errors of cross-reactive polysaccharide released by deep isolates and superficial isolates were 3.09 +/- 0.44 and 1.74 +/- 0.30 micrograms/ml, respectively, when measured by rocket immunoelectrophoresis (P = 0.02). O-Acetyl epitopes were detected on polysaccharide from 8 of 9 strains of T. beigelii isolated from deep sources, while only 2 of 12 superficial isolates expressed detectable O-acetyl epitopes (P = 0.01). Thus, while all isolates of T. beigelii tested were capable of producing glucuronoxylomannan-like cross-reactive antigen, pathogenic isolates produced significantly more antigen than superficial or environmental isolates. Furthermore, significantly more pathogenic isolates than superficial or environmental isolates expressed antigen that was O acetylated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995PX47200026

    View details for PubMedID 7535310

  • The Pancytopenias Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics Pizzo PA 1995: 1412-17
  • Cancers in Children Manual of Oncologic Therapeutics Horowitz, M. S., Steuber CP, Helman L, Ogden A, Dreyer ZEMahoney DH Jr, Ungerleider RS, Pizzo PA, Poplack DG 1995: 312-329
  • DIFFERENTIAL RECEPTIVE AND EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE FUNCTIONING OF CHILDREN WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIV DISEASE AND RELATION TO CT SCAN BRAIN ABNORMALITIES PEDIATRICS Wolters, P. L., Brouwers, P., Moss, H. A., Pizzo, P. A. 1995; 95 (1): 112-119

    Abstract

    To investigate the effect of HIV disease on the receptive and expressive language of children and the relationship between CT scan brain abnormalities and language functioning.Thirty-six children (mean age, 5.5 years; range, 1 through 10 years; 75% vertical transmission; 58% classified as encephalopathic) with symptomatic HIV infection and 20 uninfected siblings (mean age, 7.8 years; range, 3 through 15 years) were administered an age-appropriate comprehensive language test assessing both receptive and expressive language (Reynell Developmental Language Scales or Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals--Revised). Each HIV-infected child had a CT scan of the brain as part of the baseline evaluation, which was rated independently and blindly by two neurologists, for presence and severity of brain abnormalities using a semiquantitative rating system.Expressive language was significantly more impaired than receptive language in the overall sample of HIV-infected children. The encephalopathic children scored significantly lower than the non-encephalopathic children, however, the degree of discrepancy between mean receptive and expressive language scores was not significantly different between these two groups. The uninfected sibling control group did not have a significant discrepancy between receptive and expressive language, and they scored significantly higher than the infected patient group. Greater severity of CT scan abnormalities was significantly correlated with poorer receptive and expressive language functioning in the overall HIV-infected sample and a higher discrepancy between receptive and expressive language in the encephalopathic group.Pediatric HIV disease is associated with differential receptive and expressive language functioning in which expressive language is significantly more impaired than receptive language. The sibling data and CT scan correlations suggest that the observed language impairments are associated with the direct effects of HIV-related central nervous system disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995PZ72900020

    View details for PubMedID 7770287

  • Colony-stimulating factors and neutropenia: Intersection of data and clinical relevance J Natl Cancer Inst Freifeld A, Pizzo PA 1995; 87: 781-782
  • Correlation between CT-brain scan abnormalities and neuropsychological function in children with symptomatic HIV disease. Arch Neurol Brouwers P, De Carli C, Civitello L, Moss H, Wolters P, Pizzo PA 1995; 52: 39-44
  • Clinical approach to infections in the compromised host. Hematologty: Basic Principles and Practice Sloas M, Rubin M, Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1995: 1414-72
  • Choosing empiric therapy for febrile neutropenic patients. J Critical Illness Pizzo PA 1995; 10: 165-68
  • Diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive candidiasis by rapid enzymatic detection of serum D-arabinitol. Am J Med Walsh TJ, Merz WG, Lee JW, Schaufele R, Sein T, whitcomb PO, Ruddel M, Burns W, Wingard J, Switchenko AC, Goodman T, Pizzo PA 1995; 99: 164-72
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in patients with neoplastic diseases. Baillere's Clinical Infectious Diseases. Invasive Fungal Infections in Cancer Patients Walsh TJ, Lyman CA, Pizzo PA 1995: 25-70
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in the Infant Infectious Diseases of the Fetus & Newborn Infant Mueller BU, Pizzo PA 1995: 377-403
  • A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL REPORT OF THE RETINAL LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DIDANOSINE ARCHIVES OF OPHTHALMOLOGY WHITCUP, S. M., Dastgheib, K., NUSSENBLATT, R. B., Walton, R. C., Pizzo, P. A., CHAN, C. C. 1994; 112 (12): 1594-1598

    Abstract

    Didanosine, a purine analogue with antiretroviral activity, is used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus disease. Associated toxic effects of didanosine include pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy, and retinopathy. The retinal lesions associated with didanosine therapy were studied in a 6-year-old girl with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Gross examination disclosed multiple well-circumscribed depigmented lesions in the midperipheral retina. Microscopic examination of these lesions showed multiple areas of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) loss, some surrounded by areas of hypertrophy or hypopigmentation of the RPE. Partial loss of the choriocapillaris and neurosensory retina were also noted in areas of diseased RPE. Transmission electron microscopy showed numerous membranous lamellar inclusions and cytoplasmic bodies in the RPE cells. These data show that didanosine primarily affects the RPE and that the choriocapillaris and overlying neurosensory retina are also dystrophic in areas of RPE loss.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PW46900023

    View details for PubMedID 7993216

  • RESPONSE OF HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES AND MONOCYTES TO TRICHOSPORON BEIGELII - HOST-DEFENSE AGAINST AN EMERGING OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Lyman, C. A., Garrett, K. F., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1994; 170 (6): 1557-1565

    Abstract

    To further understand human host defenses against Trichosporon beigelii, functional responses were investigated of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and elutriated human monocytes (EHM) to this opportunistic fungal pathogen. There was significantly less PMNL phagocytosis (P < .001) and killing (P < .001) of T. beigelii isolates than of Candida albicans. However, levels of superoxide anions generated by PMNL in response to T. beigelii and C. albicans were comparable. Pretreatment of PMNL with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) did not significantly enhance fungicidal activity. Killing of T. beigelii by EHM also was significantly impaired compared with killing of C. albicans (P < .001). However, pretreatment of EHM with macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or IFN-gamma all resulted in enhanced fungicidal activity. Thus, phagocytosis and killing of T. beigelii by PMNL and EHM are significantly less efficient than that of C. albicans. However, monocytes may be more important in the control of Trichosporon species than previously shown.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PW15200026

    View details for PubMedID 7995996

  • IN-VITRO AND EX-VIVO EFFECTS OF CYCLOSPORINE-A ON PHAGOCYTIC HOST DEFENSES AGAINST ASPERGILLUS-FUMIGATUS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Roilides, E., Robinson, T., Sein, T., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1994; 38 (12): 2883-2888

    Abstract

    Because cyclosporin A (CsA) is extensively used as an immunosuppressive agent, its effects on phagocytic defenses against Aspergillus fumigatus were studied in vitro and ex vivo. After incubation with 10 to 250 ng of CsA per ml at 37 degrees C for 60 min, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) exhibited unaltered superoxide anion (O2-) production in response to phorbol myristate acetate and N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine, whereas > or = 500 ng/ml significantly suppressed it (P < 0.01). Moreover, at < 250 ng of CsA per ml, PMNs exhibited no change in their capacity to damage unopsonized hyphae of A. fumigatus compared with controls, whereas at > or = 250 ng/ml, CsA suppressed the function (P < 0.01). Although neither CsA (250 ng/ml) nor hydrocortisone (10 micrograms/ml) suppressed PMN O2- production in response to phorbol myristate acetate and N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine, combination of the two agents reduced the function compared with that at the baseline (P < 0.05). Incubation of monocytes with 100 ng of CsA per ml for 1 or 2 days suppressed their antihyphal activity. No essential change in phagocytic activity of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) against A. fumigatus conidia, tested as the percentage of phagocytosing MDMs and average number of MDM-associated conidia, was detected after 2 or 4 days of incubation with 10 to 1,000 ng of CsA per ml. Furthermore, in rabbits treated with CsA (up to 20 mg/kg of body weight per day intravenously for 7 days), neither O2- production and hyphal damage caused by PMNs or monocytes against hyphae nor phagocytosis of conidia by pulmonary alveolar macrophages was significantly suppressed. Thus, these results demonstrated that CsA within therapeutically relevant concentrations does not suppress antifungal activity of phagocytes except that of circulating monocytes. However, it may induce significant immunosuppression of phagocytes' antifungal function at relatively high concentrations in vitro, especially when combined with corticosteroids.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PU60300033

    View details for PubMedID 7695277

  • DETECTION OF CANDIDA CASTS IN EXPERIMENTAL RENAL CANDIDIASIS - IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND PATHOGENESIS OF UPPER URINARY-TRACT INFECTION JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY MYCOLOGY Navarro, E. E., ALMARIO, J. S., King, C., Bacher, J., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1994; 32 (6): 415-426

    Abstract

    The distinction between upper versus lower urinary tract infection in patients with candiduria is a commonly encountered and therapeutically important diagnostic dilemma. Candida casts have been reported in the urine of several individual case reports of human renal candidiasis. The specificity of Candida casts would identify unequivocally a patient with upper urinary tract disease. Little is known, however, about the sensitivity and the formation of Candida casts. We therefore studied the diagnostic yield, methods for detection and pathogenesis of Candida cast formation in serially collected urine specimens from immunologically intact and granulocytopenic rabbit models of haematogenous disseminated candidiasis. Refractile blastoconidia and pseudohyphae of Candida encased in the granular matrix were seen on wet mounts while Candida stained a brilliant red in the fuschia pink tubular matrix on periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stained cytopathology filters. Among 24 rabbits with disseminated candidiasis, 11 (46%) had Candida casts detectable by wet mount and PAS-stained urine filters in comparison to none of 10 non-infected immunologically normal controls (P = 0.014). Fifteen (70%) of 21 episodes of Candida casts were detected within the first 3 days of infection, indicating possible utility in the early diagnosis of renal candidiasis. No Candida casts were detected in the urine of granulocytopenic rabbits, possibly due to the rapid destruction of tubules and abrogation of cast formation. This absence of detectable Candida in eight infected granulocytopenic rabbits differed significantly from that of 24 non-granulocytopenic infected rabbits, in which Candida casts were detected in 11 (46%) (P = 0.029). Candida cast formation occurred predominantly in the cortex. Histopathological examination demonstrated invasion of Candida into the glomerular tufts and peritubular capillaries, followed by development of Candida casts in the proximal and distal tubules, respectively. Detection of renal Candida casts may be a useful diagnostic marker in distinguishing upper versus lower urinary tract candidiasis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994QJ94500002

    View details for PubMedID 7738724

  • HIGH FAILURE RATE OF DAPSONE AND PENTAMIDINE AS PNEUMOCYSTIS-CARINII PNEUMONIA PROPHYLAXIS IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED CHILDREN PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Nachman, S. A., Mueller, B. U., Mirochnick, M., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 13 (11): 1004-1006

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PT21600014

    View details for PubMedID 7845719

  • CLINICAL AND PHARMACOKINETIC EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM THERAPY WITH DIDANOSINE IN CHILDREN WITH HIV-INFECTION PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Butler, K. M., STOCKER, V. L., BALIS, F. M., Brouwers, P., Jarosinski, P., Husson, R. N., Lewis, L. L., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 94 (5): 724-731

    Abstract

    Didanosine has demonstrated promising antiviral activity and a tolerable toxicity profile in short term studies. We describe a cohort of HIV-infected children who were treated for a prolonged period of time with didanosine.Children (6 months to 18 years of age) with symptomatic HIV infection or an absolute CD4 count < 0.5 x 10(9) cells/L, received oral didanosine at doses between 20 mg/m2 to 180 mg/m2 every 8 hours. Clinical, immunological, and virological parameters were assessed at least every 2 months. The pharmacokinetics of didanosine were evaluated in 85 patients.Previously untreated children (n = 51) and children who had received prior antiretroviral therapy (n = 52) were enrolled in the study (median time on study 22.6 months; range 2 to 48). The long-term administration of didanosine was well tolerated and no new toxicities were observed. The absolute CD4 count increased by > or = .05 x 10(9) cells/L in 28 of 87 (32%) of patients after 6 months of therapy. Responses were also sustained in 41% of these children after 3 years of therapy. Children entering the study with a CD4 count > 0.1 x 10(9) cells/L (n = 51) had a marked survival advantage (P = .00002) with an estimated survival probability after 3 years of 80% compared to 39% for children with lower CD4 counts. Although the area under the curve of didanosine increased proportionally with the dose, there was considerable interpatient variability at each dose level. There was no apparent relationship between surrogate markers of clinical outcome and plasma drug concentration.Didanosine was well tolerated with chronic administration, and toxicities were uncommon and usually reversible. In 41% of patients, the CD4 count increased and was maintained at the higher level even after years of treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PN91200013

    View details for PubMedID 7936903

  • ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ELUTRIATED HUMAN MONOCYTES AGAINST ASPERGILLUS-FUMIGATUS HYPHAE - ENHANCEMENT BY GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR AND INTERFERON-GAMMA JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Roilides, E., Holmes, A., Blake, C., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1994; 170 (4): 894-899

    Abstract

    Human monocytes are important effector cells in host defenses against Aspergillus hyphae, and as elutriated monocytes (EHM) they may be transfused in large quantities to leukopenic patients with invasive aspergillosis. The antifungal activity of EHM against Aspergillus hyphae was compared with that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). The effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on superoxide anion (O2-) release and on hyphal damage caused by EHM against unopsonized A. fumigatus hyphae was investigated. EHM had antihyphal activity comparable to that of PMNL. GM-CSF significantly augmented O2- release by EHM in response to PMA. Also, both GM-CSF and IFN-gamma significantly enhanced the antifungal activity of EHM compared with untreated controls. Thus, EHM have demonstrable antifungal activity against Aspergillus hyphae that may be increased by GM-CSF and IFN-gamma, suggesting their potential therapeutic role in immune reconstitution of effector cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PJ69400022

    View details for PubMedID 7930733

  • A BLUEPRINT FOR CARE, TREATMENT, AND PREVENTION OF HIV/AIDS IN CHILDREN PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL WILFERT, C. M., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 13 (10): 920-923

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PL94800013

    View details for PubMedID 7854893

  • ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY FOR INFECTION DUE TO HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS IN CHILDREN PEDIATRIC AIDS AND HIV INFECTION-FETUS TO ADOLESCENT Pizzo, P. A., Wilfert, C. 1994; 5 (5): 273-295

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PV70500001

    View details for PubMedID 11361369

  • INVASIVE ZYGOMYCOSIS DUE TO CONIDIOBOLUS-INCONGRUUS CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Walsh, T. J., Renshaw, G., Andrews, J., KWONCHUNG, J., CUNNION, R. C., PASS, H. I., Taubenberger, J., Wilson, W., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 19 (3): 423-430

    Abstract

    During the past decade, an increasing spectrum of pathogenic Zygomycetes fungi have caused infections in humans. The preponderance of these deeply invasive infections have been caused by members of the order Mucorales. However, deeply invasive zygomycoses due to genera of the order Entomophthorales (Conidiobolus species and Basidiobolus species) have seldom been reported. We describe a granulocytopenic patient with pulmonary and pericardial zygomycosis due to Conidiobolus incongruus, describe this organism's susceptibility to antifungal agents, characterize its diagnostic microbiological characteristics, and review previously reported cases of deeply invasive zygomycosis due to Conidiobolus species. In immunocompromised patients, C. incongruus is an uncommon but highly invasive fungal pathogen that may be resistant to amphotericin B and can be distinguished from other Zygomycetes fungi by characteristic mycological features.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PG43100008

    View details for PubMedID 7811860

  • QUANTITATIVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ZIDOVUDINE EXPOSURE AND EFFICACY AND TOXICITY ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Drusano, G. L., BALIS, F. M., GITTERMAN, S. R., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 38 (8): 1726-1731

    Abstract

    We examined the relationship between the concentrations of zidovudine in plasma given by continuous intravenous infusion to human immunodeficiency virus-positive pediatric patients and a surrogate marker of outcome (measured by the increase in the number of CD4-positive T cells) as well as drug-mediated toxicity (change in granulocyte count). The return of CD4-positive T cells was most strongly related to the number of these cells present at the start of therapy. Drug concentration data added little explanatory power to this relationship, indicating that the effect of zidovudine was near maximal throughout the range of concentrations examined. The change in granulocyte count was significantly correlated with zidovudine concentration both from weeks 1 through 8 and from weeks 8 through 12. These findings imply that it may be wise to stratify phase I antiretrovirus drug trials for the entry level of CD4-positive T cells if pharmacodynamic relationships with this marker as the dependent variable are to be sought. Continued efforts need to be made to derive quantitative relationships between drug exposure and measures of both efficacy and toxicity so that the maximal amount of information is derived from small phase I studies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NZ44900006

    View details for PubMedID 7986002

  • QUANTITATIVE-ANALYSIS OF VIRAL BURDEN IN TISSUES FROM ADULTS AND CHILDREN WITH SYMPTOMATIC HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 INFECTION ASSESSED BY POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Sei, S., Kleiner, D. E., Kopp, J. B., Chandra, R., Klotman, P. E., Yarchoan, R., Pizzo, P. A., Mitsuya, H. 1994; 170 (2): 325-333

    Abstract

    The amount of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in various tissues was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 16 patients with end-stage HIV-1 infection and 7 patients with symptomatic but less advanced disease. During postmortem study of the 16 end-stage patients, HIV-1 DNA was found most often in lymph nodes and the spleen (both 100%), lung (93.8%), and colon (87.5%). Biopsied lymph nodes from the 7 symptomatic patients contained substantially higher copy numbers of HIV-1 RNA and DNA than did peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Plasma viral RNA levels correlated significantly with the amount of HIV-1 RNA in PBMC (r2 = .86, P = .0025) but not with the level of viral RNA in lymph nodes in patients with symptomatic HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that although lymph nodes represent the main site for HIV-1 infection and replication, the level of circulating viral burden may not be solely determined by the magnitude of active HIV-1 replication in lymph nodes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NZ46700013

    View details for PubMedID 8035018

  • THE HIV-INFECTED CHILD - PARENTAL RESPONSES AND PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPLICATIONS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY Wiener, L., THEUT, S., STEINBERG, S. M., Riekert, K. A., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 64 (3): 485-492

    Abstract

    Four dimensions of psychological adaptation of 101 parents of HIV-infected children were examined. Heightened anxiety, depression, and anticipatory grief were associated with child's age at diagnosis, parent's HIV status, and parent's relationship to the child. Parents at higher risk for psychological distress were identified, and an optimum time point for intervention is suggested.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NX80200016

    View details for PubMedID 7977671

  • ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY FOR INFECTION DUE TO HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS IN CHILDREN CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Pizzo, P. A., Wilfert, C. 1994; 19 (1): 177-196

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NX66500032

    View details for PubMedID 7948527

  • PHARMACOKINETIC EVALUATION OF THE COMBINATION OF ZIDOVUDINE AND DIDANOSINE IN CHILDREN WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A., Farley, M., Husson, R. N., Goldsmith, J., Kovacs, A., Woods, L., ONO, J., Church, J. A., Brouwers, P., Jarosinski, P., Venzon, D., BALIS, F. M. 1994; 125 (1): 142-146

    Abstract

    As part of a phase I/II trial in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus, we studied the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine and didanosine administered as single agents and in combination. Zidovudine (60 to 180 mg/m2 per dose) was given orally every 6 hours, and didanosine (60 to 180 mg/m2 per dose) every 12 hours. Pharmacokinetic samples were obtained from 54 patients and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was estimated by means of a previously defined limited sampling strategy. Follow-up blood samples were obtained after 4 and 12 weeks of treatment. The mean AUC for zidovudine ranged from 4.8 mumol.hr per liter at 60 mg/m2 to 11.0 mumol.hr per liter at the 180 mg/m2 level, and increased in proportion to the dose. The mean AUC for didanosine ranged from 2.8 mumol.hr per liter (60 mg/m2) to 8.0 mumol.hr per liter (180 mg/m2), with a wide interpatient variability. The AUCs of zidovudine and didanosine remained unchanged when the agents were administered in combination. There was no significant change in the AUCs of either drug after 4 and 12 weeks in comparison with those on day 3 of therapy. However, there was greater interpatient and intrapatient variability with didanosine than with zidovudine. These observations have implications for the future utility of therapeutic drug monitoring with these agents.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NW31700028

    View details for PubMedID 8021765

  • ITRACONAZOLE FOR EXPERIMENTAL PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS - COMPARISON WITH AMPHOTERICIN-B, INTERACTION WITH CYCLOSPORINE-A, AND CORRELATION BETWEEN THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE AND ITRACONAZOLE CONCENTRATIONS IN PLASMA ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Berenguer, J., Ali, N. M., Allende, M. C., Lee, J., Garrett, K., Battaglia, S., Piscitelli, S. C., Rinaldi, M. G., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1994; 38 (6): 1303-1308

    Abstract

    Itraconazole and amphotericin B were compared by using a newly developed model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in rabbits immunosuppressed with methylprednisolone and cyclosporin A (CsA). Both itraconazole at 40 mg/kg (given orally) and amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg (given intravenously) had in vivo antifungal activity in comparison with controls. At these dosages, amphotericin B was more effective than itraconazole in reducing the tissue burden (log10 CFU per gram) of Aspergillus fumigatus (P < 0.05) and the number of pulmonary lesions (P < 0.01). However, there was considerable variation in the near-peak concentrations of itraconazole in plasma (median, 4.15 micrograms/ml; range, < 0.5 to 16.8 micrograms/ml) and a strong inverse correlation between concentrations of itraconazole in plasma and the tissue burden of A. fumigatus. An inhibitory sigmoid maximum-effect model predicted a significant pharmacodynamic relationship (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) between itraconazole concentrations in plasma and antifungal activity as a function of the tissue burden of A. fumigatus. This model demonstrated that levels in plasma of greater than 6 micrograms/ml were associated with a significantly greater antifungal effect. Levels in plasma of less than 6 micrograms/ml were associated with a rapid decline in the antifungal effect. Itraconazole, in comparison with amphotericin B, caused a twofold elevation of CsA levels (P < 0.01) but was less nephrotoxic (P < 0.01). This study of experimental pulmonary aspergillosis demonstrated that amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day was more active but more nephrotoxic than itraconazole at 40 mg/kg/day, that itraconazole increased concentrations of CsA in plasma, and that the antifungal activity of itraconazole strongly correlated with concentrations in plasma in an inhibitory sigmoid maximum-effect model. These findings further indicate the importance of monitoring concentrations of itraconazole in plasma as a guide to increasing dosage, improving bioavailability, and optimizing antifungal efficacy in the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NN77000015

    View details for PubMedID 8092829

  • ORALLY-ADMINISTERED CLARITHROMYCIN FOR THE TREATMENT OF SYSTEMIC MYCOBACTERIUM-AVIUM COMPLEX INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-SYNDROME JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Husson, R. N., Ross, L. A., Sandelli, S., Inderlied, C. B., Venzon, D., Lewis, L. L., Woods, L., Conville, P. S., Witebsky, F. G., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 124 (5): 807-814

    Abstract

    To determine the safety, tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and antimycobacterial activity of orally administered clarithromycin in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection.Phase I study with a 10-day pharmacokinetic phase followed by a 12-week continuation therapy phase.Twenty-five patients with a median age of 8.3 years were enrolled. Ten were receiving zidovudine and 13 were receiving didanosine at the time of enrollment.Clarithromycin suspension was administered to each patient at one of three dose levels: 3.75, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg per dose every 12 hours. Clarithromycin and antiretroviral pharmacokinetics were measured during single-drug and concurrent-drug administration. Clinical and laboratory monitoring was performed biweekly.Clarithromycin was well tolerated at all dose levels. Plasma clarithromycin concentrations increased proportionately with increasing doses, and significant pharmacokinetic interactions were not observed during concurrent administration with zidovudine or didanosine. Decreases in mycobacterial load in blood were observed only at the highest clarithromycin dose level. Decreased susceptibility to clarithromycin developed rapidly (within 12 to 16 weeks) in the majority of MAC strains isolated from study patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NK47900028

    View details for PubMedID 8176574

  • EVOLVING RISK-FACTORS FOR INVASIVE FUNGAL-INFECTIONS - ALL NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS ARE NOT THE SAME CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Walsh, T. J., Hiemenz, J., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 18 (5): 793-798

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NL16700019

    View details for PubMedID 8075273

  • PHARMACOKINETICS AND SAFETY OF A UNILAMELLAR LIPOSOMAL FORMULATION OF AMPHOTERICIN-B (AMBISOME) IN RABBITS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Lee, J. W., Amantea, M. A., Francis, P. A., Navarro, E. E., Bacher, J., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1994; 38 (4): 713-718

    Abstract

    A unilamellar liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (LAmB) known as AmBisome was safely administered intravenously to 20 rabbits at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg of body weight, whereas of 12 rabbits given desoxycholate amphotericin B (DAmB) intravenously at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg/kg, 2 died of acute cardiac toxicity when DAmB was administered at the highest dose. Single-dose LAmB (1 mg/kg) achieved a maximum concentration in serum (Cmax) of 26 +/- 2.4 micrograms/ml and an area under the curve to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 60 +/- 16 micrograms.h/ml, while single-dose DAmB (1.0 mg/kg), by comparison, achieved a lower Cmax (4.7 +/- 0.2 micrograms/ml; P = 0.001) and a lower AUC0-infinity (30.6 +/- 2.2 micrograms.h/ml; P = 0.07). Following administration of a single dose of LAmB (10 mg/kg), a disproportionately higher Cmax (287 +/- 14 micrograms/ml) and AUC0-infinity (2,223 +/- 246 micrograms.h/ml) occurred, indicating saturable elimination. After chronic dosing (n = 4) with LAmB at 5.0 mg/kg/day for 28 days or DAmB at 1.0 mg/kg/day for 28 days, LAmB achieved daily peak levels of 122.8 +/- 5.8 micrograms/ml and trough levels of 34.9 +/- 1.8 micrograms/ml, while DAmB reached a peak of only 1.76 +/- 0.11 microgram/ml and a trough of 0.46 +/- 0.04 microgram/ml (P < or = 0.001). Significant accumulations of amphotericin B into reticuloendothelial organs were observed, with 239 +/- 39 micrograms/g found in the liver after chronic LAmB dosing (5 mg/kg/day), which was seven times higher than the 33 +/- 6 micrograms/g after DAmB dosing (1 mg/kg/day) (P = 0.002). Accumulation in kidneys, however, remained 14-fold lower (P =0.04) following LAmB dosing (0.87 +/- 0.61 microgram/g) than after DAmB dosing (12.7 +/- 4.6 microgram/g). Nephrotoxicity occurred in only one of four LAmB treated animals, while it occurred in all four chronically DAmB-treated animals: mild hepatozicity with transaminase elevations was seen in one LAmB-treated rabbit. We conclude that LAmB safely achieved higher Cmax(s) and AUC0-infinity(s) and demonstrated saturable, nonlinear elimination from plasma via reticuloendothelial organ uptake. Take reduced nephrotoxicity of LAmB correlated with diminished levels of amphotericin B in the kidneys.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NE04600014

    View details for PubMedID 8031034

  • ORAL HEALTH OF PEDIATRIC AIDS PATIENTS - A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY JOURNAL OF DENTISTRY FOR CHILDREN VALDEZ, I. H., Pizzo, P. A., Atkinson, J. C. 1994; 61 (2): 114-118

    Abstract

    The prevalence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is steadily increasing among American children. The dental needs of these patients are significant. This study evaluated the oral health of forty children being treated for HIV-infection at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Eight of twenty-two patients in primary dentition (36 percent) had baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD). These cases required extensive dental restoration usually under general anesthesia. Tooth development was delayed in 31 percent of patients. Candidiasis was the most common soft tissue abnormality, found in 35 percent of children. Preventive and therapeutic dental programs should be instituted to meet the special needs of pediatric AIDS patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NM04000008

    View details for PubMedID 8046089

  • DOSE-DEPENDENT ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY AND NEPHROTOXICITY OF AMPHOTERICIN-B COLLOIDAL DISPERSION IN EXPERIMENTAL PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Allende, M. C., Lee, J. W., Francis, P., Garrett, K., DOLLENBERG, H., Berenguer, J., Lyman, C. A., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1994; 38 (3): 518-522

    Abstract

    We investigated the safety and efficacy of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD) for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits. Treatment groups included ABCD in dosages of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day intravenously or conventional desoxycholate amphotericin B (DAmB) at 1 mg/kg/day intravenously. Antifungal activity was directly related to increasing dosage of ABCD as determined by the concentration of Aspergillus fumigatus organisms in lungs and the frequency of hemorrhagic pulmonary lesions. At 5 and 10 mg/kg/day, there was a significant reduction in the tissue burden of A. fumigatus as measured by percent culture-positive lobes and CFU per gram of tissue (P < or = 0.001), whereas at 1 mg/kg/day measured by percent culture-positive lobes and CFU per gram of tissue (P < or = 0.001), whereas at 1 mg/kg/day the tissue burden of A. fumigatus was not significantly different from that in untreated controls. Microbiological clearance was significantly greater at 1 mg of DAmB per kg per day than at 1 mg of ABCD per kg per day (P < or = 0.001). There was no difference in microbiological clearance of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid among the treatment groups as measured by CFU per milliliter. As determined by survival, ABCD at 5.0 mg/kg/day was more effective than DAmB at 1.0 mg/kg/day and ABCD at 10 mg/kg/day. ABCD at 10 mg/kg/day was more nephrotoxic than the lower dosages of ABCD and resulted in higher mortality. Impairment of glomerular filtration developed as a direct function increasing the ABCD dosage (r = 0.77; P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MZ31200020

    View details for PubMedID 8203848

  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF A Q-SORT BEHAVIORAL RATING PROCEDURE FOR PEDIATRIC HIV PATIENTS JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY Moss, H. A., Brouwers, P., Wolters, P. L., Wiener, L., Hersh, S., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 19 (1): 27-46

    Abstract

    Developed a Q-sort procedure to assess social, emotional, and motivational behavior associated with central nervous system disease among 180 HIV-infected pediatric patients. These ratings were factor analyzed and scales were derived based on the factor structure. Younger (M age = 1.03 years) patients with HIV-associated encephalopathy were rated as more apathetic and nonsocial in their behavior than nonencephalopathic younger patients. Older (M age = 7.8 years) encephalopathic patients had significantly higher scores on scales measuring depression, autism, and irritability compared to nonencephalopathic patients from this age group. A subgroup (26 patients) showed a significant decrease in these elevated scores after a 6-month course of AZT.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MU67000005

    View details for PubMedID 8151493

  • EFFICACY OF UNILAMELLAR LIPOSOMAL AMPHOTERICIN-B IN TREATMENT OF PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS IN PERSISTENTLY GRANULOCYTOPENIC RABBITS - THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF BRONCHOALVEOLAR D-MANNITOL AND SERUM GALACTOMANNAN AS MARKERS OF INFECTION JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Francis, P., Lee, J. W., Hoffman, A., Peter, J., Francesconi, A., Bacher, J., Shelhamer, J., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1994; 169 (2): 356-368

    Abstract

    A model of primary pulmonary aspergillosis in rabbits was developed to reproduce the persistent levels of profound granulocytopenia and the histopathologic features of bronchopneumonia, vascular invasion, and hemorrhagic infarction encountered in humans. D-mannitol was detectable in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and galactomannan was measurable in serum by latex agglutination immunoassay. A pharmacokinetically distinctive unilamellar vesicle formulation of liposomal amphotericin B, 5 mg/kg/day intravenously, compared with high-dose conventional desoxycholate amphotericin B, 1 mg/kg/day intravenously, was more effective in preventing nephrotoxicity, increasing survival, reducing the number of viable organisms, and decreasing tissue injury due to Aspergillus organisms. Thus, D-mannitol in lavage fluid and galactomannan in serum may be useful markers of pulmonary aspergillosis, and liposomal amphotericin B was significantly more effective and safer than desoxycholate amphotericin B for treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis in profoundly granulocytopenic rabbits.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MV82900019

    View details for PubMedID 8106769

  • ADAPTIVE-BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIV-INFECTION BEFORE AND AFTER ZIDOVUDINE THERAPY JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY Wolters, P. L., Brouwers, P., Moss, H. A., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 19 (1): 47-61

    Abstract

    Assessed longitudinally the effects of HIV infection and zidovudine on the adaptive behavior of 25 children with symptomatic disease (M age = 5.3 years; range = 1-12; 52% classified as encephalopathic) by parent report using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Patients also were evaluated with an age-appropriate intelligence test and Q-sort Behavioral Rating Scale. Before treatment, encephalopathic children exhibited greater impairments in adaptive behavior than those without encephalopathy. After 6 months of zidovudine, all behavioral domains (communication, daily living, socialization) except for motor skills showed overall significant improvement. Children with or without encephalopathy showed a similar degree of change. Improvements in adaptive behavior correlated with increases in cognitive ability and decreases in severity of aberrant social-emotional behavior.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MU67000006

    View details for PubMedID 8151495

  • SERUM D-ARABINITOL MEASURED BY AUTOMATED QUANTITATIVE ENZYMATIC ASSAY FOR DETECTION AND THERAPEUTIC MONITORING OF EXPERIMENTAL DISSEMINATED CANDIDIASIS - CORRELATION WITH TISSUE CONCENTRATIONS OF CANDIDA-ALBICANS JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY MYCOLOGY Walsh, T. J., Lee, J. W., SIEN, T., Schaufele, R., Bacher, J., SWITCHENKO, A. C., GOODMAN, T. C., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 32 (3): 205-215

    Abstract

    In order to further understand serum D-arabinitol (DA) as a marker for the diagnosis of disseminated candidiasis and for monitoring response to antifungal therapy, we studied the serum levels of this Candida carbohydrate metabolite by rapid automated enzymatic assay in rabbits with experimental disseminated candidiasis. The enzymatic reaction steps were performed on a standard automated clinical chemistry analyser. As a correction for renal impairment, data were expressed as serum D-arabinitol/creatinine ratio (DA/Cr). Serum creatinine concentrations were determined from the same sample with the same instrument, thereby allowing rapid determination of the DA/Cr within one laboratory. The DA/Cr was determined in 321 samples from 132 rabbits. The mean serum DA/Cr in 31 normal non-infected rabbits was 1.51 +/- 0.2 microM mg-1 dl-1. Among 84 rabbits with disseminated candidiasis and pre-terminal samples, there was a direct correlation between DA/Cr and tissue concentration of Candida albicans (r = 0.80; P < 0.001). A threshold of elevated DA/Cr (> or = 3.0 microM mg-1 dl-1) was evident in rabbits with a tissue concentration of C. albicans > or = 3 x 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) g-1. Elevated DA/Cr was detected in 48 (89%) of 54 rabbits at a C. albicans tissue concentration of > or = 3 x 10(4) CFU g-1 vs. one (3%) of 30 rabbits with < 3 x 10(4) CFU g-1 (P < 0.0001). Among all 101 rabbits with disseminated candidiasis, an elevated DA/Cr was detected at any point during infection in 60 (92%) of 65 rabbits having a C. albicans tissue concentration > or = 3 x 10(4) CFU g-1 vs. 13 (36%) of 36 rabbits with < 3 x 10(4) CFU g-1 (P < 0.0001). The relationship between the tissue response to antifungal therapy and change in DA/Cr was then further analysed. Ten (91%) of 11 rabbits with a tissue-proven response to antifungal therapy (defined as > or = 10(2)-fold reduction of CFU g-1 in comparison to untreated controls) had a > 50% reduction in elevated DA/Cr levels. By comparison, 10 (83%) of 12 treated rabbits with no response to therapy had persistently elevated DA/Cr levels (P < 0.001). These findings provide an experimental basis for understanding the patterns of expression of serum DA in disseminated candidiasis and further indicate that serial DA/Cr measurements may be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of disseminated candidiasis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NU15600006

    View details for PubMedID 7965491

  • The use of the flarephotometry in the detection of cytomegalic virus retinitis in AIDS patients. AIDS Nussenblatt RB, De Smet M, Podger M, Lane C, Polis M, Pizzo PA 1994; 8: 135-36
  • New Antifungal compounds for treatment of invasive fungal infections Fondamenti di Micestogra Clinica Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1994: 126-36
  • Aspergillosis Infectious Diseases Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1994: 541-6
  • Zidovudine and didanosine combination therapy in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics Husson RN, Mueller Bu, Farley M, Woods L, Kovacs A, Goldsmith JC, Ono J, Lewis LL, Balis FM, Brouwers P, Avramis VI, Church JA, Butler KM, Rasheed S, Jarosinski P, Venzon D, Pizzo PA 1994; 93: 316-22
  • Antiretroviral Treatment for Children with HIV Infection Pediatric AIDS: The challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children and Adolescents Pizzo PA, Wilfert CM 1994: 651-87
  • Pediatric AIDS: The Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children and Adolescents. Pizzo PA, Wilfert CM 1994
  • Interrelations among patterns of change in neurocognitive, CT brain imaging and CD4 measures associated with anti-retroviral therapy in children with symptomatic HIV infection. Advances in Neuroimmunology Brouwers P, DeCarli C, Tudor-Williams, G, Civitello L, Moss H, Pizzo PA 1994; 4: 223-31
  • Be a Friend: children Who Live with HIV Speak Wiener LS, Best A, Pizzo PA 1994
  • Psychological adjustment of human immunodeficiency virus-infected school-age children. J Dev Behav Pediatr Bose S, Moss HA, Brouwers P, Pizzo PA Lorion r 1994; 15: S26-S33
  • Prevention of bacterial infections in neutropenic patients. Bailliere's Clinical Infectious Diseases Walsh TJ, Karp J, Hathorn JW, Pizzo PA 1994; 1 (3): 469-98
  • BIOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL FACTORS CAUSING INDUCTION AND SUPPRESSION OF GERMINATION OF TRICHOSPORON BEIGELII JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY MYCOLOGY Walsh, T. J., Kelly, P., Peebles, R., Lee, J., LECCIONES, J., Pizzo, P. A. 1994; 32 (2): 123-132

    Abstract

    Trichosporon beigelii is an emerging fungal pathogen, which is morphologically characterized by blastoconidia, arthroconidia and hyphae. The non-hyphal forms of T. beigelii germinate to form hyphae in plasma in vitro and in tissues in vivo, suggesting possible pathophysiological significance of this process. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms of germination of T. beigelii. We therefore studied relevant biochemical and pharmacological factors that may regulate germination of T. beigelii. Germination was significantly enhanced by temperature at 37 degrees C, chemically defined cell culture media such as RPMI-1640, plasma, physiological pH, N-acetylglucosamine and proline. N-acetylglucosamine was equivalent to proline in inducing germination. Germination was suppressed by high concentrations of glucose, increasing inocula, low pH, and amphotericin B at achievable serum concentrations. Thus, many of the factors regulating germination of T. beigelii appear to be similar to those for Candida albicans.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NH89600005

    View details for PubMedID 8064543

  • New antifungal compounds for treatment of invasive fungal infections. Fondamenti di Micologia Clinica Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1994: 126-36
  • A Blueprint for Care, Treatment and Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Children The Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children adn Adolescents Wilfert CM, Pizzo PA 1994: 1001-4
  • Erythropoietin for zidovudine-associated anemia in children with HIV infection. Pediatric AIDS& HIV Infect: Fetus to Adolesc Mueller BU, Jacobsen F, Jarosinski P, Lewis LL, Pizzo PA 1994; 5: 169-173
  • Infectious Complications in Children with Cancer and Children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Clinical Approach to Infection in teh Compromised Host Chanock SJ, Pizzo PA 1994: 491-519
  • DEFECTIVE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF MONOCYTE-DERIVED MACROPHAGES FROM HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED CHILDREN AGAINST ASPERGILLUS-FUMIGATUS JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Roilides, E., Holmes, A., Blake, C., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1993; 168 (6): 1562-1565

    Abstract

    Invasive aspergillosis recently has been encountered in adults and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection even without known risk factors, such as neutropenia or corticosteroid therapy. Macrophages play a significant role in the host defenses against Aspergillus organisms by ingesting conidia and preventing their germination to hyphae. The antifungal activity of peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) from 19 HIV-infected children was compared with that of 16 normal controls. The phagocytic activity of patients' MDM, measured as percentage of phagocytosis, was significantly decreased compared with normal donors (P = .014). In addition, the inhibitory activity of MDM on germination of intracellular A. fumigatus conidia was significantly impaired in patients compared with normal controls (P = .016). There was no significant difference in the defects between patients with lower or higher CD4 lymphocyte counts. Impairment of antifungal activity of macrophages may contribute to the susceptibility of HIV-infected patients to aspergillosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MJ70900038

    View details for PubMedID 8245547

  • QUINOLINIC ACID IN THE CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID OF CHILDREN WITH SYMPTOMATIC HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 DISEASE - RELATIONSHIPS TO CLINICAL STATUS AND THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Brouwers, P., Heyes, M. P., Moss, H. A., Wolters, P. L., POPLACK, D. G., Markey, S. P., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 168 (6): 1380-1386

    Abstract

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a neurotoxin implicated in the neurologic deficits associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Forty children with symptomatic HIV-1 disease had elevated (P < .001) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) QUIN levels (55.8 +/- 8.9 nM) compared with controls (14.9 +/- 3.0 nM). Age-adjusted CSF QUIN concentrations in HIV-1-infected children were predicted by the general index of mental abilities (GIMA, from an age-appropriate intelligence test; r = -0.45, P < .01). Zidovudine therapy reduced CSF QUIN from 64.1 +/- 16.3 to 19.7 +/- 5.2 nM (P < .01; N = 16) and increased GIMA from 76.8 +/- 5.2 to 87.2 +/- 6.3 (P < .001). Encephalopathic HIV-1-infected patients had higher CSF QUIN levels than patients without encephalopathy (79.6 +/- 16.1 vs. 32.7 +/- 6.7 nM, P < .01). CSF QUIN concentrations were also higher (P < .001) in patients who died < or = 3 years after their baseline assessment, compared with those who were still alive. These results warrant further investigation of CSF QUIN in HIV-infected children as a mediator of neurologic dysfunction and a supplemental marker of neurologic disease, particularly when combined with measures of neurocognitive functioning.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MJ70900007

    View details for PubMedID 8245522

  • HEPATIC-ABSCESS IN CANCER-PATIENTS - CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT ARCHIVES OF SURGERY Marcus, S. G., Walsh, T. J., Pizzo, P. A., Danforth, D. N. 1993; 128 (12): 1358-1364

    Abstract

    To identify factors that may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with malignant neoplasms in whom hepatic abscesses develop.Retrospective review of medical records.Thirty-seven oncology patients in whom hepatic abscesses developed at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md, between June 1954 and October 1989.Among 37 cancer patients, bacterial abscesses developed in 17 and fungal abscesses developed in 20. Among the patients with bacterial abscesses, 12 (71%) had a solid-tissue malignant neoplasm, 10 (59%) had a prior invasive procedure, and six (35%) had prior chemotherapy. In comparison, among the patients with fungal abscesses, 15 (75%) had a hematologic malignant neoplasm and five (25%) had a solid-tissue malignant neoplasm (P2 = .014). Two patients with fungal abscesses (10%) had a prior invasive procedure (P2 = .004) and 19 (95%) had prior chemotherapy (P2 < .0001). As compared with fungal abscesses, bacterial abscesses were larger (P2 < .00001) and fewer (P2 = .004). Antibiotics and percutaneous or surgical drainage effectively treated bacterial abscesses. Amphotericin B usually eradicated hepatic fungal infections.The results of this study reveal the importance of the clinical setting in the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses in cancer patients. Aggressive treatment of these abscesses is indicated and is frequently effective.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MW44800012

    View details for PubMedID 8250709

  • PERSPECTIVES ON THE USE OF CYTOKINES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS OF CANCER CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Roilides, E., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 17: S385-S389

    Abstract

    Treatment of neoplastic diseases is followed by a variety of infectious complications. Neutropenia and functional defects of phagocytes are common consequences of cancer and its treatment and contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections. Cytokines with hematopoietic growth stimulatory and/or immunoenhancing properties, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin-3, interferon-gamma, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 have been shown to either have clinical utility in patients with cancer and neutropenia or offer the promise to do so. GM-CSF and G-CSF, for example, have been shown to reduce the incidence of fever and infectious complications in patients with cancer and neutropenia. The role of cytokines for the treatment of defined infections (e.g., invasive mycoses) is under investigation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MF18700015

    View details for PubMedID 7506061

  • PREVENTION OF CORTICOSTEROID-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTE-INDUCED DAMAGE OF ASPERGILLUS-FUMIGATUS HYPHAE BY GRANULOCYTE-COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR AND GAMMA-INTERFERON INFECTION AND IMMUNITY Roilides, E., Uhlig, K., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1993; 61 (11): 4870-4877

    Abstract

    Neutrophils (PMNs) are a critical line of defense against Aspergillus fumigatus infection. Increased frequency of invasive aspergillosis has been observed in patients receiving corticosteroids, suggesting a deleterious effect of these compounds on PMN antifungal function. To investigate this hypothesis and to determine the potential preventive utility of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), the effects of hydrocortisone (HCS) and dexamethasone (DXS) on PMN-induced damage of Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae were studied with or without pretreatment of PMNs with G-CSF and IFN-gamma. PMNs treated with HCS (> or = 3,000 microM) or DXS (> or = 10 microM) during a 2-h colorimetric tetrazolium metabolic assay (using methylthiotetrazolium) showed suppressed percentage of hyphal damage (P < 0.02). In addition, both HCS (> or = 30 microM) and DXS (> or = 1 microM) significantly suppressed oxidative burst measured as superoxide anion release by PMNs in response to opsonized and nonopsonized hyphae as well as to N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine. Pretreatment of PMNs with G-CSF (4,000 U/ml) and/or IFN-gamma (100 and 1,000 U/ml) for 90 min prevented the suppression of hyphal damage that occurred in the presence of HCS (3,000 microM; P < 0.01) or DXS (10 microM; P < or = 0.001). G-CSF (4,000 U/ml) and IFN-gamma (100 U/ml) combined had an additive effect on increasing the antifungal activity of HCS-treated but not of DXS-treated PMNs compared with IFN-gamma alone (P = 0.015). Thus, these findings reveal that corticosteroids impair PMN function in response to A. fumigatus and that G-CSF and IFN-gamma prevent this impairment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993ME61700046

    View details for PubMedID 7691757

  • MANAGEMENT OF THE CANCER-PATIENT WITH FEVER AND PROLONGED NEUTROPENIA HEMATOLOGY-ONCOLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Lee, J. W., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 7 (5): 937-960

    Abstract

    Cancer patients who suffer prolonged durations of fever and neutropenia are at high risk for developing serious infections. This article reviews the initial management of these fevers, subsequent modifications of the initial empirical regimens (both empirical changes in the antibiotic regimen and those changes directed at specific sites of infection that may become apparent during the course of prolonged neutropenia), and the potential impact of hematopoietic cytokines on future management of prolonged fever and neutropenia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LZ42100003

    View details for PubMedID 8226567

  • THE PREVALENCE OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES OF THE CEREBRUM IN 100 CONSECUTIVE CHILDREN SYMPTOMATIC WITH THE HUMAN IMMUNE-DEFICIENCY VIRUS ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY Decarli, C., Civitello, L. A., Brouwers, P., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 34 (2): 198-205

    Abstract

    Qualitative analysis of 100 consecutive computed tomographic (CT) studies of the brain in children with symptomatic but untreated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was performed. After excluding children with associated medical illnesses that might confound the diagnosis of encephalopathy or alter brain structure, an abnormality of at least one of the measures of ventricular size, cortical atrophy, white matter attenuation (leukoaraiosis), or cerebral calcification was found in 86% of the patients studied. Ventricular enlargement was the most common abnormality, followed by cortical atrophy, leukoaraiosis, and cerebral calcification. Cerebellar atrophy was an unexpected but relatively common finding in 12% of the children. Sixty-five percent of the children were encephalopathic at the time of evaluation. All 16 children with cerebral calcification were encephalopathic and had acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through vertical transmission. Encephalopathic children were significantly younger and had significantly greater abnormality ratings on each CT measure when compared with the nonencephalopathic children. Discriminant analysis using age and the qualitative CT measures was applied as a method to identify the presence of encephalopathy. CT measures proved to have a specificity and a sensitivity of only 76%. We conclude that abnormalities of cerebral structure are seen in a high percentage of children symptomatic with HIV. Although most of the children are encephalopathic, CT abnormalities are seen in children without encephalopathy, suggesting presymptomatic brain disease. The presence of cerebral calcification on CT suggests in utero infection with HIV and the presence of encephalopathy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LR02400014

    View details for PubMedID 8338344

  • LYSIS CENTRIFUGATION BLOOD CULTURES IN THE DETECTION OF TISSUE-PROVEN INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS - DISSEMINATED VERSUS SINGLE-ORGAN INFECTION DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE Berenguer, J., Buck, M., WITEBSKY, F., Stock, F., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1993; 17 (2): 103-109

    Abstract

    Several studies have demonstrated significantly higher frequency and more rapid detection of candidemia with blood culture methods performed by lysis-centrifugation (LC) in comparison with other techniques. Little is known, however, about the ability of LC blood culture methods to detect tissue-proven invasive candidiasis. We therefore investigated the sensitivity of LC blood cultures in the detection of tissue-proven invasive candidiasis. Between 1985 and 1991, invasive candidiasis was detected in 41 (5.1%) of 803 autopsies at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD, USA). Cases were classified as single-organ (SO) candidiasis (n = 20) and as disseminated candidiasis (DI) (n = 21). Patients with DI were more likely than those with SO to have a hematologic malignancy (71% vs 15%, P < 0.001) and to have gastrointestinal mucosal candidiasis (76% vs 25%, P = 0.003). LC detected fungemia in 16 (43%) of all 37 cases with blood cultures. When analyzed by classification, Candida spp. were isolated from blood in 11 (58%) of 19 patients with DI and in five (28%) of 18 patients with SO (P = 0.13). When analyzed by number of organs infected, blood cultures were positive in seven (78%) of nine patients with > 3 organs infected by Candida in comparison to five (28%) of 18 patients with one organ infected (P = 0.024). The mean recovery time for Candida in blood cultures was 2.6 days in DI and 3.2 days in SO (P = 0.017). There was no difference in colonies of organisms per LC tube between patients with DI and those with SO.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LY53500003

    View details for PubMedID 8243032

  • BIOLOGICALS AND HEMATOPOIETIC CYTOKINES IN PREVENTION OR TREATMENT OF INFECTIONS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS HEMATOLOGY-ONCOLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Roilides, E., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 7 (4): 841-864

    Abstract

    The number of immunocompromised hosts has dramatically increased in recent years. The primary reason for this increase has been the intensification of antineoplastic therapy for the treatment of various malignancies and the explosive spread of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Although the treatment and prevention of many infections have been improved with the rational use of antimicrobial agents, ultimate success can be blunted by protracted impairment of essential host defenses or by the virulence of certain organisms.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LN53600006

    View details for PubMedID 7689074

  • HIGH-LEVEL RESISTANCE TO ZIDOVUDINE BUT NOT TO ZALCITABINE OR DIDANOSINE IN HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS FROM CHILDREN RECEIVING ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Husson, R. N., SHIRASAKA, T., Butler, K. M., Pizzo, P. A., Mitsuya, H. 1993; 123 (1): 9-16

    Abstract

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from children receiving long-term therapy with an alternating regimen of zidovudine and zalcitabine, or with didanosine monotherapy, were evaluated for resistance to zidovudine, zalcitabine, and didanosine, and for mutations known to be associated with zidovudine or didanosine resistance. HIV-1 from four of six patients receiving zidovudine with zalcitabine developed high-level resistance to zidovudine. A mutation in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase that is highly associated with zidovudine resistance was identified in all four zidovudine-resistant posttherapy isolates. In contrast, none of the HIV-1 isolates from the seven patients receiving didanosine developed high-level resistance to this agent, despite the identification of a didanosine-associated mutation in six of these posttherapy isolates, although small decreases in sensitivity to didanosine were observed. These results indicate that nucleoside analog-associated mutations in HIV-1 occur frequently in children receiving long-term antiretroviral therapy and that alternating combination therapy does not prevent the development of resistance to zidovudine. They also suggest that there may be differences in the degree of resistance conferred by mutations that result from therapy with different nucleoside analogs. These findings underscore the need for studies to define the clinical importance of these mutations, and for treatment strategies to overcome the emergence of viral resistance in vivo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LL22300002

    View details for PubMedID 8391570

  • MANAGEMENT OF FEVER IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER AND TREATMENT-INDUCED NEUTROPENIA NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 328 (18): 1323-1332

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KZ64000008

    View details for PubMedID 8469254

  • IMPAIRMENT OF NEUTROPHIL ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY AGAINST HYPHAE OF ASPERGILLUS-FUMIGATUS IN CHILDREN INFECTED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Roilides, E., Holmes, A., Blake, C., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1993; 167 (4): 905-911

    Abstract

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients may acquire invasive aspergillosis without previously recognized risk factors, such as neutropenia or corticosteroid therapy. Because neutrophils (PMNL) are an important component of host defense in aspergillosis, the antifungal activity of PMNL against hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus in 31 HIV-infected children was assessed. Hyphal damage was unaffected in 15 HIV-infected children with age-adjusted CD4 cell counts > or = 25% of the normal median value; it was decreased in 16 with CD4 cell counts < 25% (both vs. 20 healthy controls, P = .001. Incubation with sera from 12 of 14 HIV-infected children but not with the recombinant HIV proteins gp120, gp41, and p24 suppressed antifungal activity of normal PMNL compared with normal serum (P = .002). Pretreatment of defective PMNL from 5 patients with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) partially corrected the defect (P = .002). These findings suggest that impaired serum-mediated antifungal activity against Aspergillus hyphae exists in PMNL of HIV-infected patients with low CD4 cell counts; G-CSF may improve this activity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KU08600016

    View details for PubMedID 8450255

  • PANCREATITIS IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED CHILDREN RECEIVING DIDEOXYINOSINE PEDIATRICS Butler, K. M., Venzon, D., Henry, N., Husson, R. N., Mueller, B. U., BALIS, F. M., Jacobsen, F., Lewis, L. L., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 91 (4): 747-751

    Abstract

    To define predictive or contributory risk factors for pancreatitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children receiving dideoxyinosine (ddI), the authors evaluated 95 children, 3 months to 18 years of age, who had received ddI at 60 to 540 mg/m2 per day for a mean of 56 weeks. Pancreatitis developed in 7 patients (7%) but resolved in all upon withdrawal of ddI. Neither age, sex, nor CD4 count at study entry was predictive of pancreatitis, but pancreatitis appeared more likely to develop in hemophiliacs than in other patients (4 of 23 vs 3 of 72). Pancreatitis developed only in patients who received ddI at the highest dose levels (7 of 60 patients who received ddI at a dose > or = 360 mg/m2 per day vs 0 of 35 patients who received < or = 270 mg/m2 per day). Patients in whom pancreatitis developed had received a higher mean daily dose of ddI than patients with normal amylase and lipase levels throughout the study (348 mg/m2 vs 282 mg/m2), but no relationship with the cumulative dose or the duration of ddI therapy was observed. Although a statistically significant relationship between ddI plasma concentration (area under the curve) and pancreatitis was not conclusively demonstrated, as the number of patients in whom pancreatitis actually developed was small, such a relationship may have been obscured.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KW56700011

    View details for PubMedID 7681940

  • ENHANCEMENT OF OXIDATIVE RESPONSE AND DAMAGE CAUSED BY HUMAN NEUTROPHILS TO ASPERGILLUS-FUMIGATUS HYPHAE BY GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR AND GAMMA INTERFERON INFECTION AND IMMUNITY Roilides, E., Uhlig, K., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1993; 61 (4): 1185-1193

    Abstract

    Invasive aspergillosis is a serious fungal infection caused by the proliferation and invasion of Aspergillus hyphae in tissue. Neutrophils (PMNs) are the most important line of defense against Aspergillus hyphae. To investigate the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) against Aspergillus fumigatus, we studied the effects of the two cytokines on the oxidative burst and the capacity of normal human PMNs to damage hyphae of the organism. G-CSF enhanced PMN oxidative burst measured as superoxide anion (O2-) production in response to N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine, serum opsonized hyphae, and nonopsonized hyphae by 75, 37, and 24%, respectively, compared with control PMNs (P < 0.015). IFN-gamma also induced increases of 52, 71, and 96%, respectively, in response to the same stimuli (P < 0.006). In addition, the capacity of PMNs to damage hyphae as measured by the 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MMT) colorimetric metabolic assay was significantly enhanced by G-CSF and IFN-gamma (P < 0.01 and < 0.05, respectively). The enhancement was achieved irrespective of serum opsonization of the hyphae, suggesting upregulatory actions of the two cytokines on signal pathways specific for opsonized and nonopsonized hyphae. The combination of the two cytokines exhibited an additive effect at the higher concentrations compared with the effects of the cytokines alone (P < 0.05). Pretreatment of PMNs with protein synthesis inhibitors showed that IFN-gamma activates PMN function through transcriptional regulation, whereas the effect of G-CSF does not require new proteins. These in vitro effects suggest modulatory roles for G-CSF and IFN-gamma in the host defense against Aspergillus hyphae irrespective of serum opsonization and a potential utility of the cytokines as adjuncts for the prevention and possible treatment of invasive aspergillosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KU32000004

    View details for PubMedID 7681040

  • PULMONARY CRYPTOCOCCOSIS PRESENTING AS METASTASES IN CHILDREN WITH SARCOMAS PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL ALLENDE, M., Pizzo, P. A., Horowitz, M., PASS, H. I., Walsh, T. J. 1993; 12 (3): 240-243

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KQ95300013

    View details for PubMedID 8451102

  • HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS (HIV) TYPE-1 STRAIN MN NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODY IN HIV-INFECTED CHILDREN - CORRELATION WITH CLINICAL STATUS AND PROGNOSTIC VALUE JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES ROBERTGUROFF, M., Roilides, E., Muldoon, R., Venzon, D., Husson, R., Marshall, D., Gallo, R. C., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 167 (3): 538-546

    Abstract

    Protective immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was examined in 228 serial sera from 58 HIV-infected children before and during antiretroviral therapy. Binding antibodies to putative protective V3 epitopes of HIV-1IIIB and HIV-1MN were investigated by a peptide ELISA, and neutralizing antibodies by inhibition of HIV-1MN cell-free viral infection. No difference in binding of total IgG or IgG subclasses was observed between patients with mild (group A) or advanced disease (group B). However, group A patients were more likely to possess neutralizing antibody titers > or = 225 (P = .040 after adjustment for CD4). This threshold titer also predicted clinical outcome in patients with age-adjusted CD4 count > 10% of normal median. Patients with titers < 225 more frequently encountered major clinical events during follow-up than did patients with titers > or = 225 (P = .0028). Epitopes other than the linear V3 loop contribute to this protective immune response. Identification of these epitopes should assist immune therapy of AIDS and HIV vaccine development.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KN15200004

    View details for PubMedID 7680059

  • SUPPRESSION OF POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY BY SURAMIN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Roilides, E., PASCHALIDES, P., Freifeld, A., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 37 (3): 495-500

    Abstract

    Suramin is a polyanionic compound with potent antineoplastic properties. Because polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a crucial component of host defenses against bacteria and fungi, the effects of suramin on PMN function were studied in vitro. PMNs from healthy donors were incubated with concentrations of suramin of 1 to 1,000 micrograms/ml (within and exceeding the therapeutic range) for 30 min, and PMN functional parameters were subsequently assessed. Suramin had no effect on viability, chemotaxis to N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine, phagocytosis of Candida albicans, or superoxide anion production in response to phorbol myristate acetate and formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine. Fungicidal activity against C. albicans blastoconidia was unaffected at a suramin concentration of < 500 micrograms/ml, whereas at higher concentrations a slight suppression was observed (P = 0.04). Bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus was significantly suppressed by concentrations of > or = 100 micrograms/ml (P < 0.01). Phagocytosis of S. aureus was also significantly impaired at > or = 10 micrograms/ml (P < 0.05). The presence of 10% human serum during pretreatment did not abrogate the suramin-induced suppression of bactericidal activity. Treatment of PMNs with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (4,000 U/ml) for 30 min prior to the addition of suramin (250 micrograms/ml) improved the bactericidal defect (P = 0.02). The PMN functional impairment may be related to increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor may improve the defect.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KP92100019

    View details for PubMedID 7681657

  • SUCCESSFUL SURGICAL-MANAGEMENT OF NEUTROPENIC ENTEROCOLITIS IN 2 PATIENTS WITH SEVERE APLASTIC-ANEMIA - CASE-REPORTS AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Weinberger, M., Hollingsworth, H., Feuerstein, I. M., Young, N. S., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 153 (1): 107-113

    Abstract

    We describe two patients with severe aplastic anemia in whom neutropenic enterocolitis developed while they were undergoing treatment at the National Institutes of Health. Both patients had progressive symptoms while receiving optimal medical management and both underwent and survived surgical intervention despite continued prolonged neutropenia in the perioperative period. This experience contrasts with six cases reported in the literature and suggests that surgery can be employed even in patients with profound neutropenia. Thus, in patients who remain persistently septic or who develop clinical deterioration despite medical management or who have other indications for surgical intervention, neutropenia should not be a contraindication to the appropriate or necessary procedure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KH22600012

    View details for PubMedID 8422192

  • FEVER AND GRANULOCYTOPENIA IN CHILDREN WITH CANCER - A STUDY OF 299 EPISODES WITH 2 TREATMENT PROTOCOLS IN BRAZIL MEDICAL AND PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY Petrilli, A. S., Bianchi, A., Kusano, E., Melaragno, R., Naspitz, C., Mendonca, J. D., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 21 (5): 356-361

    Abstract

    In Brazil, 226 children with cancer presenting 299 episodes of fever and neutropenia (< or = 500/mm3) were treated with two consecutive empirical regimens. Regimen I-Cefoxitin Amikacin-Carbenicillin; and Regimen II Ceftriaxone-Amikacin. 67.0% of the patients had leukemias or lymphomas, documented infections occurred in 47.2%, superinfections occurred in 18.7% (Reg. I) and 17.8% (Reg. II) of the episodes. The most common agents identified in Reg. I and Reg. II were, respectively, Gram negative rods (55.0%) and Gram positive cocci (52.6%). The overall rate of success with modifications (Amphotericin B, Vancomycin, Clindamycin, Metronidazole) was higher in Reg. II (93.0%) than in Reg. I (84.0%). This study shows that the appropriate formula to maximize the successful treatment of children with cancer, fever and neutropenia in developing nations includes adherence to established principles of supportive care, utilizing the optimal antibiotic agents available in the country. It is important to promote the necessary modifications along the treatment having in mind the high index of resistant agents.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LB93800008

    View details for PubMedID 8492751

  • Oncologic Problems in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Pediatric Intensive Care Ognibene F, Pizzo PA 1993: 802-22
  • Infections in Granulocytopenic Patients Principles & Practice of Medical Intensive Care Wlash TJ, Pizzo PA 1993: 532-45
  • Failure of fluconazole treatment in candida meningitis. J Pediatr Walsh TJ, Lee JW, Seibel N, Pizzo PA 1993; 123: 168-69
  • Leukemias and Lymphomas of Childhood Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology Poplack DG, Kun LE, Magrath IT, Pizzo PA 1993: 1792-1818
  • Infections of the Immunocompromised Host with Cancer. Pediatric Therapy Mueller BU, Pizzo PA, Kuhl J 1993: 528-43
  • Zygomycosis of the respiratory tract Fungal Diseases of the Lung Walsh TJ, Rijnaldi MR, Pizzo PA 1993: 149-170
  • Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology Pizzo PA, Poplack DG 1993
  • Leukopenia, Neutropemia and Agranulocytosis Gellis & Kagan's Current Pediatirc Therapy Pizzo PA 1993: 253-57
  • Infectious Complications in the Immunocompromised Host II Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America Pizzo PA 1993; 7 (5)
  • Infectious complications in the Immunocompromised Host I Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America Pizzo PA 1993; 7 (4)
  • Pediatric AIDS and Childhood Cancer: What the Pediatric Oncologist Needs to Know Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology Pizzo PA, Mueller BU 1993: 939-47
  • The Medical Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Cancer Oncology Social workers: A Clinician's Guide Pizzo PA 1993: 177-98
  • Approach to the patient with prolonged granulocytopenia. Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 132: 57-65

    Abstract

    In most centers treating cancer patients, significant progress has been made in permitting patients to survive even prolonged courses of neutropenia. This has resulted from a better understanding of the epidemiology of infection and the points during the clinical course when they pose a risk for the patient with prolonged neutropenia. Considerable benefit has been derived from the availability of more potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents and from organized strategies for when they should be initiated, how and when they should be modified, and for how long they should be continued. The possibility that the duration of neutropenia might be attenuated in patients receiving chemotherapy now seems real with the ever-expanding repertoire of cytokines and other biologic agents that augment the hematopoietic and immune systems. Coupled with the use of peripheral stem cell reconstitution or the insertion of genes into hematopoietic stem cells that might render them resistant to the cytocidal effects of certain chemotherapeutic agents, it now seems possible to envision regimens that might alter the consequences of neutropenia as we have come to know them. It is likely, therefore, as additional experience is garnered and as chemotherapy regimens are devised, that the optimal approach to the management of the patient with prolonged neutropenia will include the rational use of antibiotics together with cytokines and other biologicals. Hopefully, such regimens will permit the delivery of chemotherapy in a manner that might enhance its tumoricidal activity and improve the outcome of patients with cancer.

    View details for PubMedID 8265871

  • Care for the Child with HIV Infection and AIDS Hospice Care for Children Weiner L, Fair C, Pizzo PA 1993: 85-104
  • Infections in the Cancer Patient Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology Pizzo PA, Meyers J, Freifeld AG, Walsh TJ 1993: 2292-2337
  • Infectious Complications in Children with Hematologic Disiorders. Hematology of Infancy and Childhood Pizzo PA, Rubin M 1993: 1730-53
  • Candidiasis Current Therapy in Pediatric Infectious Disease Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1993: 361-67
  • Infections due to Trichosporon species: new concepts in mycology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Current topics in medical mycology Walsh, T. J., Melcher, G. P., Lee, J. W., Pizzo, P. A. 1993; 5: 79-113

    View details for PubMedID 8242806

  • Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology Pizzo Pa, Poplack DG 1993; 7 (4)
  • Clinical Use of Cytokines During Fungal Infections. Hemopoietic Growth Factors and Mononuclear Phagocytes Roilides E, Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1993: 90-97
  • Solid Tumors of Childhood Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology Pizzo PA, Horowitz M, Poplack DG, Hays DM, Kun LE 1993: 1738-91
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Candidiasis Candidiasis, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1993: 109-35
  • Approach to the Patinet with Prolonged Granulocytopenia Recent Results in Cancer Research: Infectious Complications in Bone Marrow Transplantation Pizzo Pa 1993: 57-65
  • Antiretroviral therapy and medical management of the human immunodeficiency virus-infected child. Pediatr Infect Dis J Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy 1993; 12: 513-22
  • A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED TRIAL COMPARING THE INFECTIOUS AND NONINFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS OF AN EXTERNALIZED CATHETER VERSUS A SUBCUTANEOUSLY IMPLANTED DEVICE IN CANCER-PATIENTS JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Mueller, B. U., Skelton, J., CALLENDER, D. P., Marshall, D., Gress, J., Longo, D., Norton, J., Rubin, M., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 10 (12): 1943-1948

    Abstract

    To compare the frequency of infectious episodes or other problems occurring with an externalized catheter (Hickman) versus a subcutaneously implanted device (Port-a-Cath, Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ) in cancer patients, we performed a prospective, randomized study in 100 cancer patients (age range, 5 to 74 years).Patients who were chemotherapy candidates and required an indwelling catheter were monitored prospectively and evaluated during the 180 days after the insertion of the catheter and again at time of study closure. The frequency of catheter use, reason for access, and any problems that might have been related to catheter use were noted. All data were collected prospectively and included the patient's age, sex, underlying malignancy, temperature, and leukocyte and absolute granulocyte counts at the time of catheter insertion and when complications occurred. The time to and reason for removal of the catheter, as well as any intercurrent infectious or mechanical problems, were also determined.Most of the infections that occurred were caused by gram-positive organisms, especially staphylococci or streptococci. A total of 22 complications (11 in each group) resulted in removal of the central line. Only one infection in the Hickman catheter group and four in the Port-a-Cath group led to removal of the central line. All other infectious episodes were successfully treated without removal of the catheters. The mean device life was 230 days for the Hickman catheter and 318 days for the Port-a-Cath (not significant).There were no differences between the two study groups regarding incidence of documented infections or mechanical or thrombotic complications.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KA72200017

    View details for PubMedID 1453208

  • TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE PROPHYLAXIS OF PNEUMOCYSTIS-CARINII PNEUMONIA IN INFANTS PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 11 (12): 1072-1073

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KB53300026

    View details for PubMedID 1461709

  • CEREBRAL-ARTERY ANEURYSMS IN CHILDREN INFECTED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Husson, R. N., Saini, R., Lewis, L. L., Butler, K. M., Patronas, N., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 121 (6): 927-930

    Abstract

    More than 250 children treated at our institution on antiretroviral treatment protocols have been monitored with brain imaging studies. We documented the occurrence and progression of aneurysms of major cerebral arteries in two children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. In both cases these lesions remained clinically silent initially, despite progression to marked dilation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KB65100019

    View details for PubMedID 1447659

  • EVALUATION OF NEW ANTIINFECTIVE DRUGS FOR THE TREATMENT OF FEBRILE EPISODES IN NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Hughes, W. T., Pizzo, P. A., Wade, J. C., Armstrong, D., Webb, C. D., Young, L. S. 1992; 15: S206-S215

    Abstract

    The use of empirical antimicrobial therapy has significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with untreated infections in febrile neutropenic patients. This guideline describes clinical trials of the safety and efficacy of new antimicrobial drugs in this population of patients. Fever and neutropenia should be precisely defined in each protocol. Patients should be randomized to treatment with a new or active-control drug regimen, stratified on the basis of type of cancer and age, and treated until resolution--as defined in the protocol--is attained. Outcome should be assessed both for cases with a defined microbial etiology and for those without. Final microbiological outcome is important for cases with identified pathogens, but clinical outcome is paramount.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JX58600027

    View details for PubMedID 1477232

  • COMBINATION TREATMENT WITH AZIDOTHYMIDINE AND GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR IN CHILDREN WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Jacobsen, F., Butler, K. M., Husson, R. N., Lewis, L. L., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 121 (5): 797-802

    Abstract

    Bone marrow suppression is the major dose-limiting toxic effect of zidovudine (azidothymidine; AZT) in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. We evaluated the effect of subcutaneously administered granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in pediatric patients whose absolute neutrophil count was less than 0.8 x 10(9)/L during AZT therapy despite dosage reductions to 120 mg/m2 every 6 hours. Nineteen patients between 6 months and 20 years of age were treated with AZT and G-CSF and monitored for 2 to 12 months. All had previously shown improvement while receiving AZT but had required dosage reduction or discontinuation. By using a sliding dosing schedule of G-CSF, we attempted to maintain the absolute neutrophil count between 1.5 and 5.0 x 10(9)/L. Administration of G-CSF resulted in a significant increase in the median leukocyte count (2.0 x 10(9)/L to 4.14 x 10(9)/L; p = 0.004), and the median absolute neutrophil count (1.02 x 10(9)/L to 2.96 x 10(9)/L; p = 0.0006). G-CSF was well tolerated, but mild thrombocytopenia developed in nine children. Administration of G-CSF and AZT was discontinued in two patients because of continuing neutropenia. With doses of G-CSF ranging from 1 to 20 micrograms/kg per day, 17 of 19 patients were able to tolerate AZT at a dose of 120 to 180 mg/m2 every 6 hours. We conclude that G-CSF therapy enables patients who have had AZT-related neutropenia to receive therapeutic doses of AZT.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JY69500027

    View details for PubMedID 1279153

  • DEFINING THE POPULATION OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED CHILDREN AT RISK FOR MYCOBACTERIUM-AVIUM-INTRACELLULARE INFECTION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Lewis, L. L., Butler, K. M., Husson, R. N., Mueller, B. U., Fowler, C. L., STEINBERG, S. M., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 121 (5): 677-683

    Abstract

    We reviewed the 22 cases of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) infection that occurred among 196 human immunodeficiency virus-infected children seen at the National Cancer Institute Pediatric Branch from December 1986 through April 1991, and an additional 65 charts from children with cultures negative for MAI. All patients with proven MAI were receiving antiretroviral therapy with zidovudine, dideoxyinosine, or a combination of zidovudine and dideoxycytidine. All patients had disseminated MAI infection, except one adolescent who had only evidence of localized lymphadenitis. All cases of MAI but one were diagnosed before death. The overall incidence of MAI was 11% in our patients but increased to 24% in patients whose absolute CD4 cell counts were < 100 cells/mm3. Symptoms most commonly associated with MAI infection included recurrent fever (86% of patients), weight loss or failure to thrive (64%), neutropenia (55%), night sweats (32%), and abdominal pain (27%). Children infected with MAI had a mean CD4 percentage of 2% (range, 0% to 7%) and a mean absolute CD4 count of 12 cells/mm3 (range, 0 to 48 cells/mm3), significantly lower than in the remainder of the clinic population or the group of children with cultures negative for MAI. Of 20 patients with MAI infection who were tested, 10 had measurable p24 antigen with a mean value 939 pg/ml (range, 77 to 3270 pg/ml) compared with 19 of 59 patients without MAI infection in whom the mean positive value was 413 pg/ml. There was no difference in survival time between those children with documented MAI infection (median survival time, 45.5 weeks) and those with similarly low CD4 counts and cultures negative for MAI (median survival time, 50.4 weeks). Future improvements in therapeutic options may make screening of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with low CD4 counts a reasonable plan.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JY69500002

    View details for PubMedID 1432413

  • CHANGES IN T-HELPER CELL-FUNCTION IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED CHILDREN DURING DIDANOSINE THERAPY AS A MEASURE OF ANTIRETROVIRAL ACTIVITY BLOOD CLERICI, M., Roilides, E., Butler, K. M., DePalma, L., Venzon, D., Shearer, G. M., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 80 (9): 2196-2202

    Abstract

    Didanosine has shown activity against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in both children and adults. We prospectively assessed T-helper cell (Th) function as determined by in vitro interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in response to a panel of T-cell stimuli in 22 HIV-infected children before and during didanosine therapy and we correlated the incidence of opportunistic and recurrent bacterial infections with changes in p24 antigen and CD4 counts. Didanosine (270, 360, or 540 mg/m2/d) was administered orally for periods ranging from 8 to 40 weeks (mean, 24 weeks). Five of six asymptomatic patients (Centers for Disease Control P-1) compared with 6 of 16 symptomatic (P-2) patients exhibited improved Th function (greater than threefold increase in IL-2 production to at least 2 of the 4 stimuli) during therapy. Of 12 patients without infections during therapy, 9 (75%) showed improvement in Th function, compared with only 2 of 10 patients with infections (P = .03). Notably, the incidence of infections was not correlated with improvements in CD4 count or decreases in p24 antigen. Improvement in Th function during didanosine therapy is correlated with decreased incidence of infections. Assessment of Th function may provide an additional measurement of immunologic response to antiretroviral therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JW43600006

    View details for PubMedID 1421391

  • A FACTOR FROM CD8 CELLS OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED PATIENTS SUPPRESSES HLA SELF-RESTRICTED T-HELPER CELL RESPONSES PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA CLERICI, M., Roilides, E., Via, C. S., Pizzo, P. A., Shearer, G. M. 1992; 89 (18): 8424-8428

    Abstract

    Defective in vitro T helper cell (Th) function can occur in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive (HIV+) individuals. A characteristic, early finding is the loss of an in vitro response to recall antigens, such as influenza A virus (FLU), despite an intact Th response to alloantigen (ALLO). To determine whether suppressor cells and/or inhibitory factors could contribute to this HIV-associated Th immunodeficiency, coculture studies were performed using peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from monozygotic twins, one of whom was HIV-infected (HIV+) and one of whom was uninfected (HIV-seronegative, HIV-). In vitro Th function was measured as interleukin 2 production or proliferation to FLU and ALLO. Two pairs of twins were repetitively studied. A single HIV+ individual with multiple samples of cryopreserved PBLs over 6 years (including a HIV- specimen) was also studied. PBLs from the HIV+, but not from the HIV-, individuals demonstrated defective in vitro Th function in response to FLU but not to ALLO. PBLs from HIV+ individuals could induce a similar defect in the Th function of syngeneic or autologous HIV- PBLs. This suppression was generated by CD4-depleted, but not by CD8-depleted, PBLs. A suppressive factor from CD8+ cells of HIV+ donors was generated by 24-hr unstimulated cultures of HIV+ PBLs. This factor inhibited FLU but not ALLO responses of autologous, syngeneic, or allogeneic HIV- PBLs. This suppressive effect could not be explained by HIV infection or replication during the culture period. These results demonstrate that selective abrogation of Th function to recall antigens in HIV+ individuals is associated with an inhibitory factor produced by CD8+ T cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JN50300004

    View details for PubMedID 1388269

  • MODULATION OF HOST DEFENSES BY CYTOKINES - EVOLVING ADJUNCTS IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF SERIOUS INFECTIONS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES ROLIDES, E., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 15 (3): 508-524

    Abstract

    Traditional management of infectious complications, especially in immunocompromised hosts, has depended on the prompt initiation of therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics. During the past several years, however, a number of cytokines (interleukins, hematopoietic growth factors, interferons) have been developed and produced by recombinant DNA technology, and preclinical and clinical studies of cytokines in immunocompromised hosts have begun. The data being generated suggest that certain cytokines can accelerate neutrophil and monocyte/macrophage production, enhance their function, and potentially decrease infectious complications. The role of these agents in both the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases represents an important research challenge and offers new approaches to the prevention and treatment of infection in immunocompromised hosts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JK47400021

    View details for PubMedID 1520801

  • NIH conference. Respiratory disease in the immunosuppressed patient. Annals of internal medicine Shelhamer, J. H., Toews, G. B., Masur, H., Suffredini, A. F., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J., Henderson, D. K. 1992; 117 (5): 415-431

    Abstract

    Pulmonary complications, both infectious and noninfectious, are an important cause of morbidity in patients with various types of immunosuppression. The appropriate response to these clinical problems requires an understanding of pulmonary host defense and of the various types of systemic immunosuppression. Infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications may vary according to the type of immunosuppression as well as to the degree and duration of immunosuppression. Appropriate clinical management also requires an understanding of the clinical problems commonly seen in specific groups of immunosuppressed patients and an understanding of the sensitivity, specificity, and potential complications associated with the available diagnostic approaches to those patients. Because respiratory disease in these patient groups may progress rapidly to respiratory failure, an expeditious evaluation based on the knowledge of likely causes of respiratory disease and prompt specific or empiric therapy are indicated. Specific sets of algorithms for the evaluation of both focal and diffuse pulmonary disease may facilitate such an evaluation. In addition, an aggressive approach to the prevention of pulmonary disease including immunization, prophylaxis, and immunomodulation (for example, colony stimulating factors) may be warranted in specific subgroups at risk.

    View details for PubMedID 1503334

  • SMOOTH-MUSCLE TUMORS IN CHILDREN WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Butler, K. M., Higham, M. C., Husson, R. N., MONTRELLA, K. A., Pizzo, P. A., Feuerstein, I. M., Manjunath, K. 1992; 90 (3): 460-463

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JM41200026

    View details for PubMedID 1518708

  • NEUTROPHIL OXIDATIVE BURST IN RESPONSE TO BLASTOCONIDIA AND PSEUDOHYPHAE OF CANDIDA-ALBICANS - AUGMENTATION BY GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR AND INTERFERON-GAMMA JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Roilides, E., Uhlig, K., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1992; 166 (3): 668-673

    Abstract

    The effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on the oxidative burst of neutrophils (PMNL) in response to blastoconidia and pseudohyphae of Candida albicans were assessed and compared with those in response to N-FMLP. G-CSF enhanced oxidative burst, as measured by superoxide production, in response to both FMLP and opsonized blastoconidia. The enhancement of oxidative burst in response to FMLP was significantly greater (P = .004) than that in response to blastoconidia (65% and 39%, respectively). G-CSF also enhanced oxidative burst in response to pseudohyphae. IFN-gamma enhanced oxidative burst in response to FMLP and opsonized blastoconidia by 53% and 50%, respectively. Moreover, IFN-gamma significantly enhanced oxidative burst in response to opsonized and nonopsonized hyphae by 86% and 65%, respectively. These results demonstrate that G-CSF and IFN-gamma enhance the oxidative burst of PMNL in response to both blastoconidia and pseudohyphae of C. albicans and suggest an immunomodulatory role of the two cytokines in the host defenses against this fungus.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JK02900039

    View details for PubMedID 1380052

  • CD4 STATUS AND P24 ANTIGENEMIA - ARE THEY USEFUL PREDICTORS OF SURVIVAL IN HIV-INFECTED CHILDREN RECEIVING ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DISEASES OF CHILDREN Butler, K. M., Husson, R. N., Lewis, L. L., Mueller, B. U., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 146 (8): 932-936

    Abstract

    To determine the relationship between CD4 status and the P24 antigen level and survival in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.Cohort, case-control.Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.One hundred forty-seven children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus enrolled in antiretroviral therapy protocols at the National Cancer Institute were reviewed and the relationships between CD4 counts, P24 antigenemia, and death were analyzed.None.The presence of a very low CD count, less than 21% of the lower limit of normal values for age (equivalent to 0.05 x 10(9)/L in an adult), was associated with a significantly increased risk of death within 2 years. Although the risk of death was highest for children with CD4 counts below this level and who had detectable P24 antigen levels, P24 antigenemia by itself contributed little to the prognostic value of the CD4 count alone. However, it was also notable that a group of children with low CD4 counts also experienced prolonged survival.The association between low CD4 counts and death suggests that the age-adjusted CD4 count should be used as a marker to guide therapeutic intervention. At the same time, the presence of a very low CD4 count alone should not be considered a reason for therapeutic nihilism.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JG68200025

    View details for PubMedID 1353299

  • Recent progress and current problems in management of invasive fungal infections in patients with neoplastic diseases. Current opinion in oncology Walsh, T. J., Lee, J. W., Roilides, E., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 4 (4): 647-655

    Abstract

    Patients with neoplastic diseases are predisposed to develop invasive fungal infections as the result of impairments of host defense mechanisms due principally to pharmacologic immunosuppression resulting from intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy, ablative radiation therapy, and corticosteroids. Candida species, Aspergillus species, and emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens comprise the principal etiologic agents of opportunistic mycoses in cancer patients. This paper reviews the recent progress, particularly during the year of 1991, in management of invasive fungal infections and the current problems of invasive mycosis, which confront patients with neoplastic diseases.

    View details for PubMedID 1511021

  • EXPERIMENTAL TRICHOSPORON INFECTION IN PERSISTENTLY GRANULOCYTOPENIC RABBITS - IMPLICATIONS FOR PATHOGENESIS, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF AN EMERGING OPPORTUNISTIC MYCOSIS JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Walsh, T. J., Lee, J. W., Melcher, G. P., Navarro, E., Bacher, J., Callender, D., Reed, K. D., Wu, T., LOPEZBERESTEIN, G., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 166 (1): 121-133

    Abstract

    Disseminated Trichosporon infection, an uncommon but emerging opportunistic mycosis due to Trichosporon beigelii, is frequently difficult to diagnose, refractory to treatment, and associated with a high attributable mortality. Models of disseminated and gastrointestinal Trichosporon infection were developed in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits. The patterns of infection resembled those of clinical disease, including cutaneous lesions, chorioretinitis, renal infection, pulmonary infection, and antigenemia cross-reactive with cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide. Antigenemia, an early manifestation of disseminated Trichosporon infection, originated in vivo from a fibrillar extracellular matrix. Trichosporon organisms disseminated from the gastrointestinal tract to visceral tissue in colonized immunosuppressed rabbits, whereas there was no dissemination from the gastrointestinal tract of otherwise normal rabbits. The antifungal triazoles, fluconazole and SCH 39304, were most active; maximum tolerated doses of amphotericin B and liposomal amphotericin B were ineffective. Trichosporon antigenemia declined in response to antifungal therapy. These findings contribute to improved understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of disseminated Trichosporon infection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HZ74600018

    View details for PubMedID 1535092

  • PSEUDOMONAS INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Roilides, E., Butler, K. M., Husson, R. N., Mueller, B. U., Lewis, L. L., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 11 (7): 547-553

    Abstract

    Thirteen bacteremias and 25 nonbacteremic infections caused by Pseudomonas spp. occurred in 22 of 236 children with human immunodeficiency virus infection with a rate of infection of 0.098 (bacteremia, 0.030) per patient year. Four patients were neutropenic (less than 500/microliters). Central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections were most frequent (n = 20) followed by otitis externa (n = 6) and pneumonia (n = 5). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolate and caused both CVC-related and CVC-unrelated infections, whereas other Pseudomonas spp. and Xanthomonas maltophilia were almost exclusively associated with CVC-related infections. The children who received appropriate therapy had a favorable outcome. In 7 CVC-related infections (35%) the catheter was removed. Pseudomonas spp. are of increasing importance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children causing significant morbidity and increased hospitalization. These infections may be life-threatening if appropriate therapy is not vigorously initiated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JC74600008

    View details for PubMedID 1528645

  • DISSEMINATED INFECTION WITH MYCOBACTERIUM-GORDONAE - REPORT OF A CASE AND CRITICAL-REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Weinberger, M., Berg, S. L., Feuerstein, I. M., Pizzo, P. A., Witebsky, F. G. 1992; 14 (6): 1229-1239

    Abstract

    Mycobacterium gordonae is only rarely a cause of infection despite its ubiquity in the environment. We describe an 11-year-old girl with disseminated infection due to M. gordonae whose course was complicated by renal failure requiring hemodialysis but who recovered after 15 months of chemotherapy. In a literature search we identified 23 additional cases of infection attributed to M. gordonae, with involvement of the lungs (eight), soft tissue (seven), the peritoneal cavity (three), the cornea (one), and with disseminated disease (five patients, including ours). Two patients were infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We assessed the patterns of infection characteristic of each site and the antibiotic sensitivities of the isolates. Adequate documentation of M. gordonae infection (e.g., amount of growth per culture, detection of specific biochemical characteristics, and confirmation of the organism's identity by a reference center) was lacking in many reports. M. gordonae should not automatically be dismissed as a contaminant when isolated from clinical material. Additional studies are required to establish the extent of this organism's pathogenic role.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HW26400008

    View details for PubMedID 1623079

  • CONTINUOUS INTRAVENOUS-INFUSION AND SIMULTANEOUS PHARMACOKINETIC MONITORING IN AMBULATORY RABBITS WITH A PROGRAMMABLE MICROPUMP AND DUAL SUBCUTANEOUS SILASTIC(TM) CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETERS LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE Walsh, T. J., Lee, J. W., Bacher, J., Kelly, P., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 42 (3): 286-292

    Abstract

    We describe a newly developed method of continuous intravenous infusion and simultaneous monitoring of plasma levels of investigational compounds in ambulatory untethered rabbits. Continuous infusion was administered by means of a portable programmable external micropump which permitted adjustable dosing. Simultaneous plasma pharmacokinetic monitoring during infusion was accomplished by dual silastic central venous catheters. The potential applications of the micropump infusion system as an alternative to current methods of continuous infusion in other species and in other studies are further discussed. This method provided a safe, reliable, and well-tolerated method of adjustable continuous intravenous infusion and simultaneous sampling of central venous blood in rabbits.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JA57900012

    View details for PubMedID 1320161

  • SAFETY AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF FLUCONAZOLE IN CHILDREN WITH NEOPLASTIC DISEASES JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Lee, J. W., Seibel, N. L., Amantea, M., Whitcomb, P., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1992; 120 (6): 987-993

    Abstract

    To evaluate the safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in children with neoplastic diseases, we studied fluconazole in 26 children, aged 5 to 15 years, with normal renal function who were receiving treatment for cancer. The patients received fluconazole, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg per day for 7 days intravenously for a 2-hour period. Patients had no nausea or vomiting related to fluconazole; three patients had an asymptomatic rise in hepatic aminotransferase values after four to six doses (one patient at 2 mg/kg per day and two patients at 8 mg/kg per day), which returned to normal within 2 weeks after discontinuation of the drug. Fluconazole showed linear first-order kinetics over the dosage range tested and during multiple dosing. After the first dose, mean clearance was 22.8 +/- 2.3 ml/min, volume of distribution 0.87 +/- 0.06 L/kg, and terminal elimination half-life 16.8 +/- 1.1 hours. Similarly, after the last dose, clearance was 19.4 +/- 1.3 ml/min, volume of distribution 0.84 +/- 0.04 L/kg, and terminal elimination half-life 18.1 +/- 1.2 hours. Patients receiving their first fluconazole dose of 8 mg/kg achieved peak serum levels of 9.5 +/- 0.4 microgram/ml and trough levels of 2.7 +/- 0.5 microgram/ml 24 hours later, and an area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity of 186 +/- 16 micrograms.hr per milliliter. Renal clearance of fluconazole was 65% +/- 5% of total clearance and demonstrated the predominantly renal excretion of this drug. We suggest that the shorter serum half-life and the higher frequency of aminotransferase elevations in comparison with those of adults warrant careful investigation of fluconazole in controlled clinical trials.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HY11600026

    View details for PubMedID 1593362

  • THE USE OF NUCLEOSIDE ANALOGS IN THE TREATMENT OF HIV-INFECTED CHILDREN AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES Husson, R. N., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 8 (6): 1059-1064

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JG87300009

    View details for PubMedID 1323984

  • EXPERIMENTAL GASTROINTESTINAL AND DISSEMINATED CANDIDIASIS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED ANIMALS EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Walsh, T. J., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 8 (3): 477-483

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JN15700024

    View details for PubMedID 1397212

  • RETINAL LESIONS IN CHILDREN TREATED WITH DIDEOXYINOSINE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE WHITCUP, S. M., Butler, K. M., Pizzo, P. A., NUSSENBLATT, R. B. 1992; 326 (18): 1226-1227

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HR00800030

    View details for PubMedID 1557108

  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and your child: a parent information booklet. Oncology nursing forum Wiener, L., Leyden, C. G., Pizzo, P. A., Ognibene, F. P., Rosenthal, C., Schubert, W. 1992; 19 (3): 507-509

    Abstract

    A parent education booklet describing Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) was prepared by the Pediatric Branch of the National Cancer Institute. In addition to information about prophylaxis and treatment of PCP, the booklet discusses overall care of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    View details for PubMedID 1594471

  • AEROSOLIZED PENTAMIDINE - A WELL-TOLERATED MODE OF PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST PNEUMOCYSTIS-CARINII PNEUMONIA IN OLDER CHILDREN WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL ORCUTT, T. A., GODWIN, C. R., Pizzo, P. A., Ognibene, F. P. 1992; 11 (4): 290-294

    Abstract

    Aerosolized pentamidine has been recommended as an alternative mode of antipneumocystis prophylaxis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole intolerance. However, there have been no definitive data concerning the most appropriate dose and the tolerance of aerosolized pentamidine in children. In the present study, we assessed the tolerance of aerosolized pentamidine in older children using a regimen similar to the one recommended in adults. A 300-mg dose of pentamidine was administered to our human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients monthly using the Respirgard II nebulizer. Patients were assessed for their heart rate, respiratory rate, breath sounds and oxygen saturations during and after pentamidine aerosolization. During a 21-month period (August, 1989, to May, 1991), 22 patients (mean age, 9.8 +/- 0.6 years; range, 3 to 15 years) received a total of 185 treatments. Patients complained of either a bitter taste (16 of 22) or developed short periods of coughing (15 of 22) during the aerosol. Five patients developed reversible bronchospasm requiring bronchodilators; no patients developed oxygen desaturation. None of the patients developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia during the limited protocol follow-up (mean, 9.8 months). Thus aerosolized pentamidine for antipneumocystis prophylaxis is well-tolerated in older children. However, more comprehensive investigations of efficacy are indicated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HN49700006

    View details for PubMedID 1565553

  • VASCULAR CATHETER ASSOCIATED FUNGEMIA IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER - ANALYSIS OF 155 EPISODES CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Lecciones, J. A., Lee, J. W., Navarro, E. E., Witebsky, F. G., Marshall, D., STEINBERG, S. M., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1992; 14 (4): 875-883

    Abstract

    We reviewed all 155 episodes of central venous catheter-associated fungemia among inpatients at the National Cancer Institute during a 10-year period. Candida species accounted for 98% of episodes. Fungemia was documented by culture of blood drawn through catheters in 50% of cases and by culture of both catheter-drawn and peripheral blood in 39%; mortality and the rate of dissemination were similar for these two groups. Four management strategies were used: catheter removal, antifungal therapy (with amphotericin B), both, or neither; indications for the use of both modes of treatment included fever, neutropenia, long-term indwelling catheterization, positive cultures of both catheter-drawn and peripheral blood, isolation of Candida tropicalis, and fungal isolation from two or more blood cultures. Disseminated fungal infection was documented in 82% of cases with these features but also in 35% of the less severe cases treated only with catheter removal. In addition, nine (82%) of 11 cases managed only with antifungal therapy had a negative outcome (either death from disseminated infection or the recurrence of fevers and/or fungemia), a finding suggesting that intravascular catheters should be removed in fungemia. Virtually all cases of catheter-associated fungemia in patients with cancer are clinically significant and require prompt therapy with amphotericin B.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HL30400012

    View details for PubMedID 1576282

  • ORALLY-ADMINISTERED 566C80 FOR TREATMENT OF OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A PATIENT WITH THE ACQUIRED-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-SYNDROME AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY Lopez, J. S., deSmet, M. D., Masur, H., Mueller, B. U., Pizzo, P. A., NUSSENBLATT, R. B. 1992; 113 (3): 331-333

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HG92200016

    View details for PubMedID 1543229

  • TREATMENT OF AGGRESSIVE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS WITH GANCICLOVIR IN COMBINATION WITH FOSCARNET IN A CHILD INFECTED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Butler, K. M., deSmet, M. D., Husson, R. N., Mueller, B., Manjunath, K., MONTRELLA, K., Lovato, G., Jarosinski, P., NUSSENBLATT, R. B., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 120 (3): 483-486

    Abstract

    Ganciclovir and foscarnet are both effective for cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, but the benefits of either agent given alone are limited. A child infected with human immunodeficiency virus who had cytomegalovirus retinitis that progressed despite treatment with either agent alone received the combination of ganciclovir and foscarnet. This treatment resulted in a sustained clinical response.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HG94000030

    View details for PubMedID 1311378

  • EXPERIMENTAL ANTIFUNGAL CHEMOTHERAPY IN GRANULOCYTOPENIC ANIMAL-MODELS OF DISSEMINATED CANDIDIASIS - APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING INVESTIGATIONAL ANTIFUNGAL COMPOUNDS FOR PATIENTS WITH NEOPLASTIC DISEASES CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Walsh, T. J., Lee, J. W., Roilides, E., Francis, P., Bacher, J., Lyman, C. A., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 14: S139-S147

    Abstract

    Disseminated candidiasis is the most common life-threatening invasive fungal infection in granulocytopenic patients. A review of recent approaches to pre-clinical laboratory investigation of promising antifungal compounds, which may have potential utility in granulocytopenic patients is presented. A particularly useful strategy is the study of persistently granulocytopenic rabbit models of acute, subacute, and chronic forms of disseminated candidiasis. When the antifungal triazoles (fluconazole, itraconazole, and SCH 39304 [SCH 42427]) were each evaluated for use as preventive, early treatment, or delayed treatment in the different models, the triazoles were consistently more active when used for preventive and early treatment than for delayed treatment. These triazoles were as active as amphotericin B plus flucytosine (AB + FC) when used for early treatment but were less active than AB + FC when used for delayed treatment. Several lipid formulations of amphotericin B demonstrate reduced nephrotoxicity at higher safely achievable dosages in comparison to those of deoxycholate amphotericin B in several models of disseminated candidiasis. When administered to follow non-linear saturable Michaelis-Menten-type plasma pharmacokinetics, the antifungal activity of the echinocandin compound cilofungin was significantly augmented. Thoughtfully designed and carefully conducted laboratory investigations in appropriate animal models of disseminated candidiasis can provide a scientific foundation and guide for development of clinical protocols investigating new approaches to prevention and treatment of invasive candidiasis in granulocytopenic patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HF38200021

    View details for PubMedID 1562687

  • RETINAL TOXICITY IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED CHILDREN TREATED WITH 2',3'-DIDEOXYINOSINE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY WHITCUP, S. M., Butler, K. M., Caruso, R., deSmet, M. D., Rubin, B., Husson, R. N., Lopez, J. S., Belfort, R., Pizzo, P. A., NUSSENBLATT, R. B. 1992; 113 (1): 1-7

    Abstract

    To assess the safety and antiretroviral activity of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, we enrolled 43 children with symptomatic (Centers for Disease Control class P-2) human immunodeficiency virus infection in a Phase I-II study and monitored them prospectively for the development of ocular complications secondary to HIV infection or drug toxicity. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 103 weeks with a median follow-up of 71 weeks. Three of 43 children (7.0%) developed peripheral atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium during treatment with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine. The two children with the most severe retinal atrophy were enrolled in the study at the highest dosage studied (540 mg/m2/day). In contrast to findings in children, no retinal atrophy in HIV-infected adults treated with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine has been evident to date.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GY18100001

    View details for PubMedID 1728133

  • CLINICAL-PHARMACOLOGY OF 2',3'-DIDEOXYINOSINE IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTED CHILDREN JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES BALIS, F. M., Pizzo, P. A., Butler, K. M., Hawkins, M. E., Brouwers, P., Husson, R. N., Jacobsen, F., BLANEY, S. M., Gress, J., Jarosinski, P., POPLACK, D. G. 1992; 165 (1): 99-104

    Abstract

    The pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) and the relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and measures of response were studied in 48 human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Disappearance of ddI from plasma after the intravenous dose was rapid and biexponential, with half-lives of 12 min and 1.0 h and a total clearance of 510 +/- 180 ml/min/m2. After oral administration, ddI absorption was limited and variable (mean bioavailability, 19% +/- 17%). A plasma ddI concentration-response relationship was observed for both decline in viral p24 antigen levels and improvement in intelligence quotient score. A limited sampling model was developed that accurately predicts the area under the ddI plasma concentration-time curve from one to three plasma samples. Although this pharmacokinetic study was done in children, the results also have relevance to adults and suggest that individualization of dose and schedule through therapeutic drug monitoring may be necessary to achieve optimal response.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GW58200013

    View details for PubMedID 1727902

  • Experimental gastrointestinal and disseminated candidiasis in immunocompromised animals. Europ J Epidemiol Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1992; 8: 477-83
  • Fever and Neutropenia with non-focal findings. Infections in Immunocompromised Infants and Children Weinberger M, Lee J, Pizzo PA 1992: 335-56
  • Medical treatment of children with HIV infection. HIV Infection and Developmental Disabilities. A resource for Service Providers Mueller BU, Pizzo PA 1992: 63-73
  • PATTERNS OF INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH APLASTIC-ANEMIA AND THE EMERGENCE OF ASPERGILLUS AS A MAJOR CAUSE OF DEATH MEDICINE Weinberger, M., Elattar, I., Marshall, D., STEINBERG, S. M., Redner, R. L., Young, N. S., Pizzo, P. A. 1992; 71 (1): 24-43

    Abstract

    Patterns of infection were studied in 150 patients with aplastic anemia who were admitted to the Clinical Hematology Branch, National Institutes of Health, between January 1978 and December 1989 for immunosuppressive therapy. Sixty percent of the patients were males, 71% were white, their mean age was 33.6 years (median, 27.5; range, 1-75), and 83% had severe aplastic anemia. One hundred three patients developed 1 or more febrile episodes during the study period. The risk factors for developing a febrile episode included a low Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) and Absolute Monocyte Count (AMC) at admission and the presence of an indwelling central venous catheter (Hickman-Broviack or Port-A-Cath). A total of 289 febrile events were studied, including unexplained fever (FUO) in 89 (31%), microbiologically documented infection (MBDI) in 137 (47%), and clinically documented infection (CDI) in 63 patients (22%). Compared to documented infections (MBDI) or CDI), FUO events were associated with a higher frequency of rigors, signs and symptoms of serum sickness, and treatment regimens known to cause fevers. None of the FUO events had a fatal outcome, even if the antibiotic therapy was discontinued before day 7. Among CDI events, bacteria were the most commonly defined etiologic agent (67%), followed by fungi (23%), viruses (7%), and parasites (3%). The patterns of bacterial infections in patients with aplastic anemia were similar to those observed in patients with cancer-related neutropenia. Twenty-one patients (15%) developed invasive fungal infections (aspergillus, 11; candida, 7; and both, 3), which were fatal in 19 (90%). Fungal infections accounted for 30% of the secondary infectious events and for 55% of fatal infectious events. The only identifiable risk factors for developing a fungal infection were the degree of neutropenia and monocytopenia at initial admission or final evaluation. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis developed despite empirical amphotericin B therapy and was associated with a high incidence of fatal pulmonary hemorrhage (10 of 13 patients [77%]). Infection was responsible for 36 (62%) of the deaths observed during the study period and hemorrhage alone for 4 (7%). However, 20 of the patients who died of infection had concomitant hemorrhage. No significant drop in ANC, AMC, or platelet count could be demonstrated during a fatal infectious event as compared to a nonfatal infectious event. Invasive fungal infections, predominantly with aspergillus and candida, emerged in our study as the major causes of mortality in patients with aplastic anemia. Without bone marrow recovery the prognosis associated with invasive mycoses was grave.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HA86700003

    View details for PubMedID 1549057

  • HIV Infection in Children AIDS: Etiology Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Butler, K., Pizzo PA 1992: 285-312
  • Infections in the Immunocompromised Child infectious Diseases of Children Lewis L, Pizzo Pa 1992: 191-209
  • A commentary on the management of the febrile neutropenic child Yearbook of Pediatrics Pizzo Pa 1992
  • A phase I study of continuous-infusion soluble CD4 as a single agent and in combination with oral dideoxyinosine therapy in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Pediatr Husson RN, Chung Y, Mordenti J, Butler KM, Chen S, Duliege A-M, Brouwers P, Jarosinski P, Mueller BU, Ammann A, Pizzo PA 1992; 121: 627-33
  • Management of specific problems in children with leukemias and lymphomas. Infections in Immunocompromised Infants and Children Lee J, Pizzo PA 1992: 195-214
  • The Compromised Host Textbook of Medicine Pizzo PA 1992: 63-73
  • HIV Infection in Children: Special Problems Viral Infections: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Pizzo PA, Butler KM 1992: 181-93
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma: A new classification scheme related to prognosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med Tsokos M, Webber BL, Parham DM, Wesley RA, MIser A, Miser JS, Etcubanas E, Kinsella T, Grayson J, Glatstein E, Pizzo PA, Triche TJ 1992; 116: 847-55
  • Immunodiagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis in Patients with Neoplastic Diseases. New Strategies in Fungal Disease Walsh TJ, Lee JW, Pizzo PA 1992: 227-42
  • Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection Infectious Diseases Butler KM, Pizzo PA 1992: 1005-20
  • LYMPHOID GERMINAL-CENTERS ARE RESERVOIRS OF HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 RNA JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Fox, C. H., TENNERRACZ, K., Racz, P., Firpo, A., Pizzo, P. A., Fauci, A. S. 1991; 164 (6): 1051-1057

    Abstract

    When radiolabeled RNA was used for in situ hybridization, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA was found in high concentrations in germinal centers of lymphoid tissues from patients with HIV-1 infection. Most of the signal from hybridized probe was independent of specific cells, being found in the extracellular space of germinal centers in all lymphoid tissues examined from adult patients with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) class II and III disease or pediatric patients with CDC class P-2A disease. Lymphoid tissues from adult patients with CDC class IV infections or pediatric patients with CDC class P-2D disease (including autopsy material) lacked intact germinal centers, and HIV-1 RNA was then found only in rare, isolated cells, with some tissues having no detectable HIV-1 RNA. Thus, in the early stages of HIV infection, germinal centers serve as important reservoirs of free virus in the interstitial spaces, and this reservoir disappears as the germinal centers involute with advancing disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GR66000002

    View details for PubMedID 1955708

  • THE CHILD WITH CANCER AND INFECTION .2. NONBACTERIAL INFECTIONS JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Pizzo, P. A., Rubin, M., Freifeld, A., Walsh, T. J. 1991; 119 (6): 845-857

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GV18500001

    View details for PubMedID 1660069

  • PNEUMOCYTSIS-CARINII PNEUMONIA DESPITE PROPHYLAXIS IN CHILDREN WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mueller, B. U., Butler, K. M., Husson, R. N., Pizzo, P. A. 1991; 119 (6): 992-994

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GV18500032

    View details for PubMedID 1960625

  • BACTERIAL-INFECTIONS IN HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1-INFECTED CHILDREN - THE IMPACT OF CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETERS AND ANTIRETROVIRAL AGENTS PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Roilides, E., Marshall, D., Venzon, D., Butler, K., Husson, R., Pizzo, P. A. 1991; 10 (11): 813-819

    Abstract

    We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the impact of central venous catheters (CVCs) and antiretroviral therapy on the frequency and the patterns of bacterial infections in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus during a 3-year period. Among 204 bacterial infections other than otitis media reviewed, soft tissue infection (n = 69), bacteremia (n = 57), pneumonia (n = 27) and sinusitis (n = 27) were encountered most frequently. Catheter-related staphylococcal infection was the most common infection in children with CVCs, particularly in those who were less than 6 years old. In children without CVCs, Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent organism. Younger children had more CVC-related infections whereas children with lower CD4 counts had more CVC-related and CVC-unrelated infections. A lower frequency of CVC-unrelated infections was detected in patients who received antiretroviral therapy, especially those receiving a continuous infusion of zidovudine. These data suggest that increased frequency and altered patterns of bacterial infections are associated with the use of CVCs in these patients, but antiretroviral therapy may reduce the frequency of CVC-unrelated infections.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GP04800005

    View details for PubMedID 1661003

  • THE CHILD WITH CANCER AND INFECTION .1. EMPIRIC THERAPY FOR FEVER AND NEUTROPENIA, AND PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Pizzo, P. A., Rubin, M., Freifeld, A., Walsh, T. J. 1991; 119 (5): 679-694

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GN29600001

    View details for PubMedID 1941374

  • LYMPHOID ORGANS FUNCTION AS MAJOR RESERVOIRS FOR HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Pantaleo, G., Graziosi, C., Butini, L., Pizzo, P. A., Schnittman, S. M., Kotler, D. P., Fauci, A. S. 1991; 88 (21): 9838-9842

    Abstract

    The total number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes is considered to be a reflection of the HIV burden at any given time during the course of HIV infection. However, the low frequency of HIV-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes and the low level or absence of plasma viremia in the early stages of infection do not correlate with the progressive immune dysfunction characteristic of HIV infection. In this study, we have determined whether HIV-infected circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes are a correct reflection of the total pool of HIV-infected CD4+ T cells (i.e., HIV burden). To this end, HIV burden has been comparatively analyzed in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, adenoids, and tonsils) from the same patients. The presence of HIV-1 DNA in mononuclear cells isolated simultaneously from peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues of the same patients was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification. We found that the frequency of HIV-1-infected cells in unfractionated or sorted CD4+ cell populations isolated from lymphoid tissues was significantly higher (0.5-1 log10 unit) than the frequency in peripheral blood. Comparable results were obtained in five HIV seropositive patients in the early stages of disease and in one patient with AIDS. These results demonstrate that a heavy viral load does reside in the lymphoid organs, indicating that they may function as major reservoirs for HIV. In addition, the finding of a heavy viral load in the lymphoid organs of patients in the early stages of disease may explain the progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the immune dysfunction associated with the early stages of HIV infection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GM78100097

    View details for PubMedID 1682922

  • THE EVOLVING USE OF BIOLOGICALS IN THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS-DISEASES REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Pizzo, P. A. 1991; 13 (5): 971-972

    Abstract

    Although the studies presented in this symposium illustrate the benefits of biologicals in treating patients whose immune systems have been compromised by congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, it is likely that in the future these agents will also play a role in the management of immunocompetent persons suffering from complications of infection. The insights resulting from the work discussed here provide a strong basis for making that possibility a reality.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GJ45900031

    View details for PubMedID 1962113

  • IN THE VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV, TIMING MAY BE EVERYTHING NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pizzo, P. A., Butler, K. M. 1991; 325 (9): 652-654

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GC32800009

    View details for PubMedID 1861699

  • ANTIFUNGAL EFFECTS OF THE NONLINEAR PHARMACOKINETICS OF CILOFUNGIN, A 1,3-BETA-GLUCAN SYNTHETASE INHIBITOR, DURING CONTINUOUS AND INTERMITTENT INTRAVENOUS INFUSIONS IN TREATMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL DISSEMINATED CANDIDIASIS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Walsh, T. J., Lee, J. W., Kelly, P., Bacher, J., LECCIONES, J., Thomas, V., Lyman, C., Coleman, D., GORDEE, R., Pizzo, P. A. 1991; 35 (7): 1321-1328

    Abstract

    Cilofungin (LY-121019) is a fungicidal cell wall-active 1,3-beta-glucan synthetase inhibitor with a short plasma half-life and saturable nonlinear plasma pharmacokinetics. To optimize the in vivo efficacy of this compound, we studied the effects of its linear and nonlinear pharmacokinetics during continuous versus intermittent intravenous infusion of cilofungin in the treatment of experimental disseminated candidiasis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits. Six groups of rabbits were studied, untreated controls (n = 32) and five cilofungin dosage regimen groups consisting of the following: 25 mg/kg of body weight intravenously twice daily (VLoINT) (n = 9); 50 mg/kg twice daily (LoINT) (n = 9); 90 mg/kg twice daily (HiINT) (n = 11); 5 mg/kg/h for 18 h/day (LoCI) (n = 7); and 10 mg/kg/h for 18 h/day (HiCI) (n = 7). All regimens achieved plasma concentrations exceeding the MIC for Candida albicans (0.25 microgram/ml). In vitro timed kill assays found that the fungicidal activity and rate of kill by cilofungin above the MIC for C. albicans was concentration dependent. At the lower dosage regimens (VLoINT, LoINT, and LoCI), cilofungin followed linear plasma pharmacokinetics, whereas at higher doses (HiCI and HiINT), nonlinear kinetics consistent with a saturated elimination pathway(s) were observed. Only HiCI and HiINT produced a 10(3)- to 10(4)-fold reduction in CFU per gram in candidiasis of the brain (P less than or equal to 0.001). HiCI and HiINT also significantly reduced infection in the choroid (P less than or equal to 0.05). All regimens, except VLoInt, significantly (P less than or equal to 0.01) reduced tissue infections in lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. However, only the regimens with nonlinear saturation kinetics (HiCI and HiINT) produced a 10(6) reduction in the spleen and a > 10(5) reduction of C. albicans in the kidney and liver. A simple doubling of the dosage from LoCI to HiCI resulted in tissue concentrations that were 10 times higher and a 10(2)- to 10(4)-fold-greater antifungal effect. There was a direct correlation (r2 = 0.83) between tissue concentrations of cilofungin and antifungal activity. Thus, continuous and intermittent infusion dosage regimens that elicit nonlinear saturation plasma pharmacokinetics of cilofungin were associated with increased antifungal activity against experimental disseminated candidiasis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FV09800010

    View details for PubMedID 1929288

  • LATE RECURRENT CANDIDA ENDOCARDITIS CHEST Johnston, P. G., Lee, J., Domanski, M., Dressler, F., Tucker, E., Rothenberg, M., Cunnion, R. E., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1991; 99 (6): 1531-1533

    Abstract

    Late recurrent Candida endocarditis (LRCE) developed on a prosthetic mitral valve 22 months after treatment for primary native mitral valve endocarditis. The LRCE was difficult to diagnose; results of two dimensional echocardiography and repeated blood cultures were negative. Only transesophageal echocardiography revealed a vegetation and only lysis centrifugation blood cultures demonstrated candidemia. Postmortem examination revealed a large Candida vegetation on the prosthetic valve and Candida in the mitral valve ring. This case and a review of the literature indicate that Candida endocarditis treated with amphotericin B and prosthetic valve replacement may recur months after treatment, and that LRCE, which is difficult to diagnose and treat, may be best prevented by lifelong antifungal suppressive therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FP99700045

    View details for PubMedID 2036848

  • PLASMA PHARMACOKINETICS AND TISSUE PENETRATION OF A NOVEL ANTIFUNGAL TRIAZOLE, BAY-R-3783, AND ITS LONG-LASTING ACTIVE METABOLITE, BAY-U-3625, IN RABBITS JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY Lee, J. W., Ritter, W., LECCIONES, J., Kelly, P., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1991; 27 (6): 837-844

    Abstract

    The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of Bay R 3783 (BR), a new antifungal triazole, and one of its active metabolites, Bay U 3625 (BU), were studied in rabbits. Plasma levels of BR and BU were determined simultaneously in five rabbits for six days after a single oral dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg BR. For BR, the mean Cmax was 1.9 +/- 0.4 mg/l, the Tmax 2.0 +/- 0.7 h, the AUC alpha 7.5 +/- 1.6 mg.h/l, and the terminal plasma T1/2 2.1 +/- 0.1 h. For BU, the mean Cmax was 0.84 +/- 0.09 mg/l, the Tmax 24 +/- 4 h, the AUC alpha 61.9 +/- 6.5 mg.h/l, and the plasma T1/2 was 48 +/- 3 h. In a multi-dose study, the plasma BR clearance during wash-out gradually diminished, suggesting possible metabolite inhibition of BRs biotransformation. No hepatic or renal toxicity was seen after 28 days of dosing with BR 40 mg/kg/d. Both BR and BU penetrated well into tissues, with tissue drug concentrations over three times higher than in plasma at multiple tissue sites. Persistence of BU in plasma, however, resulted in prolonged, higher tissue levels of BU than of BR. We conclude that BR is converted to a long-lasting active metabolite BU, that persistence of BU in tissue is prolonged, and that these properties may permit BU to contribute significantly to the antifungal activity of BR.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FT01500017

    View details for PubMedID 1938690

  • HELPER T-CELL RESPONSES IN CHILDREN INFECTED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Roilides, E., CLERICI, M., DePalma, L., Rubin, M., Pizzo, P. A., Shearer, G. M. 1991; 118 (5): 724-730

    Abstract

    Helper T-cell function was evaluated in 34 children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, by assessing interleukin-2 production after stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with recall antigens (influenza virus, tetanus toxoid), allogeneic HLA, and phytohemagglutinin. In addition, helper T-cell function was correlated retrospectively with the incidence of opportunistic and bacterial infections. Four patterns of helper T-cell function were observed: (1) 7 (21%) of the 34 children responded to all stimuli, (2) 7 (21%) of them responded to alloantigens and phytohemagglutinin but not to recall antigens, (3) 7 (21%) responded to phytohemagglutinin but not to recall antigens or alloantigens, and (4) 13 (37%) did not respond to any of these stimuli. There were no significant differences related to different routes of acquisition among patients. Patients with functional helper T-cell defects had a history of more opportunistic (p = 0.03) and bacterial (p less than 0.001) infections than did patients with intact helper T-cell function. Thus distinct patterns of helper T-cell dysfunction exist in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and correlate with higher frequency of infections. Comparisons of in vitro helper T-cell responses to these stimuli may be useful for detecting early functional helper T-cell defects and for monitoring progression of disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FK45800011

    View details for PubMedID 1673468

  • AGROBACTERIUM-RADIOBACTER BACTEREMIA IN A CHILD WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Roilides, E., Mueller, B. U., Letterio, J. J., Butler, K., Pizzo, P. A. 1991; 10 (4): 337-338

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FF98800016

    View details for PubMedID 2062633

  • OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE TOXICITIES OF THERAPY PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Gootenberg, J. E., Pizzo, P. A. 1991; 38 (2): 269-297

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GC73400005

    View details for PubMedID 2006078

  • FUNCTIONAL DICHOTOMY OF CD4+ T-HELPER LYMPHOCYTES IN ASYMPTOMATIC HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY CLERICI, M., Via, C. S., Lucey, D. R., Roilides, E., Pizzo, P. A., Shearer, G. M. 1991; 21 (3): 665-670

    Abstract

    The majority of asymptomatic, human immune deficiency virus seropositive (HIV+) individuals exhibit a defect in CD4+ T helper cell (Th) function that is selective for responses to recall antigens, but not to HLA alloantigens. The CD4-dependent Th response to HLA alloantigens (Allo) can be mediated by two distinct Th pathways: self-restricted CD4+ Th that recognize allogeneic determinants processed and presented by autologous or self accessory or antigen-presenting cells (sAC); and allo-restricted, CD4+ Th that recognize allogeneic determinants directly on allogeneic accessory or antigen-presenting cells (aAC). In contrast, the Th response to recall antigens requires CD4+ Th and sAC and is therefore limited to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) self-restricted pathway. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 56 asymptomatic HIV+ patients that exhibited a selective defect in CD4+ Th function were analyzed to determine whether the Th response to Allo was entirely functional, or whether one of the CD4-mediated components of the Allo Th response was also defective. By depletion of AC and/or CD8+ Th subsets (to analyze CD4+ Th function), we demonstrated that HIV+ patients who were selectively deficient in Th function to recall antigens were also unresponsive to Allo presented by autologous AC (HLA self-restricted Th pathway), but retained Allo Th activity presented by allogeneic AC (allo-restricted CD4+ Th pathway). These findings indicate that the CD4+ Th defect seen in the majority of asymptomatic, HIV+ individuals is not limited to recall antigens, but also extends to the component of the response to HLA alloantigens that involves the self-restricted, CD4+ Th pathway. Thus, the Th defect observed in asymptomatic, HIV+ patients does not involve a CD4+ Th defect per se, but is limited to the HLA self-restricted component of Th function.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FF29300018

    View details for PubMedID 1672645

  • GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR ENHANCES THE PHAGOCYTIC AND BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF NORMAL AND DEFECTIVE HUMAN NEUTROPHILS JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Roilides, E., Walsh, T. J., Pizzo, P. A., Rubin, M. 1991; 163 (3): 579-583

    Abstract

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulates proliferation of myeloid cells and may be a valuable adjunct in prevention and treatment of neutropenia-associated infections. Neutrophil (PMNL) phagocytic and microbicidal functions against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans blastoconidia were therefore evaluated. Bacterial phagocytosis and bactericidal activity were significantly enhanced by approximately 50%-70% after preincubation of normal PMNL with G-CSF in concentrations of 1000-4000 units/ml for 10 min at 37 degrees C. G-CSF in similar concentrations enhanced the defective bactericidal activity of PMNL from HIV-1-infected patients by approximately 70%-150% and reached the baseline control PMNL killing. However, G-CSF enhanced neither phagocytosis nor fungicidal activity of normal PMNL against C. albicans blastoconidia. These data demonstrate that G-CSF enhances the antibacterial but not the antifungal activities of human PMNL in vitro and also improves the defective PMNL bactericidal activity of HIV-1-infected patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EY49500024

    View details for PubMedID 1704903

  • LEPTOTRICHIA-BUCCALIS BACTEREMIA IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER - REPORT OF 4 CASES AND REVIEW REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Weinberger, M., Wu, T., Rubin, M., Gill, V. J., Pizzo, P. A. 1991; 13 (2): 201-206

    Abstract

    Leptotrichia buccalis, an anaerobic gram-negative rod, is part of the normal oral flora and has rarely been isolated from clinical material. We describe four patients with neutropenia and progressive malignancy who had symptomatic L. buccalis bacteremia, and we review an additional four cases from the literature. The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 7-73 years), with an equal number of males and females. The number of positive blood cultures in each case ranged from one to four (mean, two); these cultures became positive after 48-120 hours (median, 54 hours). All tested isolates were sensitive to the beta-lactam agents, clindamycin, tetracycline, and metronidazole; five of seven were sensitive to chloramphenicol; and not one was sensitive to the aminoglycosides, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Seven patients had one or more possible portals of entry for bacteremia, including mucositis (four patients), mucositis plus esophageal lesions (two), and possible mucositis plus diverticulitis (one). L. buccalis should be considered a potential pathogen in neutropenic patients, especially when breaks in the mucosal breaks in the mucosal barriers are present.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FD04700002

    View details for PubMedID 2041949

  • SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN-G SUBCLASSES IN CHILDREN INFECTED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Roilides, E., Black, C., Reimer, C., Rubin, M., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A. 1991; 10 (2): 134-139

    Abstract

    We studied serum concentrations of IgG subclasses in 47 human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected (17 asymptomatic and 30 symptomatic) children. Thirty-nine of 47 (83%) had an abnormality of at least 1 subclass. Sixteen had only elevated IgG1, 6 had only elevated IgG3 and 12 had elevated IgG1 and IgG3 concentrations. IgG2, IgG4 and combined IgG2-IgG4 deficiency was found in 3, 4 and 4 patients, respectively. IgG2 concentrations did not differ between patients with (n = 23) or without (n = 24) bacterial infections. Additionally the number of bacterial infections was similar between the patients with normal or low IgG2 and/or low IgG4. These data indicate that IgG subclass abnormalities are found in most children with human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection, but quantitative deficiencies of specific subclasses do not appear to explain the high frequency of bacterial infections occurring in these patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EX48900012

    View details for PubMedID 2062605

  • Cancers in children Manual of Oncologic Therapeutics Pizzo Pa, Poplack DG, Magrath IT, Ungerleider, RS, Balis FM, Helman L Horowitz ME 1991: 287-303
  • Immunodiagnosis of invasive candidiasis in patients with neoplastic diseases. New Strategies in Fungal Disease Walsh TJ, Lee JW, Pizzo PA 1991: 227-242
  • Treatment considerations for children with HIV infection. Pediatric AIDS: The Challenge of HIV Infection in Infants, Children and Adolescents Pizzo Pa, Wilfert CM 1991: 478-94
  • DEMONSTRATION OF A CELL-WALL ANTIGEN CROSS-REACTING WITH CRYPTOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE IN EXPERIMENTAL DISSEMINATED TRICHOSPORONOSIS JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Melcher, G. P., Reed, K. D., Rinaldi, M. G., Lee, J. W., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1991; 29 (1): 192-196

    Abstract

    Patients with disseminated infections caused by Trichosporon beigelii have a circulating antigen that cross-reacts with the polysaccharide capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans. We studied the localization of this antigen by immunoelectron microscopy in a rabbit model of experimental disseminated trichosporonosis. Deparaffinized lung sections were examined by using a murine monoclonal anti-cryptococcal polysaccharide antibody and colloidal gold particles coated with goat antibody to murine immunoglobulin G. Antigen that cross-reacted with the monoclonal antibody was observed in the T. beigelii cell wall and in a fibrillar matrix extending from the cell wall.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EP04400037

    View details for PubMedID 1993757

  • Amphotericin B vs high-dose ketoconazole for empirical antifungal therapy among febrile, granulocytopenic cancer patients: A prospective, randomized study. Arch Intern Med Walsh TJ, Rubin M, Hathorn J, Gress J, Thaler M, Skelton J, McKnight J, Browne M, Marshall D, Cotton D, Hiemenz J, Longo D, Wesley R, Pizzo PA 1991; 151: 765-70
  • Immunodiagnosis of invasive candidasis in patients with neoplastic diseases. New Strategies in Fungal Disease Walsh TJ, Lee JW, Pizzo PA 1991: 227-242
  • The child with cancer and infection. I. Empirical therapy for fever and neutropenia, and preventive stargegies. J pediatr Pizzo PA, Rubin M, Freifeld A, Walsh TJ 1991; 119: 679-94
  • Solid Tumors in Children The Pediatr Clin N Amer Horowitz ME, Pizzo PA 1991; 38
  • Stimulatory effect of counterflow centrifugal elutriation in large-scale separation of peripheral blood monocytes can be reversed by storing the cells at 37 degrees C. Journal of clinical apheresis Abrahamsen, T. G., Carter, C. S., Read, E. J., Rubin, M., Goetzman, H. G., Lizzio, E. F., Lee, Y. L., Hanson, M., Pizzo, P. A., HOFFMAN, T. 1991; 6 (1): 48-53

    Abstract

    Transfusion of peripheral blood monocytes may be of benefit as adjuvant treatment of leukopenic patients with serious infections. To study the feasibility of this approach, a large-scale monocyte separation procedure employing leukapheresis, density gradient centrifugation, and counterflow centrifugal elutriation was established. By processing 5 to 6 liters of normal donor blood, it was possible to obtain a mean of 1.1 x 10(9) (range: 0.5-1.7 x 10(9) cells) of mononuclear cells, of which 89% (range: 82-94%) were monocytes by Wright's stain morphology. When the elutriation was performed in XVIVO-10, a commercially available, serum-free medium developed for adoptive immunotherapy, spontaneous secretion of superoxide by the monocytes was significantly higher than for monocytes elutriated in Hanks' balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium or non-elutriated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This stimulated state of the monocytes was observed both immediately after elutriation and after overnight storage at 4 degrees C, and it was not affected by the type of storage vessel used. Overnight storage of the monocytes at 37 degrees C resulted in a reversal of the stimulated state of the cells. Monocytes elutriated in XVIVO-10 and kept overnight at 4 degrees C released high amounts of arachidonic acid. A subsequent decrease in this release was seen after additional storage at 37 degrees C for 18 hours. These observations demonstrate that separation and storage variables have important effects on the state of stimulation of monocytes. Further investigations of such variables may suggest improved procedures for preparation and storage of these cells, as well as possible ways to stimulate monocytes prior to transfusion.

    View details for PubMedID 1646202

  • Pseudomonas Hospital Practice Pizzo PA 1991; 26: 18-21
  • The current status of antiretroviral agents in the treatment of HIV infection in children: An update from teh Pediatric Branch, National Cancer Institute. Pediatric AIDS and HIV infection: Fetus to Adoescent Mueller BU, Pizzo PA 1991; 2: 346-52
  • Empiric therapy with amphotericin B in febrile granulocytopenic patients. Rev Infect Dis Walsh TJ, lee J, Lecciones J, Rubin M, Butler K, Francis P, Weinberger M, Roilides E, marshall D, Gress J, Pizzo PA 1991; 13: 496-503
  • Use of third-generation cephalosporins. Pseudomonas. Hosp. Pract Pizzo PA 1991; 26 (Supp 4): 18-21
  • Antifungal Therapy Current Therapy in Critical Care Medicine Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1991: 224-32
  • Clinical approach to infections in the compromised host Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice Fubin M, Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1991: 1063-1114
  • BRAIN GROWTH AND COGNITIVE IMPROVEMENT IN CHILDREN WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INDUCED ENCEPHALOPATHY AFTER 6 MONTHS OF CONTINUOUS INFUSION ZIDOVUDINE THERAPY JOURNAL OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES Decarli, C., Fugate, L., Falloon, J., Eddy, J., Katz, D. A., Friedland, R. P., Rapoport, S. I., Brouwers, P., Pizzo, P. A. 1991; 4 (6): 585-592

    Abstract

    The ventricular area at the level of the foramen of Monro was measured from axial x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans obtained prior to and 6 months after the initiation of continuous infusion of zidovudine (ZDV) in eight children with human immunodeficiency virus-induced encephalopathy. Evidence of moderate to severe central atrophy was present on initial CT scans (p less than 0.05). Ventricular area and ventricular brain area ratio (VBR) decreased after ZDV therapy in seven of eight children (mean decrease of 21.5 and 20%, respectively, p less than 0.05). The degree of decrease in VBR correlated with reductions in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein concentration (r = 0.93, p less than 0.01), but not lymphocyte T4 or T8 counts. Intelligence quotients (IQs) improved in all seven children tested (mean improvement of 17.7%, p less than 0.01) and correlated significantly with reductions in CSF protein concentration (r = -0.85, p = 0.003). The magnitude of IQ changes was not significantly correlated with the magnitude of changes in ventricular area. We conclude that the cognitive improvement of HIV encephalopathy seen after 6 months of continuous infusion of ZDV is accompanied by reduction in brain atrophy and decreased CSF protein, suggesting an ameliorating effect of ZDV on the pathogenesis of AIDS encephalopathy in children.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FM10200005

    View details for PubMedID 1673712

  • Detection of circulating candida enolase by immunoassay in patients with cancer and invasive candidiasis. N Engl J Med Walsh TJ, Hathorn JW, Sobel JD, Merz WG, Sanchez V, Maret SM, Buckley HR, Pfaller MA, Schaufele R, Silva C, Navarro E, Lecciones J, Chandrasekar P, Lee J, Pizzo PA 1991; 324: 1026-31
  • Respiratory diseases in patients with malignant neoplasms. Respiratory Disease in the Immunocompromised Host Walsh TJ, Rubin M, Pizzo PA 1991: 640-63
  • Prevention of infection in patients with hematologic malignancy Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood Cotton DJ, Pizzo PA 1991: 785-803
  • Dideoxyinosine in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med Butler KM, Husson RN, Balis FM, Brouwers P, Eddy fJ, El-Amin D, Gress J, Hawkins M, Jarosinski P, Moss H, Poplack D, Santacroce S, Venzon D, Wiener L, Wolters P, Pizzo PA 1991; 324: 137-44
  • New developments in the antimicrobial supportive care of the immunocompromised patient. Principles and Practice of Oncology Updates Freifeld, A., Pizzo PA 1991; 5: 1-14
  • Pediatric Supportive Care Comprehensive Textbook of Oncology Hathorn JW, Pizzo PA 1991: 1595-1614
  • Respiratory Disease in the Immunocompromised Host Shelhamer J, Pizzo PA, Parrillo JE, Masur H 1991
  • Children with immunodeficiencies Infection Control in teh Child Care Center and Preschool Pizzo PA, Pizzo PD 1991: 30-50
  • EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS-INFUSION ZIDOVUDINE THERAPY ON NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN CHILDREN WITH SYMPTOMATIC HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Brouwers, P., Moss, H., Wolters, P., Eddy, J., Balis, F., POPLACK, D. G., Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 117 (6): 980-985

    Abstract

    Neuropsychologic function was assessed in 13 children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus disease (Centers for Disease Control Class P2), ranging in age from 14 months to 12 years. Before the initiation of treatment, eight patients were classified as having encephalopathy. Psychologic tests were administered both before and after 6 and 12 months of continuous-infusion azidothymidine (AZT; zidovudine) treatment. After 6 months of treatment a significant increase of 15.5 (+/- 3.3) IQ points was demonstrated in general cognitive functioning (p less than 0.001). Follow-up for 10 of these patients indicated that after 12 months of AZT therapy, they had maintained their gains in IQ points. Improvements in adaptive behavior after 6 months of therapy, assessed with a standardized interview, paralleled the findings on the IQ data. No significant differences in the amount of change was observed for the different subgroups. The magnitude of these improvements could not be explained by practice effects, environmental changes, or general improvement in physical state. We conclude that neuropsychologic function was significantly improved with continuous infusion AZT treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EM11600029

    View details for PubMedID 2246704

  • PATTERNS OF MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION AMONG ISOLATES OF TRICHOSPORON-BEIGELII JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Lee, J. W., Melcher, G. A., Rinaldi, M. G., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1990; 28 (12): 2823-2827

    Abstract

    We observed considerable variability in colony and microscopic morphology among isolates of Trichosporon beigelii. Deeply invasive clinical isolates showed four distinct morphotypes and spontaneous conversions among certain morphotypes and grew well at 37 degrees C. In contrast, superficial clinical and environmental isolates did not demonstrate such morphotypes or conversions, and most grew poorly at 37 degrees C. Thus, the morphologic and physiologic features of invasive clinical isolates of T. beigelii follow certain patterns distinct from those of superficial clinical and environmental isolates.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EJ45900049

    View details for PubMedID 2280018

  • Pediatric AIDS: a perspective for the oncologist. Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) Horowitz, M. E., Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 4 (12): 21-27

    Abstract

    By the mid 1990s the number of newly diagnosed children with HIV infections in the US may rival the 6,500 children diagnosed with cancer each year. But recent developments in therapy for the child with AIDS offer some hope. A pediatric trial at the NCI used a continuous infusion of azidothymidine in order to achieve the desired blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels. Objective and subjective evidence of response to therapy was noted in all patients who presented with neurodevelopmental deficit. Increases in appetite and weight gain and reductions in lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, and increases in CD4 count similar to those observed in adults were apparent. Promising preliminary results have also been seen in trials of dideoxycytidine, dideoxyinosine, and recombinant CD4.

    View details for PubMedID 2149035

  • HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF 2',3'-DIDEOXYCYTIDINE IN HUMAN PLASMA JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY-BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS Hawkins, M. E., POPLACK, D. G., Pizzo, P. A., BALIS, F. M. 1990; 532 (2): 442-444

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EL79000026

    View details for PubMedID 1964692

  • DIDEOXYCYTIDINE ALONE AND IN AN ALTERNATING SCHEDULE WITH ZIDOVUDINE IN CHILDREN WITH SYMPTOMATIC HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Pizzo, P. A., Butler, K., Balis, F., Brouwers, E., Hawkins, M., Eddy, J., EINLOTH, M., Falloon, J., Husson, R., Jarosinski, P., Meer, J., Moss, H., POPLACK, D. G., Santacroce, S., Wiener, L., Wolters, P. 1990; 117 (5): 799-808

    Abstract

    To determine whether a short course of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) could provide safe antiretroviral activity in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection and whether it could be used with azidothymidine (AZT, zidovudine). The goal was to maintain uninterrupted antiretroviral therapy while sparing AZT-related myelosuppression and ddC-related neuropathy.In a pilot study, we evaluated four dosage levels of ddC--0.015, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.04 mg/kg, given orally every 6 hours--in 15 children between 6 months and 13 years of age with Centers for Disease Control P2 (i.e., symptomatic) human immunodeficiency virus infection. Thirteen patients had not had any prior antiretroviral therapy; two patients had received and benefited from AZT, but dose-limiting neutropenia had developed. At each dosage level, ddC was given for 8 consecutive weeks and then stopped. After a 30-day rest, a schedule of ddC for 1 week was followed by 3 weeks of AZT therapy (180 mg/m2 every 6 hours); this alternating schedule was repeated for as long as tolerated. Age-appropriate psychometric testing was performed before the start of ddC therapy and after 8 weeks.During the 8 weeks of therapy with ddC alone, no neutropenia or anemia was observed; 6 of 9 patients had decreases in p24 antigen levels, and 8 of 15 had an increased CD4 cell count. At the 0.04 mg/kg level, a rash developed in three patients; mild mouth sores developed in 9 of 15 patients. On the alternating ddC/AZT schedule, no neuropathy was observed.2',3'-Dideoxycytidine has antiretroviral activity in some children and appears to be safe for short intervals. Longer courses of ddC at lower dosage levels, and schedules integrating ddC into combination regimens, deserve to be explored.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EH43900027

    View details for PubMedID 2172501

  • CILOFUNGIN (LY121019) SHOWS NONLINEAR PLASMA PHARMACOKINETICS AND TISSUE PENETRATION IN RABBITS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Lee, J. W., Kelly, P., LECCIONES, J., Coleman, D., GORDEE, R., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1990; 34 (11): 2240-2245

    Abstract

    We studied the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of cilofungin (LY121019), a new echinocandin antifungal compound, by intermittent and continuous infusion in rabbits. Following a single intravenous dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight, the maximum concentration in plasma was 297 +/- 39 micrograms/ml, the area under the curve was 30.1 +/- 6.7 micrograms.h/ml, clearance was 30 +/- 10 ml/min/kg, volume of distribution was 0.85 +/- 0.23 liters/kg, half-life in distribution phase was 3.7 +/- 0.2 min (first 12 min postdose), and half-life in elimination phase was 12.9 +/- 0.7 min. When rabbits received cilofungin by continuous infusion (CI) at 10 mg/kg/h over 6 days, sustained concentrations in plasma of 290 +/- 56 micrograms/ml were seen, more than 50-fold higher than predicted if kinetics were linear. Similarly, at 5 mg/kg/h, high levels were also obtained. Such elevated levels in plasma would not have been predicted from the pharmacokinetic characteristics of cilofungin given as a single intravenous dose. Further pharmacokinetic study at several rates of CI suggested that cilofungin elimination follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Simultaneous cilofungin levels in plasma and tissue were then determined for rabbits receiving six intravenous, intermittent doses (ID) of cilofungin at 15 mg/kg every 4 min and for rabbits receiving CI as described above. After ID, the mean of the ratios of cilofungin levels in tissue to those in plasma were highest for liver and bile but very low for cerebrum and cerebellum. After CI, ratios were as much as 89 times higher than for ID and significantly greater in the brain, choroid, kidney, and bile (P less than 0.05). We conclude that following a single dose of cilofungin, the compound is rapidly cleared via first-order kinetics and does not penetrate into the central nervous system, whereas following CI, cilofungin exhibits nonlinear saturable kinetics, is slowly cleared, and significantly penetrates into central nervous system tissues.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EG93400035

    View details for PubMedID 2073114

  • IMPAIRMENT OF NEUTROPHIL CHEMOTACTIC AND BACTERICIDAL FUNCTION IN CHILDREN INFECTED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 AND PARTIAL REVERSAL AFTER INVITRO EXPOSURE TO GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Roilides, E., Mertins, S., Eddy, J., Walsh, T. J., Pizzo, P. A., Rubin, M. 1990; 117 (4): 531-540

    Abstract

    Because polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the most important component of host defense against bacteria, we assessed their function in 13 children with asymptomatic and 12 with symptomatic infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and compared their values with healthy adult control values. The functions assessed were (1) chemotaxis, (2) bacterial phagocytosis, (3) superoxide generation, and (4) bactericidal activity. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils toward the chemoattractant N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine (FMLP) was significantly decreased in symptom-free infected children compared with control subjects (p less than 0.0001), but was increased in children with symptomatic infection (p less than 0.025). Bactericidal activity of the neutrophils against Staphylococcus aureus was defective in 8 of 12 children with asymptomatic infection (p = 0.016), and in 8 of 9 children with symptomatic infection (p less than 0.00001). Superoxide generation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils on stimulation with FMLP and phagocytosis of S. aureus were normal. Serum from patients with symptomatic HIV-1 infection was not as efficient in low concentrations as normal serum in the ability to opsonize S. aureus. The in vitro bactericidal defect was partially corrected by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The results suggest that both cellular (neutrophils) and humoral defects contribute to the increased incidence of bacterial infections in HIV-1-infected children, and that GM-CSF may improve the defective bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in these patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EC73800003

    View details for PubMedID 2170609

  • GROWTH AND NEUROENDOCRINE DYSFUNCTION IN CHILDREN WITH ACQUIRED-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-SYNDROME JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Laue, L., Pizzo, P. A., Butler, K., Cutler, G. B. 1990; 117 (4): 541-545

    Abstract

    To assess whether neuroendocrine dysfunction is present in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and growth failure, we evaluated the thyroid, adrenal, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) axes in nine children with AIDS and failure to thrive. Basal thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, and triiodothyronine levels were normal in eight of the nine children and indicated primary hypothyroidism in one child; thyroxine levels were elevated in four and normal in five children. Thyroxine-binding globulin levels were elevated in all children. Serial measurements of thyroid-stimulating hormone, made hourly from 2 to 6 pm and from 10 pm to 2 am, revealed a flat diurnal rhythm of thyroid-stimulating hormone in six children, which may indicate early central hypothyroidism, and a normal nocturnal rise in the remaining three children. Basal plasma corticotropin and aldosterone levels were normal in all children, plasma renin levels were normal in three and elevated in six children, and cortisol levels were normal or elevated in all children. Corticotropin-stimulated cortisol levels exceeded 500 nmol/L (18 micrograms/dl) in all children except one, who was receiving treatment with ketoconazole. Thus adrenocortical function appeared to be grossly intact. The peak growth hormone responses to provocative testing was normal (greater than 7 ng/ml) in eight children and low in one child. The plasma level of insulin-like growth factor I was normal in eight of the nine children and low in one child. We conclude that growth failure in children with AIDS does not usually result from a recognized endocrine cause and that adrenal function is usually normal. However, endocrine deficiency may contribute to morbidity in some children with AIDS.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EC73800004

    View details for PubMedID 2170610

  • TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS INFECTION PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Pizzo, P. A., WILFERT, C. M. 1990; 9 (10): 690-699

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EC31500001

    View details for PubMedID 2235141

  • EFFECTS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES ON POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTE FUNCTION ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Roilides, E., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A., Rubin, M. 1990; 34 (9): 1672-1677

    Abstract

    Dideoxynucleosides (zidovudine[AZT], dideoxycytidine[ddC], and dideoxyinosine[ddI]) are promising new agents for the management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections. In light of recent data demonstrating defects in the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) bactericidal activity of HIV-1-infected patients and since many chemotherapeutic agents affect PMN function, we examined their effects on the function of PMNs from both healthy and HIV-1-infected individuals in vitro. AZT (0.1 to 25 microM), ddC (0.01 to 1 microM), and ddI (0.2 to 50 microM) had no effect on viability, chemotaxis to N-fromylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine, phagocytosis of Candida albicans or Staphylococcus aureus, or superoxide production following stimulation by N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine. Killing of C. albicans was not affected by AZT but was enhanced by 0.1 and 1 microM ddc (a 1 microM, killing was 26.0 +/- 2.02% compared with 17.0 +/- 0.73% for controls: P = 0.006) and 0.2 to 50 microM ddI (at 10 microM, killing was 25.0 +/- 0.68% compared with 17.8 +/- 0.91% for controls; P = 0.002). Killing of S. aureus was unchanged by AZT and ddC but was significantly enhanced by ddI at 0.2 to 20 microM (at 2 microM, killing was 71.2 +/- 5.57% compared with 51.4 +/- 6.29% for controls; P = 0.0045). In addition, the preexisting defective bactericidal capacity of PMNs from HIV-1-infected patients was enhanced by ddI (P less than 0.025). Potential enhancement by these dideoxynucleosides of certain PMN functions of HIV-1-infected patients deserves further study.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DX52900010

    View details for PubMedID 2178334

  • SCH-39304 IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF DISSEMINATED CANDIDIASIS IN PERSISTENTLY GRANULOCYTOPENIC RABBITS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Walsh, T. J., Lee, J. W., LECCIONES, J., Kelly, P., Peter, J., Thomas, V., Bacher, J., Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 34 (8): 1560-1564

    Abstract

    To investigate the potential use of SCH-39304 for the prevention and treatment of disseminated candidiasis in granulocytopenic patients, we studied its in vivo antifungal activity as preventive, early, and late treatments in three models (acute, subacute, and chronic) of disseminated candidiasis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits. SCH-39304 was an effective as amphotericin B alone and fluconazole alone for the prevention of disseminated candidiasis. SCH-39304 alone and fluconazole alone were as effective as amphotericin B plus flucytosine for early treatment of subacute disseminated candidiasis. When treatment was delayed for 5 days to establish chronic disseminated candidiasis, SCH-39304 was less effective than amphotericin B plus flucytosine. In comparison with different treatment regimens, SCH-39304 was more effective in early and preventive treatment. Thus, SCH-39304 was comparable to treatment control regimens in prevention and early treatment of subacute disseminated candidiasis. SCH-39304 also was most effective in granulocytopenic rabbits with disseminated candidiasis when used for prevention or early treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DR58000021

    View details for PubMedID 2221866

  • Cancer and the pediatrician: an evolving partnership. Pediatrics in review Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 12 (1): 5-6

    View details for PubMedID 2362880

  • TRICHOSPORON-BEIGELII, AN EMERGING PATHOGEN RESISTANT TO AMPHOTERICIN-B JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Walsh, T. J., Melcher, G. P., Rinaldi, M. G., LECCIONES, J., MCGOUGH, D. A., Kelly, P., Lee, J., Callender, D., Rubin, M., Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 28 (7): 1616-1622

    Abstract

    Trichosporon beigelii caused fatal disseminated infections that were resistant to amphotericin B in two granulocytopenic patients. In vitro susceptibility studies demonstrated that both index strains of T. beigelii were inhibited but not killed by amphotericin B at achievable concentrations in serum. The minimum lethal concentration for both isolates was greater than or equal to 18 micrograms/ml. Five of seven other isolates were found to have a similar pattern of amphotericin B resistance. The fact that the minimum lethal concentration of T. beigelii was many times greater than its MIC was consistent with a resistance pattern of tolerance. We concluded that T. beigelii may be resistant in vitro to amphotericin B and that this in vitro resistance was correlated with refractory, disseminated trichosporonosis in granulocytopenic patients. T. beigelii should be included in the expanding list of amphotericin B-resistant fungi.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DK19400025

    View details for PubMedID 2380383

  • PENETRATION OF SCH-39304, A NEW ANTIFUNGAL TRIAZOLE, INTO CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID OF PRIMATES ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Walsh, T. J., LESTERMCCULLY, C., Rinaldi, M. G., Wallace, J. E., BALIS, F. M., Lee, J. W., Pizzo, P. A., POPLACK, D. G. 1990; 34 (6): 1281-1284

    Abstract

    We characterized the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) penetration and pharmacokinetics of SCH-39304 in adult rhesus monkeys receiving a single oral dose of SCH-39304 (2.0 mg/kg of body weight). The mean CSF-to-plasma area under the curve ratio was 0.63 (+/- 0.18, standard error of the mean); maximum concentrations were 1.34 micrograms/ml (+/- 0.18) in CSF and 1.96 micrograms/ml (+/- 0.43) in plasma. The mean plasma half-life was 45.7 h (+/- 11), and mean CSF half-life was 38.7 h (+/- 3.5). The mean levels of SCH-39304 at 24 h were 1.48 micrograms/ml (+/- 0.3) in plasma and 0.96 microgram/ml (+/- 0.12) in CSF. We conclude that SCH-39304 effectively penetrates into CSF and achieves concentrations considered active against many opportunistic yeasts and that these concentrations are sustained in CSF for greater than or equal to 24 h.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DH15600070

    View details for PubMedID 2393291

  • Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-infected infants and young children with dideoxynucleosides. American journal of medicine Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 88 (5B): 16S-19S

    Abstract

    The safety and activity of several antiretroviral agents are being evaluated for treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children. Intermittent oral and intravenous regimens and continuous intravenous infusion of the dideoxynucleoside, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine, AZT), have been shown to be beneficial in improving neuro-developmental function and growth velocity in pediatric patients with AIDS. AZT, however, is limited by the associated development of neutropenia and anemia, which frequently necessitates transfusions. Another dideoxynucleoside, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), also shows theoretical promise in the treatment of the pediatric AIDS population. This agent is not associated with the hematologic toxicity induced by AZT but does produce a painful sensory peripheral neuropathy. Sequential therapy with AZT and ddC may limit the toxic effects associated with the use of these drugs individually. Dideoxyinosine and soluble recombinant CD4 are two newer antiretroviral agents that are under investigation for the management of AIDS in infants and children. The activity of recombinant CD4 in preventing the transplacental transmission of human immunodeficiency virus is also being evaluated.

    View details for PubMedID 2159704

  • CANCER IN THE CHILD INFECTED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Horowitz, M. E., Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 116 (5): 730-731

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DC16500010

    View details for PubMedID 2329422

  • EFFECTS OF PREVENTIVE, EARLY, AND LATE ANTIFUNGAL CHEMOTHERAPY WITH FLUCONAZOLE IN DIFFERENT GRANULOCYTOPENIC MODELS OF EXPERIMENTAL DISSEMINATED CANDIDIASIS JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Walsh, T. J., Aoki, S., Mechinaud, F., Bacher, J., Lee, J., Rubin, M., Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 161 (4): 755-760

    Abstract

    To investigate the potential use of fluconazole for prevention and treatment of disseminated candidiasis in granulocytopenic patients, its in vivo antifungal activity was studied in three models of disseminated candidiasis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits: acute, subacute, and chronic disseminated candidiasis. Fluconazole was compared with the combination of amphotericin B and flucytosine for preventive, early, and late treatment of disseminated candidiasis, depending on the model. Fluconazole was most effective when used for preventive or early treatment of acute and subacute disseminated candidiasis. When compared with the combination of amphotericin B plus flucytosine, fluconazole was similarly effective in early treatment of acute and subacute disseminated candidiasis. When treatment was delayed 6 days after established infection, fluconazole was less active in clearing tissues in comparison with its activity in preventive and early treatment. The combination of amphotericin B plus flucytosine, however, was significantly more active than fluconazole in treatment of chronic disseminated candidiasis in all tissues. In summary, fluconazole was most effective against disseminated candidiasis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits when used for prevention or early treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CW30400024

    View details for PubMedID 2138654

  • Safety and tolerance of intermittent intravenous and oral zidovudine therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pediatric patients. Pediatric Zidovudine Phase I Study Group. journal of pediatrics McKinney, R. E., Pizzo, P. A., Scott, G. B., Parks, W. P., MAHA, M. A., LEHRMAN, S. N., Riggs, M., Eddy, J., Lane, B. A., Eppes, S. C. 1990; 116 (4): 640-647

    Abstract

    Thirty-five children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection were enrolled in a 12-week, three-center phase I study of intravenous and oral zidovudine therapy. At enrollment the children ranged in age from 5 months to 13 years, with a median age of 3 1/2 years. Twenty-one children (60%) had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and 14 (40%) had the related complex; 20 children had less than 0.5 10(9) CD4+ lymphocytes per liter (less than 500 cells/mm3) at entry. Zidovudine was administered in one of three escalating dose regimens. One or two months of intravenous treatment with zidovudine every 6 hours was followed by orally administered drug on the same schedule; zidovudine was infused at 80, 120, or 160 mg/m2/dose, and the oral dose was one and one-half times the intravenous dosage. Adverse events were similar to those observed in adults. Neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count less than 0.75 10(9)/L (750 cells/mm3] occurred in nine patients. The median neutrophil count fell from 2.50 10(9)/L at entry to 1.72 10(9)/L at the end of the study. Anemia requiring transfusion occurred in seven 10(9)/L at the end of the study. Anemia requiring transfusion occurred in seven patients; the median hemoglobin level among nontransfused patients decreased from an entry value of 108 to 105 gm/L (10.8 to 10.5 gm/dl). Dosage adjustments were made in 15 patients, in 12 because of anemia or neutropenia. No patients required permanent discontinuation of zidovudine because of toxic effects. Positive effects included a faster-than-anticipated rate of weight gain, decreased hepatosplenomegaly, and lowering of the total IgG and IgM concentrations toward more normal values. Zidovudine appears to be safe and to have manageable toxic effects in children.

    View details for PubMedID 2181102

  • CURRENT ISSUES IN THE ANTIBIOTIC PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OF THE FEBRILE NEUTROPENIC CANCER-PATIENT - A PERSPECTIVE FROM THE NATIONAL-CANCER-INSTITUTE JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL INFECTION Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 15: 41-48

    Abstract

    In summary, the overall approach to the treatment of neutropenic cancer patients is to bridge the neutropenic gap. Empirical therapy serves as an important pillar of support, and a rational programme for modifications of the initial therapy, according to the evolving clinical course of the patient, forms another pillar in bridging this gap (Pizzo & Meyers, 1989). The incorporation of biologicals that might shorten the duration of neutropenia could potentially lead to greater improvements in outcome and greater success for therapy for the febrile neutropenic cancer patient.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DD09800006

    View details for PubMedID 1971644

  • HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF 2',3'-DIDEOXYINOSINE IN HUMAN-BODY FLUIDS JOURNAL OF CHROMATOGRAPHY-BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS CARPEN, M. E., POPLACK, D. G., Pizzo, P. A., BALIS, F. M. 1990; 526 (1): 69-75

    Abstract

    A paired-ion high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to measure concentrations of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) in human plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Samples were prepared using a solid-phase extraction technique which allows for a five-fold concentration of the drug. 2'-Deoxyguanosine was added as an internal standard prior to the extraction. Recoveries for 2'-deoxyguanosine and ddI were 80 +/- 15 and 85 +/- 10%, respectively. Extracted samples were then injected onto a C18 column and eluted isocratically with a mobile phase containing 0.1% of the ion-pairing reagent, heptafluorobutyric acid, and 5% acetonitrile. The retention time was 7.4 min for 2'-deoxyguanosine and 8.4 min for ddI. The lower limit of detection for ddI is 0.1 microM. Using this technique the acid lability of ddI was demonstrated and the plasma concentration versus time profile from a patient receiving the drug was examined.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CX00200007

    View details for PubMedID 2111332

  • PEDIATRIC AIDS - PROBLEMS WITHIN PROBLEMS JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 161 (2): 316-325

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CM95000025

    View details for PubMedID 2405070

  • EFFECTS OF ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS ON THE FUNCTION OF HUMAN NEUTROPHILS INVITRO ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Roilides, E., Walsh, T. J., Rubin, M., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 34 (2): 196-201

    Abstract

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are an important component of the host defense against fungi. We investigated the influence of five antifungal agents on PMN function and compared them with amphotericin B (AmB). The in vitro effects of AmB, flucytosine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, Sch-39304, and cilofungin (LY121019) on chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative metabolism of PMN as reflected by superoxide anion (O2-) generation, and intracellular killing of Candida albicans blastoconidia were examined. With regard to chemotaxis in response to N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, as measured by the multiwell chamber method, AmB induced a marked decrease (greater than or equal to 5 micrograms/ml), whereas ketoconazole at 5 micrograms/ml enhance it. Phagocytosis was significantly decreased after pretreatment of PMNs with AmB and Sch-39304 (greater than 5 and 1 to 10 micrograms/ml, respectively). O2- production after stimulation of PMNs with N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenyl-alanine was significantly decreased by AmB (greater than 5 micrograms/ml) and enhanced by Sch-39304 (1 to 5 micrograms/ml). In contrast, intracellular killing, as tested by methylene blue staining, was enhanced by ketoconazole (5 micrograms/ml) and Sch-39304 (1 to 5 micrograms/ml). Flucytosine, fluconazole, and cilofungin did not affect PMN function at therapeutic concentrations. The results of this comprehensive study indicate that AmB, flucytosine, cilofungin, and the newer azoles, at safely achievable concentrations, generally do not suppress PMN function at therapeutic enhance selective functions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CL83900003

    View details for PubMedID 2158275

  • The design, analysis, and reporting of clinical trials on the empirical antibiotic management of the neutropenic patient: Report of a consensus panel for the Immunocompromised Host Society. J Infect Dis Pizzo PA, Armstrong D, Bodey G, de Pauw B, Feld R, Glauser M, Gaya H, Karp J, Klastersky J, Todeschini G, Verh 1990; 161: 397-401
  • A randomized trial of open lung biopsy versus empiric antimicrobial therapy in cancer patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. J Clin Oncol Browlne MF, Potter D, Gress J, Cotton D, Hiemenz J, Thaler M, Hathorn J, Brower S, Gill V, Glatstein E, Pass H, Roth J, Wesley R, Shelhamer J, Pizzo PA 1990; 8: 222-9
  • Advances in antiviral therapy. Current Opinion in Pediatr Freifeld AG, Pizzo PA 1990; 2: 246-53
  • Zidovudine (3'-azido-2', 3'-deoxythymidine) for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children Brain in Pediatric AIDS Balis FM, Pizzo Pa 1990: 91-108
  • AIDS in the fetus and newborn Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant Falloon J, Pizzo PA 1990: 306-24
  • Empiric therapy and prevention of infection in the immunocompromised host. Principles and Practice of Infections Diseases Pizzo PA 1990: 2303-12
  • A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED TRIAL EVALUATING PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTICS TO PREVENT TRIPLE-LUMEN CATHETER-RELATED SEPSIS IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH IMMUNOTHERAPY JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY BOCK, S. N., Lee, R. E., Fisher, B., Rubin, J. T., Schwartzentruber, D. J., Wei, J. P., CALLENDER, D. P., Yang, J. C., Lotze, M. T., Pizzo, P. A., Rosenberg, S. A. 1990; 8 (1): 161-169

    Abstract

    During a 15-month period, 92 patients undergoing 129 treatment episodes of immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) alone or with immune cells underwent insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) in the Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute. Before each catheter insertion patients were prospectively randomized into one of three treatment groups; therapy with intravenous (IV) placebo using D5W, IV oxacillin, or change of the catheter to a new site every 72 hours. The mean duration of catheterization was 3.8 +/- 1.1 days. No patient in the oxacillin arm developed catheter-related sepsis, while eight patients in the control arms (five, line change, three, placebo) developed catheter-related sepsis (P2 = .050). Seven episodes of catheter-related sepsis were due to Staphylococcus aureus and one was due to Staphylococcus epidermidis. Catheter colonization was reduced significantly in the oxacillin arm versus control arms (P = .0001). Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and other coagulase-negative Staphylococci were sensitive to oxacillin in 89%, 60%, and 50% of cultures, respectively. No evidence of bacterial overgrowth, candida colonization, or candidemia was observed in these patients. Thus this trial demonstrates that treatment with prophylactic oxacillin can decrease the incidence of catheter-related sepsis in patients undergoing immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2). To our knowledge this is the first prospective randomized trial to evaluate the prophylactic use of systemic antibiotics in the prophylaxis of CVC sepsis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CG70400023

    View details for PubMedID 2404087

  • The febrile neutropenic patient: newer options for empirical therapy. Haematology and blood transfusion Rubin, M., Walsh, T., Butler, K., Lee, J., LECCIONES, J., Weinberger, M., Roilides, E., Gress, J., Marshall, D., Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 33: 531-538

    View details for PubMedID 2157645

  • Leukopenia, neutropenia and a granulocytosis Current Pediatric Therapy Pizzo PA 1990: 243-8
  • [Infectious complications from intraventricular route of administration in cancer patients]. Problemy medycyny wieku rozwojowego Perek, D., COMMERS, J. R., POPLACK, D. G., Pizzo, P. A. 1990; 16: 45-53

    Abstract

    Intraventricular drug administration via the IR is often used in the therapy of leukemic and carcinomatous meningitis. We reviewed our 10-year experience with 32 patients, with IR placed for intraventricular chemotherapy to characterize infectious complications associated with IR. Infectious complications occurred in 9 patients (27.1%). Local cellulitis (S. aureus) occurred at the site of IR in 2 patients. Seven patients (21.8%) had 12 episodes of bacteriologically proven or clinically suspected meningitis, or positive IR CSF cultures without symptoms (4-P. acnes). While patients with local infection may require IR removal, more than half of those with meningitis may be treated with antibiotics alone without IR removal. Patients with positive cultures in the absence of symptoms may require no therapy at all.

    View details for PubMedID 2152412

  • IL-2 based immunotherapy alters circulating neutrophil Fc receptor expression and chemotaxis. J Immunol Jablons D, Bolton E, Mertins S, Rubin M, Pizzo PA, Rosenberg SA, Lotze MT 1990; 144: 3630--6
  • Management of fungal infections in patients with neoplastic diseases Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1990: 399-419
  • New treatment options for the febrile, neutropenic patient. Oncology Update 1990 Pizzo PA 1990: 7-9
  • The management of fever and infection in cancer patients: A paradigm for the treatment of serious infections in immunocompromised hosts. Roche Seminars on Bacteria Pizzo PA 1990: 56-70
  • Managment of fungal infections complicating granulocytopenia: Implications for patients with radiation injuries. Treatment of Radiation Injuries Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1990: 109-13
  • Monotherapy for empirical management of febrile neutropenic patients. NCI monographs : a publication of the National Cancer Institute Rubin, M., Pizzo, P. A. 1990: 111-116

    Abstract

    New fever in a neutropenic patient mandates prompt institution of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics. Traditional empirical regimens have relied on combinations that include an aminoglycoside. However, certain classes of newer antibiotics (e.g., third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, quinolones) include agents with a broad spectrum and high bactericidal activity that may provide therapeutic alternatives to combination regimens. We previously compared empirical monotherapy with ceftazidime to a combination regimen of cephalothin, gentamicin, and carbenicillin and found the regimens comparable with respect to percentage with success (survival without change of initial regimen; 62% vs 67%), success with modification (survival with additional antibiotics; 33% vs 29%) and failure (death; 5% vs 4%). Imipenem has a broader in vitro spectrum of activity than ceftazidime, particularly against gram-positive organisms and anaerobes, raising the possibility of equivalent or even improved efficacy as monotherapy. Accordingly, we are prospectively randomizing febrile, neutropenic patients to either empirical ceftazidime or imipenem therapy. Imipenem appears to be comparable to ceftazidime in this ongoing study but has not resulted in fewer modifications or secondary infections. Studies assessing the role of quinolones in the management of neutropenic patients are under way.

    View details for PubMedID 2160613

  • Lung disease in children with HIV. Part 2: Noninfectious disorders, diagnosis. J Crit Illness Husson R, Pizzo PA 1990; 5: 639-50
  • Lung disease in children with HIV. Part I: Infections J Crit Illness Husson RN, Pizzo PA 1990; 5: 440-58
  • PHARMACOKINETICS AND TISSUE PENETRATION OF SCH-39304 IN GRANULOCYTOPENIC AND NONGRANULOCYTOPENIC RABBITS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Lee, J. W., Lin, C., Loebenberg, D., Rubin, M., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1989; 33 (11): 1932-1935

    Abstract

    We studied the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of Sch 39304 (SCH), a new antifungal triazole, in granulocytopenic [G(+)] and nongranulocytopenic [G(-)] rabbits. Five female New Zealand White G(-) rabbits were given a single oral dose of 2 mg of SCH per kg of body weight. Levels in plasma, determined by gas-liquid chromatography-electron capture, were obtained for 6 days. This procedure was repeated 2 weeks later with the same rabbits, which were induced and maintained G(+) with cytosine arabinoside. There were no significant differences between the pharmacokinetic parameters of G(+) and G(-) rabbits. Among all animals studied, the maximum concentration of the drug in plasma was 1.4 +/- 0.11 micrograms/ml at 4 +/- 0.5 h, the half-life was 25 +/- 1.4 h, the volume of distribution at steady state was 3.8 +/- 0.3 liters, and the area under the concentration-time curve was 44 +/- 3.4 micrograms.h/ml. SCH was detectable in plasma up to day 6. Levels of SCH in tissue were studied at steady state in six G(+) and six G(-) rabbits receiving 2 mg of the drug orally per kg per day for experimental disseminated candidiasis. Tissue SCH levels equalled or exceeded those in plasma (at steady state) at all sites examined, and these ratios were similar in both G(+) and G(-) rabbits. Thus, plasma pharmacokinetics of orally administered SCH were similar for G(+) and G(-) rabbits, and SCH achieved high levels of penetration into multiple tissues, including the liver and the central nervous system.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AX90200020

    View details for PubMedID 2610504

  • EMERGING CONCEPTS IN THE TREATMENT OF HIV INFECTION IN CHILDREN JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Pizzo, P. A. 1989; 262 (14): 1989-1992

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AT64100027

    View details for PubMedID 2778935

  • PERTUSSIS IN A PREVIOUSLY IMMUNIZED CHILD WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Adamson, P. C., Wu, T. C., Meade, B. D., Rubin, M., MANCLARK, C. R., Pizzo, P. A. 1989; 115 (4): 589-592

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AU60400016

    View details for PubMedID 2795352

  • INDUCED SPUTUM TO DIAGNOSE PNEUMOCYSTIS-CARINII PNEUMONIA IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Ognibene, F. P., Gill, V. J., Pizzo, P. A., Kovacs, J. A., Godwin, C., Suffredini, A. F., Shelhamer, J. H., Parrillo, J. E., Masur, H. 1989; 115 (3): 430-433

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AN88400019

    View details for PubMedID 2671329

  • COMBATTING INFECTIONS IN NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS HOSPITAL PRACTICE Pizzo, P. A. 1989; 24 (7): 93-?

    Abstract

    In febrile neutropenic patients, most of whom have cancer, immediate, albeit empiric, antibiotic therapy reduces infectious morbidity and mortality. With respect to definitive therapy, it is stressed that isolate patterns are changing, even as new antibiotics are becoming available. Issues such as single-agent versus combination therapy, as well as preventive strategies, are reviewed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AG10000009

    View details for PubMedID 2501330

  • AMPHOTERICIN-B IN THE TREATMENT OF CANDIDA CHOLECYSTITIS PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Adamson, P. C., Rinaldi, M. G., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. 1989; 8 (6): 408-411

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AB48800019

    View details for PubMedID 2664695

  • PHARMACOKINETICS OF SUBCUTANEOUS AZIDOTHYMIDINE IN RHESUS-MONKEYS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY BALIS, F. M., McCully, C., Gough, L., Pizzo, P. A., POPLACK, D. G. 1989; 33 (6): 810-812

    Abstract

    The pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous bolus and continuous infusion azidothymidine (AZT) was studied in rhesus monkeys. Three animals received 100 mg/m2 as a bolus injection both intravenously and subcutaneously, with the order of administration randomly determined. Two animals received a continuous subcutaneous infusion of 25 mg/m2 per h for 12 or 24 h. AZT was measured in plasma by a reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay. Following intravenous bolus administration, AZT elimination was rapid, with a mean half-life of 1.2 h and a mean clearance of 318 ml/min per m2 (range, 200 to 441 ml/min per m2). The bolus subcutaneous dose was rapidly (time to peak concentration, 15 to 30 min) and nearly completely (fraction absorbed, 92%) absorbed without evidence of local tissue toxicity. With continuous subcutaneous infusion of AZT, the steady state was attained within 4 h and steady-state concentrations in plasma in the two animals exceeded 3.0 mumol/liter. No local tissue toxicity was observed at the infusion site. The subcutaneous route may be a practical alternative to intravenous administration of AZT and deserves further clinical study.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U959500005

    View details for PubMedID 2764527

  • REVERSAL OF BRAIN METABOLIC ABNORMALITIES FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF AIDS DEMENTIA COMPLEX WITH 3'-AZIDO-2',3'-DIDEOXYTHYMIDINE (AZT, ZIDOVUDINE) - A PET-FDG STUDY JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Brunetti, A., Berg, G., DICHIRO, G., Cohen, R. M., Yarchoan, R., Pizzo, P. A., Broder, S., Eddy, J., Fulham, M. J., Finn, R. D., Larson, S. M. 1989; 30 (5): 581-590

    Abstract

    Brain glucose metabolism was evaluated in four patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans at the beginning of therapy with 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine), and later in the course of therapy. In two patients, baseline, large focal cortical abnormalities of glucose utilization were reversed during the course of therapy. In the other two patients, the initial PET study did not reveal pronounced focal alterations, while the post-treatment scans showed markedly increased cortical glucose metabolism. The improved cortical glucose utilization was accompanied in all patients by immunologic and neurologic improvement. PET-FDG studies can detect cortical metabolic abnormalities associated with AIDS dementia complex, and may be used to monitor the metabolic improvement in response to AZT treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U651100002

    View details for PubMedID 2785582

  • PHARMACOKINETICS OF ZIDOVUDINE ADMINISTERED INTRAVENOUSLY AND ORALLY IN CHILDREN WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS BALIS, F. M., Pizzo, P. A., Eddy, J., Wilfert, C., McKinney, R., Scott, G., Murphy, R. F., Jarosinski, P. F., Falloon, J., POPLACK, D. G. 1989; 114 (5): 880-884

    Abstract

    Zidovudine pharmacokinetics were determined in 16 children with human immunodeficiency virus infection who were being treated intravenously and orally on an intermittent schedule (every 6 hours). The intravenous doses studied were 80 (n = 3), 120 (n = 4), and 160 (n = 5) mg/m2/dose, infused over 1 hour. Fourteen patients were monitored after an oral dose of zidovudine at 120 (n = 2), 180 (n = 7), or 240 (n = 5) mg/m2/dose. Zidovudine was assayed with a reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography method. Zidovudine disappearance after intravenous administration was rapid and biexponential, with half-lives of 14 and 90 minutes and a total clearance of 641 +/- 161 ml/min/m2. The volume of distribution at steady state was 45 +/- 28 L/m2. These pharmacokinetics parameters are very similar to those reported in adults. When administered orally, zidovudine was rapidly absorbed. The fraction of the oral dose that was bioavailable was 0.68 +/- 0.25, so that a 50% increment in the dose, in the conversion from intravenous to oral administration, resulted in plasma zidovudine concentrations after oral dosing that were nearly identical to those achieved with the 1-hour intravenous infusion. However, a dose of 180 mg/m2 given orally every 6 hours maintained plasma zidovudine concentrations in the target range of 1 mumol/L for less than half of the dosing interval. Other schedules, routes of administration, or oral drug formulations may have to be considered if sustained continuous exposure to micromolar zidovudine concentrations is desired.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U474700029

    View details for PubMedID 2715903

  • ANTIBIOTICS FOR THE TREATMENT OF FEBRILE CHILDREN WITH NEUTROPENIA AND CANCER NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Rubin, M., Pizzo, P. A. 1989; 320 (14): 939-939

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T953400023

    View details for PubMedID 2927469

  • PHARMACOKINETICS AND TISSUE PENETRATION OF FLUCONAZOLE IN RABBITS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Walsh, T. J., Foulds, G., Pizzo, P. A. 1989; 33 (4): 467-469

    Abstract

    Fluconazole is a new bis-triazole antifungal compound which has in vivo and in vitro activity against Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans and excellent penetration into cerebrospinal fluid. However, little is known about the penetration of fluconazole into tissue sites other than cerebrospinal fluid. We therefore studied by high-pressure liquid chromatography the penetration of fluconazole into nine different tissue sites at times of peak and trough concentrations in plasma in rabbits. Fluconazole penetrated into all tissue sites. Tissue/plasma concentration ratios were greater at time of trough concentrations in plasma than at times of peak concentrations in plasma. The finding that fluconazole penetrated into target organs commonly infected by Candida spp. and C. neoformans further supports the therapeutic potential of fluconazole for disseminated candidiasis or cryptococcosis in immunocompromised hosts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T976600012

    View details for PubMedID 2543281

  • THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF ZIDOVUDINE ADMINISTERED BY CONTINUOUS INFUSION IN CHILDREN ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE BALIS, F. M., Pizzo, P. A., Murphy, R. F., Eddy, J., Jarosinski, P. F., Falloon, J., Broder, S., POPLACK, D. G. 1989; 110 (4): 279-285

    Abstract

    To define the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine (azidothymidine) in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection.Plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid were obtained following a single 80 mg/m2 body surface dose infused over 1 hour (n = 9), and during a continuous infusion of 0.5 (n = 3), 0.9 (n = 8), 1.4 (n = 7), or 1.8 (n = 3) mg/kg body weight per hour.Outpatient clinic and inpatient ward of the Pediatric Branch of the National Cancer Institute.Twenty-one children (seventeen boys) ranging in age from 14 months to 12 years with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection who were being treated on a phase I-II study of continuous intravenous infusion zidovudine.Zidovudine disappearance following bolus administration was rapid and biexponential with half-lives of 9.6 and 92 minutes, and a total clearance of 705 +/- 330 mL/min.m2. Zidovudine remained above 1 mumol/L, the optimal virostatic concentration in vitro, for only 1.5 hours. In contrast, with continuous infusion steady-state plasma zidovudine concentrations (Css) were maintained above 1 mumol/L continuously, even at the lowest infusion rate. At steady state the ratio of cerebrospinal fluid zidovudine concentration to plasma was 24% +/- 9%. Patients who developed severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count less than 0.5 X 10(9)/L) on the continuous infusion regimen had significantly higher plasma Css. Six of eight had a Css greater than 3.0 mumol/L.Pharmacokinetic parameters show that continuous infusion is better than an intermittent schedule in maintaining minimal virostatic concentrations of the drug with a lower daily dose.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T348800006

    View details for PubMedID 2643914

  • Solid Tumors in Children Cancer Principles and Practice of Oncology Pizzo PA, Horowitz M, Poplack DG, Kun L, Hays D 1989: 1612-70
  • Update on the managment of the febrile neutropenic patient. Medical Times Rubin M, Pizzo PA 1989; 117: 31-48
  • Infections in the compromised host with cancer Current Therapy in Pediatrics 2 Albano E, Pizzo PA, Kuhl J, Stroder J 1989: 481-96
  • Leukemias and lymphomas of childhood Cancer Principles and Practice of Oncology Poplack Dg, Kun L, Cassady JR, Pizzo PA 1989: 1671-95
  • HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-INFECTION IN CHILDREN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Falloon, J., Eddy, J., Wiener, L., Pizzo, P. A. 1989; 114 (1): 1-30

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989R726600001

    View details for PubMedID 2642548

  • Principles and practice orf Pediatric Oncology Pizzo PA, Poplack DG 1989
  • Controversial issues in antibacterial management of cancer patients. Mediguide to Oncology Rubin M, Pizzo PA 1989; 6: 1-9
  • Fungal infections in granulocytopenic patients: Current approaches to classification, diagnosis and treatment. Diatnosis and Therapy of Systemic Fungal Infections Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1989: 47-70
  • Infections in the cancer patient Cancer Principles and Practice of Oncology Pizzo PA, Myers J 1989: 2088-133
  • Therapeutic considerations for children with HIV infection. AIDS Updates Pizzo PA 1989; 2: 1-9
  • Potential application of immunoglobulin therapy in cancer patients. Infections in Medicine Pizzo PA 1989; Suppl 7: 16-22
  • Final report of the United States Department of Health and Human Services Secretary's Work Group on Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Infection and Disease: Content and Implications. Pediatrics Novello AC, Wise PH, Willoughby A, Pizzo PA 1989; 84: 547-55
  • AIDS in cildren and adolescents. Patient Care Bernstien LJ, Mackenzie RG, Oleske JM, Pizzo PA 1989; 23: 80-114
  • EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS INTRAVENOUS-INFUSION OF ZIDOVUDINE (AZT) IN CHILDREN WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIV INFECTION NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pizzo, P. A., Eddy, J., Falloon, J., BALIS, F. M., Murphy, R. F., Moss, H., Wolters, P., Brouwers, P., Jarosinski, P., Rubin, M., Broder, S., Yarchoan, R., Brunetti, A., MAHA, M., NUSINOFFLEHRMAN, S., POPLACK, D. G. 1988; 319 (14): 889-896

    Abstract

    To produce concentrations of zidovudine (AZT) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid that would provide constant inhibition of the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we gave AZT by continuous intravenous infusion to 21 children ranging in age from 14 months to 12 years who had acquired HIV infection through transfusions or perinatally. All patients were symptomatic before AZT treatment (Class P2 of the Centers for Disease Control); 13 (62 percent) had evidence of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The mean CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.18; 11 patients had CD4 counts below 0.2 x 10(9) per liter. We administered AZT at four dose levels: 0.5, 0.9, 1.4, and 1.8 mg per kilogram of body weight per hour. The plasma drug concentrations achieved at the respective dose levels were 1.9 +/- 0.3, 2.8 +/- 1.4, 3.1 +/- 1.1, and 4.5 +/- 1.0 microM. The steady-state cerebrospinal fluid:plasma ratio was 0.24 +/- 0.07. The only evidence of toxicity was bone marrow suppression. Transfusion was required in 14 patients because of low levels of hemoglobin (5 mmol per liter [less than 8 g per deciliter]). Dose-limiting neutropenia (less than 0.5 x 10(9) polymorphonuclear leukocytes per cubic millimeter) occurred in most patients who received doses of 1.4 mg per kilogram per hour or more. Improvement in neurodevelopmental abnormalities occurred in all 13 children who had presented with encephalopathy before treatment. Serial measurements of IQ before therapy and after three and six months of continuous therapy with AZT showed that IQ scores, including those for verbal and performance IQ, rose in these 13 patients and in 5 other children who had no detectable evidence of encephalopathy before treatment. Most patients also had increased appetite and weight, decreased lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, decreased immunoglobulin levels, and increased numbers of CD4 cells. In some patients the improvement in the features of encephalopathy occurred despite the absence of immunologic improvement. We conclude that AZT is beneficial in children with symptomatic HIV infection, especially those with encephalopathy (which may be subclinical), and that the optimal continuous intravenous dose of AZT in children is between 0.9 and 1.4 mg per kilogram per hour.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q285400001

    View details for PubMedID 3166511

  • ACQUIRED IMMUNE-DEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN CHILDREN - CURRENT PROBLEMS AND THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pizzo, P. A., Eddy, J., FALOON, J. 1988; 85 (2A): 195-202

    Abstract

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in children has until recently been under-reported, since the initial Centers for Disease Control definition of AIDS was restrictive. The case definition has now been revised. Most children with AIDS acquired their infection perinatally and have a parent with established AIDS-related complex or AIDS or belong to a high-risk group. Prior to March 1985, children also acquired human immunodeficiency virus from a contaminated blood product transfusion or from factor replacement for hemophilia. In the United States, AIDS in children occurs predominantly in cities with large populations of intravenous drug users. There are a number of differences between the clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection in children compared with adults. For example, recurrent bacterial infection is more common in children, perhaps reflecting the abnormal B cell function that occurs relatively early in the disease course. Certain opportunistic infections (e.g., toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis) are less common in children than adults. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia does not occur in adults but is found in 30 to 50 percent of children. On the other hand, Kaposi's sarcoma and other malignancies are less common in children. Treatment has consisted largely of general supportive care in hospital or at home; this is dependent on the availability and utilization of resources and financial support. However, as anti-retroviral therapy becomes available, studies in children have been initiated. It is hoped that in the future it may be possible to prevent the disease; in the meantime, earlier diagnosis and better therapy are important goals.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P938100043

    View details for PubMedID 3044085

  • INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHILDHOOD ACUTE LEUKEMIAS PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Albano, E. A., Pizzo, P. A. 1988; 35 (4): 873-901

    Abstract

    Infectious complications in children with acute leukemias are reviewed as to incidence, predisposing factors, microbiologic etiologies and treatment. Principles of antimicrobiologic therapy are presented for bacterial, fungal, viral, and protozoal infections seen in children with cancer. Prevention of infection is also discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q125500012

    View details for PubMedID 3047658

  • CHRONIC SILASTIC CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETERIZATION FOR INDUCTION, MAINTENANCE AND SUPPORT OF PERSISTENT GRANULOCYTOPENIA IN RABBITS LABORATORY ANIMAL SCIENCE Walsh, T. J., Bacher, J., Pizzo, P. A. 1988; 38 (4): 467-471

    Abstract

    In order to investigate new approaches in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of infectious complicating chemotherapy-induced granulocytopenia, we developed and prospectively evaluated a method of chronic central venous catheterization for the induction, maintenance and support of persistent granulocytopenia in rabbits. The method entails a central venous silastic catheter with a subcutaneous tunnel and a heparin lock device for repeated non-traumatic sampling of blood and administration of medications. During the course of 10 months, 226 rabbits were studied. Mean duration of catheter placement was 27 days, 17 of which were spent in granulocytopenia. Two-way flow was sustained throughout the duration of placement in 205 rabbits (91%) and for 5,845 (95%) of a total 6,163 catheter-days. All but two catheters could be flushed throughout the duration of their placement. Postoperative infectious complications related to catheter insertion developed in less than 1% of the rabbits. This method of chronic catheterization safely provides long-term venous access for studies requiring frequent venous access, including the painless induction, maintenance, and support of chronic granulocytopenia in rabbits.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P872000020

    View details for PubMedID 3184859

  • EVALUATION OF SINGLE-DRUG AND COMBINATION ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY IN AN EXPERIMENTAL-MODEL OF CANDIDIASIS IN RABBITS WITH PROLONGED NEUTROPENIA JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Thaler, M., Bacher, J., OLeary, T., Pizzo, P. A. 1988; 158 (1): 80-88

    Abstract

    We developed an experimental model of candidiasis in rabbits with prolonged neutropenia. Rabbits were made neutropenic with cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) administered through an indwelling silastic catheter that had been surgically implanted in the external jugular vein. Neutropenia was sustained with intravenous Ara-C, and bacterial complications were prevented with parenteral ceftazidime plus ampicillin. Candidiasis was established by intravenously administering Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis (1-2 x 10(5) colony-forming units) and resulted in hepatic and splenic lesions that mimicked those associated with hepatosplenic candidiasis in humans. The kidney proved to be the site most refractory to eradication of Candida spp. and offered a target organ for assessing antifungal therapy. We evaluated amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, ketoconazole, and rifampin, alone and in combination. Although each agent reduced the colony counts of Candida in the liver, spleen, and lung, the combination of amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine was the only regimen effective in eradicating renal candidiasis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P126900011

    View details for PubMedID 3392423

  • THE EVOLVING POPULATION OF IMMUNOCOMPROMISED CHILDREN PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Albano, E. A., Pizzo, P. A. 1988; 7 (5): S79-S86

    Abstract

    The immunocompromised host was first defined around the host abnormalities and consequent infections that were associated with congenitally acquired deficiencies. Although the impact of the deficiency on the affected child was considerable, the numbers of such children remained small. With the advent of immunosuppressive therapy and cytotoxic regimens for the effective treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases, an increasingly larger number of children became immunocompromised and thus subject to serious infectious complications. More recently a new population of immunocompromised children have emerged, those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus; over the next several years this group of patients threatens to become the predominant group of "immunocompromised hosts" in pediatrics. Regardless of whether the immunodeficiency is a genetically transmitted immunodeficiency or results from cytotoxic therapy or from infection with human immunodeficiency virus, the incidence and pattern of the infections that occur parallel the targets of the immune system that are adversely affected or destroyed. In some cases, this may represent only a single component of the immune system whereas in others, multiple aspects of the immune matrix have been altered or perturbed. Two goals apply to the management of the immunocompromised child: (1) to identify the basis for the immunodeficiency and to develop methods to restore or replenish it; (2) to define the spectrum of infectious complications that can occur in association with the immunocompromised state and to develop regimens to treat or prevent them, at least until the underlying defects can be dealt with in a more definitive manner.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N795100015

    View details for PubMedID 2456511

  • HEPATOSPLENIC CANDIDIASIS - WHEELS WITHIN WHEELS RADIOLOGY Pastakia, B., Shawker, T. H., Thaler, M., OLeary, T., Pizzo, P. A. 1988; 166 (2): 417-421

    Abstract

    Eight immunocompromised cancer patients with tissue-proved candidiasis underwent serial abdominal ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT). At US, four patterns of hepatic and splenic candidiasis were recognized, one of which the authors call a "wheels-within-wheels" pattern. In addition, periportal linear areas of increased attenuation, possibly calcified, were identified at follow-up, nonenhanced CT. Some abscesses were better seen on nonenhanced CT scans, while others became visible only with enhancement. Although lesions not seen at US were often seen at CT, the opposite was also true. In two cases, pathologic proof of candidiasis was established even when all imaging studies were normal. For maximum imaging sensitivity, patients should be studied with US and nonenhanced and enhanced CT. Even when both US and CT scans are negative, if there is a strong clinical suggestion of candidiasis, open biopsy is recommended.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988L722500022

    View details for PubMedID 3275982

  • Infectious complications in the pediatric cancer patient. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Oncology hathorn JW, Pizzo PA 1988: 837-67
  • Cancers in Children Manual of Oncologic Therapeutics 1989/1990 Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, Magrath IT, Ungerleider RS, Cazenave L, Israel MA, Balis FM, Miser JS 1988: 394-416
  • Diagnosis and management of infectious disease problems in child with malignant disease. Clinical Approach to Infections in the Compromised Host Pizzo PA 1988: 439-64
  • FLUCONAZOLE PENETRATION INTO CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID - IMPLICATIONS FOR TREATING FUNGAL-INFECTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS-SYSTEM JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Arndt, C. A., Walsh, T. J., McCully, C. L., BALIS, F. M., Pizzo, P. A., POPLACK, D. G. 1988; 157 (1): 178-180

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988L370400025

    View details for PubMedID 2826606

  • Depression, denial and withdrawal in mothers of seriously ill children and adolescents. Loss, Grief and Care Susman EJ, Pizzo PA 1988; 2: 69-80
  • Preliminary results of treatment of Ewing's sarcoma of bone in children and young adults: Six months of intensive combined modality therapy without maintenance. J Clin Oncol Miser JS, Kinsella TJ, Triche TJ, Tsokos M, Forquer R, Wesley R, Horvath K, Belasco J, Longo DL, Steis R, Gratstein E, Pizzo PA 1988; 6: 484-90
  • AIDS in the Pediatric Population. AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Falloon J, Eddy J, Roper M, Pizzo PA 1988: 339-51
  • CONTROVERSIES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF FEBRILE NEUTROPENIC CANCER-PATIENTS CANCER INVESTIGATION Rubin, M., Hathorn, J. W., Pizzo, P. A. 1988; 6 (2): 167-184

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P238200007

    View details for PubMedID 3132310

  • NOSOCOMIAL FUNGAL-INFECTIONS - A CLASSIFICATION FOR HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED FUNGAL-INFECTIONS AND MYCOSES ARISING FROM ENDOGENOUS FLORA OR REACTIVATION ANNUAL REVIEW OF MICROBIOLOGY Walsh, T. J., Pizzo, P. A. 1988; 42: 517-545

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q345400021

    View details for PubMedID 3060000

  • GRAM-POSITIVE INFECTIONS AND THE USE OF VANCOMYCIN IN 550 EPISODES OF FEVER AND NEUTROPENIA ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Rubin, M., Hathorn, J. W., Marshall, D., Gress, J., STEINBERG, S. M., Pizzo, P. A. 1988; 108 (1): 30-35

    Abstract

    To determine the appropriate role for vancomycin in neutropenic patients with cancer. To review the incidence, types, and outcome of gram-positive infections in a series of neutropenic patients with cancer.Retrospective review.Inpatient units of the Medical and Pediatric Oncology Branches of the National Cancer Institute.Five hundred and fifty consecutive episodes of fever and neutropenia in patients with cancer randomized prospectively on another study to receive either ceftazidime alone or combination antibiotics for initial empirical therapy.Intravenous vancomycin (dosage adjusted by serum levels).Gram-positive organisms were the commonest of the bacterial pathogens isolated (63%). Of the 53 gram-positive organisms accounting for primary infections (isolated at initial presentation), there were 36 staphylococcal isolates (19 coagulase-negative and 17 coagulase-positive), 13 streptococcal isolates (8 non-group D and 5 group D), and 4 polymicrobial isolates. Of the 22 secondary gram-positive infections (occurring after institution of initial antibiotics), there were 10 streptococcal isolates (9 group D and 1 non-group D), 7 staphylococcal isolates (6 coagulase-negative and 1 coagulase-positive), and 5 polymicrobial isolates. Vancomycin was used to treat 26 of the 53 primary infections, but was begun only after knowledge of the isolate in 25. Vancomycin was used to treat 17 of the 22 secondary infections, and begun only after knowledge of the isolate in 14. This approach resulted in no treatment failures for the primary infections, and a single microbiological failure for the secondary infections. There was a tendency towards a greater proportion of secondary gram-positive infections in the monotherapy group compared to the combination therapy group (16 of 282 compared with 6 of 268 respectively, P2 = 0.04 by the chi-squared test); but all were treated successfully.Vancomycin need not be included in routine empirical therapy for febrile neutropenic patients, but should be added when clinical or microbiological data suggest the need.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988L587500006

    View details for PubMedID 3337513

  • Monotherapy in Neutropenic Cancer Patients The Antimicrobial Agents Annual, 3 Rubin M, Pizzo PA 1988: 524-40
  • Empirical antibiotic therapy in neutropenic patients. Current Med Lit Pizzo PA 1988; 2: 57-61
  • Infections in neutropenic cancer patients. Part II J Critical Illness Callender D, Pizzo PA 1988; 3: 34-47
  • Treatment of systemic fungal infections: Recent progress and current problems. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis Walsh TJ, Pizzo PA 1988; 7: 460-75
  • Anorectal infections in patients with malignant diseases. Rev Infect Dis Glenn J, Cotton D, Wesley R, Pizzo PA 1988; 10: 42-52
  • Pulmonary Infections in the Immunocompromised Host Thoracic Oncology Browne M, Pizzo PA 1988: 660-80
  • HEPATIC CANDIDIASIS IN CANCER-PATIENTS - THE EVOLVING PICTURE OF THE SYNDROME ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Thaler, M., Pastakia, B., Shawker, T. H., OLeary, T., Pizzo, P. A. 1988; 108 (1): 88-100

    Abstract

    Focal hepatosplenic candidiasis has been recognized with increasing frequency in recent years. We reviewed the cases of eight patients seen between 1982 and 1985, and information on 60 patients whose cases have been reported in the world literature. The characteristics of focal hepatosplenic candidiasis include persistent fever in a neutropenic patient whose leukocyte count is returning to normal, often coupled with abdominal pain; an elevated alkaline phosphatase level; and less commonly, rebound leukocytosis. The characteristic "bull's eye" lesions seen with hepatic ultrasound examination or computed tomography generally are not detectable until neutrophil recovery has occurred. Diagnosis can be established only by biopsy evidence of yeasts or pseudohyphae in the granulomatous lesions. Cultures are frequently negative, however, especially in patients who have been pretreated with antifungal agents. We review the evolving nature of hepatosplenic candidiasis, focusing on diagnosis and treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988L587500020

    View details for PubMedID 3276268

  • The immunocomporomised patient. Hospital Acquired Infections in the Pediatric Patient Skelton J, Pizzo PA 1988: 295-322
  • The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) Principles and practice of pediatric oncology Pizzo PA, Eddy J, Falloon J 1988: 783-96
  • Candidiasis Current Therapy in Pediatric Infectious Disease Pizzo PA 1988
  • Practical managment of the febrile neutropenic patient. Primary Care and Cancer. Pizzo PA 1988; 8: 19-29
  • Management of infections in cancer patients. Part I. J Critical Illness Callender D, Pizzo PA 1988; 3: 17-27
  • [In vitro effect of amphotericin B on polymorphonuclear chemotaxis and large granular lymphocytes with natural killer activity]. Pathologie-biologie Bernaudin, F., Hathorn, J., Schaufele, R., Pizzo, P. A. 1987; 35 (10): 1403-1407

    Abstract

    Amphotericin B (AB) is known as an inhibitor of PMN chemotaxis. The chemotaxis of "large granular lymphocytes" (LGL) which are hypothesized to be involved in the antifungal defenses has been only recently investigated. Therefore we have studied the effect of AB on the LGL chemotaxis. LGL are prepared by centrifugation of peripheral blood non adherent cells on a discontinuous gradient of Percoll. They are more susceptible than PMN to the toxicity and chemotactic inhibition induced by colloidal suspension of AB Fungizone i.v. whereas the microparticular suspension has no effect. Deoxycholate (DOC) used for the AB solubilization is responsible at high doses of Fungizone i.v. (1 and 10(-1) mg/ml) of the toxic effect observed. The particular size seems to be also important. Morever at the therapeutic concentrations (2 to 4 X 10(-3) mg/ml) only the chemotaxis of PMN and LGL induced by FMLP is reduced whereas there is a stimulation of the PMN response to zymosan. The differences in the susceptibility of LGL and PMN to AB may explain the immunomodulation induced by this drug.

    View details for PubMedID 3325905

  • RIGHT LOWER QUADRANT PAIN IN YOUNG-PATIENTS WITH LEUKEMIA - A SURGICAL PERSPECTIVE ANNALS OF SURGERY Skibber, J. M., Matter, G. J., Pizzo, P. A., Lotze, M. T. 1987; 206 (6): 711-716

    Abstract

    A retrospective review of cecal and appendiceal complications occurring in young patients with acute leukemia since 1969 was performed. The objective of this study was to determine the relative incidence of appendicitis and typhlitis among patients with acute leukemia who had operation or autopsy in this institution as well as to determine the risks of operative intervention. Fifteen patients with these complications were identified among the 400 patients with acute leukemia seen during this time period. Signs and symptoms of an acute abdomen were present despite immunosuppression. The incidence of sepsis at the time of presentation was 53%. Preoperative risk factors identified most frequently were coagulopathy and organ failure resulting from sepsis. Postoperative morbidity (25%) and mortality rates (8%) were related to the development of infectious complications. Appendicitis occurred in eight of the 15 patients studied, whereas typhlitis or its complications was found in seven patients. No preoperative factors could be found to differentiate typhlitis from appendicitis on clinical examination. It is suggested that operation can be safely performed in neutropenic patients who have acute right lower quadrant pain and signs of peritoneal irritation and may be the only effective way of differentiating appendicitis from typhlitis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L074700005

    View details for PubMedID 3318727

  • EMPIRICAL ANTIBIOTIC-THERAPY IN THE FEBRILE NEUTROPENIC CANCER-PATIENT - CLINICAL EFFICACY AND IMPACT OF MONOTHERAPY ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY Hathorn, J. W., Rubin, M., Pizzo, P. A. 1987; 31 (7): 971-977

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J082500001

    View details for PubMedID 3310871

  • CLINICAL-FEATURES AND THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS IN 17 CASES OF BACILLUS BACTEREMIA IN AN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED PATIENT POPULATION JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Cotton, D. J., Gill, V. J., Marshall, D. J., Gress, J., Thaler, M., Pizzo, P. A. 1987; 25 (4): 672-674

    Abstract

    We retrospectively examined episodes of Bacillus bacteremia at a hospital with a large proportion of immunosuppressed patients. Seventeen episodes in 9.5 years met our case definition: two of two bottles of one blood culture or one of two bottles of two or more separately obtained blood cultures drawn on the same date. During the same period, there were 59 additional episodes in which a single blood culture had only one of two bottles positive for Bacillus species. Only 2 of 59 such episodes resulted in recurrent bacteremia (3%), as compared with 5 of 17 episodes meeting our case definition (29%) (P = 0.004). In four of five episodes complicated by recurrent bacteremia and in which appropriate antibiotics were used, a Hickman-Broviac catheter was in place and was not removed. We suggest that our case definition permits the differentiation of infection from contamination based on outcome and that patients with Bacillus bacteremia have chronic venous catheters removed as well as receive antibiotic treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G534100019

    View details for PubMedID 3571476

  • INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS OF INTRAVENTRICULAR RESERVOIRS IN CANCER-PATIENTS PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Browne, M. J., Dinndorf, P. A., Perek, D., COMMERS, J., Bleyer, W. A., POPLACK, D. G., Pizzo, P. A. 1987; 6 (2): 182-189

    Abstract

    Drug administration via an intraventricular reservoir is useful in the treatment of leukemic and carcinomatous meningitis that occurs in patients who have previously received lumbar intrathecal chemotherapy. The intraventricular route, however, is associated with a higher incidence of infectious complications compared with therapy given by the lumbar route. To characterize the infectious complications associated with such reservoirs, we reviewed the 10-year experience of the Pediatric Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and Children's Orthopedic Hospital, Seattle, WA, with 61 patients (49 with leukemia, 8 with lymphoma, 4 with solid tumors) who had intraventricular reservoirs placed for administration of chemotherapy. The reservoirs were in place for a median of 36 weeks and were punctured a median of 29.5 times, Infectious complications occurred in 14 of 61 patients (23%) and Propionibacterium acnes was the most common organism recovered from cultures. Twelve patients (19.7%) had 19 episodes of clinically suspected and microbiologically documented meningitis or of positive intraventricular reservoir cerebrospinal fluid cultures without symptoms which were treated successfully. Local cellulitis occurred at the site of intraventricular reservoir placement in 2 patients (3.3%) and removal of the intraventricular reservoir was necessary for successful management. Nine patients had their intraventricular reservoir removed (5 because of associated infection and 4 because of malfunction unassociated with infection).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G096400008

    View details for PubMedID 3562137

  • AFTER EMPIRIC THERAPY - WHAT TO DO UNTIL THE GRANULOCYTE COMES BACK REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Pizzo, P. A. 1987; 9 (1): 214-219

    Abstract

    The prompt initiation of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy when a granulocytopenic patient becomes febrile has become standard practice and has resulted in a significant reduction in the early morbidity and mortality associated with infection. Granulocytopenic patients, however, are at risk for multiple infectious episodes, particularly when the duration of neutropenia is prolonged. Accordingly, the addition of one or more antimicrobial agents to the initial empiric antibiotic regimen is often necessary to deal effectively with these second infections and to help maximize the patient's chance for survival. An organized plan that incorporates modifications of the primary antibiotic regimen (e.g., the addition of another antibiotic or an antifungal agent) into the overall management of the febrile neutropenic patient is important, especially when neutropenia lasts for more than a week.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987F695800019

    View details for PubMedID 3547574

  • Childhood cancer--advances in the past decade. Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses Pizzo, P. A. 1987; 4 (1-2): 34-35

    View details for PubMedID 3694500

  • CLINICAL STAGING IN RHABDOMYOSARCOMA - CURRENT LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE-PROSPECTS JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Pizzo, P. A., Triche, T. J. 1987; 5 (1): 8-9

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987F677800004

    View details for PubMedID 3806163

  • Antibiotic usage Current Therapy in Critical Care Medicine Pizzo PA 1987: 206-12
  • Hematologic Malignancies The Critically Ill Immunosuppressed Patient. Diagnosis and Management Skelton J, Pizzo PA 1987: 433-89
  • EMERGENCE OF CLOSTRIDIUM TERTIUM AS A PATHOGEN IN NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Thaler, M., Gill, V., Pizzo, P. A. 1986; 81 (4): 596-600

    Abstract

    Although usually considered a non-pathogen, Clostridium tertium was isolated from 10 immunosuppressed patients including seven patients with bacteremia. This organism can grow aerobically and can be easily disregarded as a contaminant. It also has a somewhat unusual susceptibility pattern, with significant resistance to the penicillins, cephalosporins, and clindamycin, possibly explaining its emergence in immunocompromised patients already receiving multiple antibiotics.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E403600005

    View details for PubMedID 3766589

  • A RANDOMIZED TRIAL COMPARING CEFTAZIDIME ALONE WITH COMBINATION ANTIBIOTIC-THERAPY IN CANCER-PATIENTS WITH FEVER AND NEUTROPENIA NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pizzo, P. A., Hathorn, J. W., Hiemenz, J., Browne, M., COMMERS, J., Cotton, D., Gress, J., Longo, D., Marshall, D., McKnight, J., Rubin, M., Skelton, J., Thaler, M., Wesley, R. 1986; 315 (9): 552-558

    Abstract

    To assess the efficacy of single-agent therapy relative to standard combination antibiotic therapy for the initial management of fever and neutropenia in cancer patients, we conducted a randomized trial comparing ceftazidime alone with a combination of cephalothin, gentamicin, and carbenicillin. Of 550 evaluable episodes of fever and neutropenia, 282 were treated with ceftazidime alone and 268 with the combination. All episodes were evaluated for responses at 72 hours after the start of treatment and at resolution of the neutropenia. Of the patients with unexplained fever who were given ceftazidime alone, 99 percent were alive at 72 hours and 98 percent were alive when the neutropenia resolved, as compared with 100 percent and 98 percent, respectively, of those given combination therapy. Of the patients with documented infection who were given ceftazidime alone, 98 percent were alive at 72 hours and 89 percent when the neutropenia resolved, as compared with 98 percent and 91 percent, respectively, of those given combination therapy. The majority of episodes of documented infection in both treatment groups necessitated additional antimicrobial treatment or other modifications of the initial regimen, as compared with only 22 percent of the episodes of unexplained fever. We conclude that initial single-agent therapy with certain beta-lactam antibiotics is a safe alternative to standard combination antibiotic therapy, although patients with documented infection or protracted neutropenia are likely to require additional or modified treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D740000005

    View details for PubMedID 3526155

  • Problems of intensive therapy in childhood cancer. Cancer Skelton, J., Pizzo, P. A. 1986; 58 (2): 488-503

    Abstract

    Tremendous progress has been made in the treatment of childhood cancers. Certain hematologic malignancies have an impressive cure rate with the current intensive antineoplastic treatment regimens. There is optimism that the treatment of children who have advanced stage solid tumors with intensive, multimodality therapy may improve their chances for long-term survival. These treatment programs, though potentially curative, are highly toxic, with severe myelosuppression and damage to other organ systems. An awareness of these potential toxicities, an understanding of how to prevent or minimize certain problems, and the ability to treat those complications which do arise are all essential to the successful management of childhood cancer.

    View details for PubMedID 3521835

  • MANAGEMENT OF PEDIATRIC CANCER HOSPITAL PRACTICE Pizzo, P. A. 1986; 21 (3): 111-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A380100017

    View details for PubMedID 3005350

  • IS THERE A ROLE FOR MONOTHERAPY WITH BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS IN THE INITIAL EMPIRICAL MANAGEMENT OF FEBRILE NEUTROPENIC CANCER-PATIENTS JOURNAL OF ANTIMICROBIAL CHEMOTHERAPY Hathorn, J. W., Pizzo, P. A. 1986; 17: 41-54

    Abstract

    In empirical antimicrobial chemotherapy for febrile neutropenic cancer patients, drug combinations are commonly used, and aminoglycosides are usually included for their excellent activity on Gram-negative organisms and for potential synergism. However, new beta-lactams have at least as good a spectrum and in many ways better pharmacology. More Gram-positive infections are now being reported and the sensitivity of the causative organisms varies. This provides reasons for examining alternatives to aminoglycosides, and the use of monotherapy. Clinical results suggest that the emergence of resistance may be a problem with ureidopenicillins used alone, and that double beta-lactams may be as good as but not better than standard regimens. New cephalosporins have been used alone in 14 trials (not all of them well designed) with results as good as those of standard regimens in many, although superinfection with resistant organisms has been a problem in some. It is possible that early supplementation, with aminoglycosides, of empirical monotherapy with such agents as ceftazidime may solve some of the problems posed by resistant organisms.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C246300007

    View details for PubMedID 3519563

  • EXCESS PREVALENCE OF PNEUMOCYSTIS-CARINII PNEUMONIA IN PATIENTS TREATED FOR LYMPHOMA WITH COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Browne, M. J., Hubbard, S. M., Longo, D. L., Fisher, R., Wesley, R., IHDE, D. C., Young, R. C., Pizzo, P. A. 1986; 104 (3): 338-344

    Abstract

    A significantly greater prevalence of interstitial pulmonary infiltrates and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis occurred on one arm of a randomized study comparing ProMACE-CytaBOM (prednisone, methotrexate with leucovorin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide; cytarabine, bleomycin, vincristine, methotrexate with leucovorin) to ProMACE-MOPP (ProMACE, mechlorethamine, vincristine, prednisone, procarbazine) chemotherapy in patients with lymphoma. Of the 37 patients receiving ProMACE-CytaBOM, 13 (35.1%) developed an interstitial pulmonary infiltrate compared with 3 of 32 (9.4%) patients receiving ProMACE-MOPP (p2 = 0.02). Of the 13 patients receiving ProMACE-CytaBOM who had infiltrates, open lung biopsy in 7 showed P. carinii; 5 others had clinically suspected P. carinii pneumonia, and 1 had blastomycosis. No patient receiving ProMACE-MOPP had documented or suspected P. carinii pneumonia. Of patients with infiltrates, 3 of 13 on ProMACE-CytaBOM but 0 of 3 on ProMACE-MOPP died. Two other patients on ProMACE-CytaBOM who had P. carinii pneumonia died. Groups did not differ in predisposing risk factors or patient history. The exact cause for the increased prevalence of P. carinii infection in patients receiving ProMACE-CytaBOM was not ascertained. These data emphasize that new drug regimens may lead to unanticipated complications.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A391500008

    View details for PubMedID 3511821

  • Pediatric supportive care Comprehensive Textbook of Oncology Pizzo PA 1986: 1237-57
  • Aspergillosis Current therapy in Pediatric Infectious Disease Pizzo PA 1986: 130-32
  • Empiric antifungal therapy. Primary Care and Cancer Hathorn J, Pizzo PA 1986; 1: 2-7
  • PERSPECTIVE ON THE MANAGEMENT OF CATHETER-RELATED INFECTIONS IN CANCER-PATIENTS PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Hiemenz, J., Skelton, J., Pizzo, P. A. 1986; 5 (1): 6-11

    Abstract

    The risk of infectious complications ranges from 9 to 80% depending on patient population and definition of catheter-related infection. In the vast majority of these patients, those infections can be treated successfully without catheter removal. The major exceptions to this guideline are patients with significant exit site or tunnel infections or with fungal isolates. Because the majority of those infections are caused by Gram-positive organisms such as S. epidermidis or S. aureus that have variable sensitivities to the antistaphylococcal penicillins, intravenous vancomycin along with gentamicin should be administered empirically until culture results are available. It appears to be unnecessary to remove the Silastic catheter automatically just because the patient is febrile, particularly if there is no microbiological evidence that the catheter is the source of the fever. Quantitative blood cultures drawn through the catheter and from a peripheral vein may lead to a better understanding of the role the catheter plays in the septic episodes in these patients but has yet to be definitive in identifying patients who absolutely require catheter removal to cure their infection. Surveillance cultures have not proved helpful in defining an "at risk" group for catheter-related infection and, due to cost and possible added risk of inducing an infectious complication, should not be routinely performed outside of an investigational setting. Instruction of patients in proper catheter care both before and after placement is of critical importance. To date there is no proved standard of catheter care and maintenance. There is a need for careful investigation in this area. We recommend that routine handling of the catheter be done with aseptic technique, which usually requires use of Betadine swabs when manipulating the catheter tip and use of a sterile dressing (e.g. E. Med IV Strip) or Op-Site (a transparent occlusive dressing) at the exit site. Continued dressings with either daily, every other day or biweekly changes may protect the catheter from gross contamination but do not protect it from catheter-associated infections. Controlled studies are needed to compare the numerous methods of postplacement catheter management and to determine the rate of infectious complications with the recently available double and triple lumen Silastic catheters and the subcutaneous implantable port-type catheters. We are presently pursuing such an investigation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986AXQ8200002

    View details for PubMedID 3945579

  • Fever and infection in the immunosuppressed child. Current Therapy in Pediatric Infectious Disease Pizzo PA 1986: 218-23
  • Leukopenia, Neutropenia and a Granulocytosis. Current Pediatric Therapy Pizzo PA 1986: 262-6
  • Therapy-induced dysfunction of salivary glands: implications for oral health. Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry Baum, B. J., Bodner, L., Fox, P. C., Izutsu, K. T., Pizzo, P. A., Wright, W. E. 1985; 5 (6): 274-277

    View details for PubMedID 3911461

  • new developments in the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention in patients with leukemia Adult leukemia Hiemenz J, Pizzo PA 1985: 283-37
  • Empirical antimicrobial therapy in cancer patients. Hematol Bluttransfus Browne MT, Pizzo PA 1985; 29: 112-18
  • THERAPY OF OSTEOGENIC-SARCOMA - LOCAL, SYSTEMIC OR BOTH - REVIEW EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER & CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Miser, A. W., Miser, J. S., Pizzo, P. A. 1985; 21 (7): 771-773

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AMA0300001

    View details for PubMedID 3862581

  • NEW BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS IN GRANULOCYTOPENIC PATIENTS - NEW OPTIONS AND NEW QUESTIONS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Pizzo, P. A., Thaler, M., Hathorn, J., Hiemenz, J., Skelton, J., McKnight, J., Rubin, M., Browne, M., Longo, D., Cotton, D., Gress, J., Marshall, D. 1985; 79 (2A): 75-82

    Abstract

    Infectious complications are a frequent cause of morbidity and, at many centers, the major cause of death in patients with cancer. The increased risk and severity of infectious sequelae result from profound alterations in normal host defenses that occur secondary to the underlying malignancy and the treatment thereof. During the last decade, early empiric antibiotic therapy has become standard practice in the initial management of febrile granulocytopenic patients and has contributed significantly to the improved outcome among patients undergoing cancer therapy. Although early death due to unsuspected or inadequately treated bacterial infection has been largely overcome, new problems--also with life-threatening implications--have emerged. As the use of cancer chemotherapy continues to increase, new populations of patients are being placed at increased risk of infection. Defining the host and environmental factors that contribute to this risk assumes central importance for delineating those patients who require the most intense surveillance. Changing medical practices (e.g., increased use of indwelling catheters) have contributed to the emergence of new pathogens. Recent drug developments (e.g., the third-generation cephalosporins and extended-spectrum penicillins) offer new treatment options, as well as generate controversy and confusion. For example, authorities disagree on the optimal duration and modifications in treatment that are required by cancer patients who remain granulocytopenic and who thus are at continued risk of multiple infectious episodes or superinfections. A question of current interest is whether combination therapy with synergistic agents is important in light of the development of the third-generation cephalosporins and extended-spectrum penicillins. Several of these new antibiotics have an exceedingly broad spectrum of activity that includes Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as Enterobacteriaceae, Serratia, Citrobacter, indole-positive Proteus, and anaerobes (including Bacteroides fragilis). However, the third-generation cephalosporins are not as active against staphylococci and streptococci as are the first-generation cephalosporins, and none is effective against enterococci. Nonetheless, these agents achieve serum levels that can be 10 to 100 times greater than the minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of gram-negative bacteria, raising the possibility that these drugs might be effective as single agents. The advantages of the third-generation cephalosporins are their minimal toxicity and long serum half-lives.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985APH3800013

    View details for PubMedID 3895922

  • Production of and response to interleukin 2 by cultured T-cells: Effects of lithium chloride and other putative immunomodulators. J Biol Resp Mod Kishter S, Hoffman FA, Pizzo PA 1985; 4: 185-94
  • An oral disease prevention program for patients receiving radiation and chemotherapy. JADA Wright WE, Haller JM, Harlow SA, Pizzo PA 1985; 110: 43-7
  • Empiric antimicrobial therapy in cancer patients. Modern Trends in Human Leukemia Browne M, Pizzo PA 1985: 112-18
  • Leukemias and Lymphomas Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology Poplack DG, Cassady JR, Pizzo PA 1985: 1963-98
  • Solid tumors of childhood Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology Pizzo PA, Miser J, Cassady JR, Filler RM 1985: 1511-29
  • Management of infections in cancer patients Cancer: Principles nad practice of Oncology Pizzo PA, Young RC 1985: 1963-98
  • Very high dose cyclophosphamide with imidazole carboximide, adn vincristine sulfate in the treatment of stage IV neuroblastoma. Am J Clin Oncol Srinivasan U, Glaubiger D, Levine AS, Magrath IT, Pizzo PA, Poplack DG 1985; 8: 210-4
  • Infections in the comporomised host. Practical PediatricTherapy Hoffman FA, Pizzo PA 1985: 705-32
  • Empiric antifungal therapy in the management of the febrile-granulocytopenic cancer patient. Clinical reviews in pediatric infectious disease Commers J, Pizzo PA 1985: 51-7
  • Prevention of infection in patinets with hematologic malignancy: A critical appraisal Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood and Blood Forming Organs Cotton D, Pizzo PA 1985: 919-41
  • Approaching the controversies in anti-bacterial management of cancer patients. Infectious complications of neoplastic disease Pizzo PA, Commers J, Cotton D, Hathorn J, Hiemenz J, Longo D, Marshall D, Robichaud K 1985: 49-72
  • Perspective randomized study of open lung biopsy versus empiric antibiotic therapy for acute pneumonitis in non-neutropenic cancer patients. Ann Thor Surg Potter P, Pass HI, Brower S, Macher A, Glatstein E, Browne M. Thaler M, Cotton D, Hathorn J, Wesley R, Longo 1985; 40: 422-8
  • Nosocomial sepsis in granulocytopenic cancer patients. Infections in Cancer Patients Skelton JD, Pizzo PA 1985: 18-30
  • Soft tissue sarcomas in children. Pediatric Oncology: Pediatric Clinics of North America Miser J, Pizzo PA 1985: 779-800
  • Practical considerations for the management of fever and infections in neutropenic patients. Clinics in Oncology Pizzo PA 1985: 405-34
  • Management of fever and infection in immunocompromised cancer patients. Medi-Guide to Infectious Diseases Pizzo PA 1984
  • New pulmonary infiltrates in granulocytopenic patients being treated with antibiotics. Pediatr Infect Dis Commers JC, Robichaud K, Pizzo PA 1984; 3: 423-8
  • Combined modality approaches to cancer therapy. J Am Med Assoc Brady LW, Lawrence W, Livingston RB, Moxley JH, Pizzo PA, Prosnitz LR, Serpick AA 1984; 251: 2398-406
  • Prophylaxis of fever and infection in adult cancer patients: A placebo controlled trial of oral trimethoprimsulfamethazole plus erythromycin. Cancer Kramer BS, Carr DJ, Rand KH, Pizzo PA, Johnson A, Roabichaud KJ, Yucha JB 1984; 53: 329-35
  • A prospective randomized study of adjuvant parenteral nutrition in the treatment of sarcomas: Resutlts of metastatic and survival studies. Surgery Shamberger RC, Brennan MF, Goodgame JT, Lowry SF, Maher MM, Wesley RA, Pizzo PA 1984; 96: 1-12
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: A comparison of clinical features in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome and patients with other immune disorders. Ann Intern Med Kovacs JA, Hiemenz JW, Macher AM, Stover D, Murray HW, Shelhamer J, Lane HC, Urmacher C, Honig C, Parker M, Nathanson C, Parrillo JE, Fauci AS, Pizzo PA, Masur H 1984; 100: 663-71
  • Empiric therapy and prevention of infection in the immunocompromised host. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. Pizzo PA 1984: 1680-8
  • Comparison of lysis centrifugation to lysis-filtration and conventional bottles for blood cultujres. J Clin Microbiol Gill VJ, Zierdt CH, Wu TC, Stock F, Pizzo PA, MacLowry JD 1984; 20: 927-32
  • Limitations of current antimicrobial therapy: Looking at both sides of the coin. Am j Med Pizzo PA, Young LS 1984; 76 (3A): 101-10
  • Approaching the controversies in the antibacterial management of cancer patients. Am J Med Pizzo PA, Commers J, Cotton D, Gress J, Hathorn J, Hiemenz J, Longo D, Marshall D, Robichaud KJ 1984; 76: 436-49
  • Granulocytopenia and cancer therapy: Past problems, current solutions, future challenges. Cancer Pizzo PA 1984; 54: 2649-61
  • Intensive combined modality therapy including low dose TBI in high risk Ewing's sarcoma patients. International J Rad Oncol Biol and Physics Kinsella TJ, Glaubiger D, Deisseroth A, Makuch R, Waller B, Pizzo PA, Glatstein E 1983; 9: 1955-60
  • Oral antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with cancer. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr Pizzo PA, Robichaud KJ, Edwards BK, Schumaker C, Kramer BS, Johnson A 1983; 102: 125-33
  • Empiric antifungal therapy in the management of the febrile granulocytopenic cancer patients. Pediatr Infect Dis Commers JR, Pizzo PA 1983; 2: 56-60
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis in the immunosuppressed patient with cancer. Currnt clinical topics in infectious disease Pizzo PA 1983: 153-67
  • Strategies for the prevention of infection in the myelosuppressed or immunosupressed cancer patient. Cancer treat Rep Pizzo PA, Schimpff SC 1983; 67: 223-34
  • Isolation techniques in hospitals. Pediatr Infect Dis Pizzo PA 1983; 2: 94-8
  • The effect of total parenteral nutrition on chemotherapy induced myelosuppression: A randomized study. Am J Med Shamberger RC, Pizzo PA, Goodgame JT Jr, Lowry SF, Maher MM, Wesley RA, Brennan MF 1983; 74: 40-8
  • Thoracic mass lesions in immuno-incompetent patients. Chest Johnston MR, Pizzo PA, Fauci AS 1982; 892: 164-7
  • The role of serial microbiologic surveillance and clinical evaluation in the management of cancer patients with fever and granulocytopenia. AMerican Journal of Medicine Kramer BK, Pizzo PA, Robichaud KJ , Witebsky F, Wesley R 1982; 72: 561-6
  • Infetious complications in the young patient with cancer: etiology pathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prevention. Cancer in the Young Pizzo PA 1982: 299-37
  • Infectious complications in patients with lung cancer. Lung Cancer Straus S, Pizzo PA, Fialk M 1982: 799
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma and the soft tissue sarcomas Cancer in the Young Pizzo PA 1982: 615-32
  • The role of empiric antifungal therapy for granulocytopenic patients with persistent fever Infections in Cancer Patients Commers J, Pizzo PA 1982: 157-70
  • Microbiological evaluation of food items J Am Diet Assoc Pizzo PA, Purvis DS, Waters C 1982; 81: 272-9
  • Controlled clinical trials for nutritional intervention as an adjunct to chemotherapy, with a comment on nutrition and drug resistance. Cancer Res Levine AS, Brennan MF, Ramu A, Fisher RI, Pizzo PA, Glaubiger DL 1982; 42: 774s-78s
  • Fever in the pediatric and young adult patient with cancer: A prospective study of 1001 episodes. Medicine Pizzo PA, Robichaud KJ, Wesley R, Commers J 1982; 61: 153-65
  • Correlates of control in pediatric cancer patients and their families. J pediatr Psychol Nannis ED, Susman EJ, Strope BE, Woodruff PJ, Hersh SP, Levine AS, Pizzo PA 1982; 7: 75-84
  • Management of infections of the cancer patient Principles and Practice of Oncology Pizzo PA, Young RC 1982: 1677-702
  • Concepts of cancer and the future: Perspectives of child and adolescent patients and their families J Pediatr Psychol Susman E, Hersh S, Nannis E, Strope B, Woodruff P, Levine AS, Pizzo PA 1982; 7: 253-61
  • Empiric antibiotic and antifungal therapy for cancer patients with prolonged fever and granulocytopenia. American Journal of Medicine Pizzo PA, Robichaud KJ, Gill FA, Witebsky FG 1982; 72: 101-11
  • Symptomatic and supportive care of the cancer patient Cancer in the Young Spiegel RJ, Pizzo PA 1982: 339-65
  • Do results justify the expense of protected environments? Controversies in Oncology Pizzo PA 1982: 267-77
  • Adolescent cancer: Getting through the aftermath Living and dying with cancer. Susman EJ, Pizzo PA, Poplack DG 1981: 99-117
  • Infectious complications in the child with cancer. III. Prevention. J pediatr Pizzo PA 1981; 98: 524-30
  • Infectious complications in the child with cancer. I. Pathophysiology of the compormised host and the initial evaluation and managment of the febrile cancer patient. J Pediatr Pizzo PA 1981; 98: 341-54
  • Characterization of the Epstein-Barr virus isolated from a cell line derived from a patient with American Burkitt's lymphoma Cancer Res Pizzo PA, Magrath IT, Jay G 1981; 41: 3161-4
  • Examination of Epstein-Barr virus and C-type proviral sequences in American and African lymphomas and derivative cell lines. Cancer Res Pizzo PA, Chattopadhyay SK, magrath IT, Del Giacco E, Sherrick D, Gray T 1981; 41: 3165-71
  • Infectious complications in children with cancer: Principles of management. Progress in diagnosis and treatment of tumors in children Pizzo PA, Levine AS 1981: 241-254
  • The value of protective isolation in preventing nosocomial infections in high risk patients. Am J Med Pizzo PA 1981; 70: 631-7
  • Tolerance to single-dose Dactinomycin in combination chemotherapy for solid tumors. Cancer Treat Rep Blatt J, Trigg ME, Pizzo PA, Glaubiger D 1981; 65: 145-7
  • infectious complications in the child with cancer. II. Management of specific infectious organisms. J Pediatr Pizzo PA 1981; 98: 513-23
  • Lethal pulmonary reactions associated with the combined use of amphotericin B and leukocyte transfusions. New England Journal of Medicine Wright DG, Robichaud KJ, Pizzo PA, Deisseroth AB 1981; 304: 1185-9
  • Antibiotic-resistant group J.K. bacteria in hospitals. J Clin Microbiol Gill VJ, Manning C, Lamson M, Woltering P, Pizzo PA 1981; 13: 472-7
  • A prospective naturalistic study of separation in child and adolescent cancer patients. J Appl Dev Psychol Susman EJ, Hollenbeck A, Nannis ED, Strope BE, Hersh SP, Levine AS, Pizzo PA 1981; 2: 29-74
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen in spinal fluid. Med Pediatr Oncol Spiegel RJ, Tabor E, Pizzo PA, Gerety RJ 1980; 8: 115-22
  • Fatal hepatic necrosis after high-dose chemotherapy following haloalkane anesthesia. Cancer Treat Rep Spiegel RJ, Pizzo Pa, Fantone JC, Zimmerman HJ 1980; 64: 1023-9
  • Simple and microbiologically safe portable transport unit for patients requiring protected isolation. J Clin Microbiol Talbot TL, Pizzo PA 1980; 11: 234-7
  • Treatment of gram-positive septicemia in cancer patients. Cancer Pizzo PA, Ladisch S, Robichaud K 1980; 45: 206-7
  • Children with serious illness: Behavioral correlates of separation and isolation. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev Hollenbeck AR, Susman EJ, Nannis ED, Strope BE, Hersh SP, Levine AS, Pizzo PA 1980; 11: 3-11
  • Characterization of lymphoma-derived cell lines: Comparison of cell lines positive and negative for Epstein -Barr virus nuclear antigen. II. Surface markers. J Natl Cancer Inst Magrath IT, Freeman CB, Pizzo PA, Gadek J, Jaffe E, Santaella M, Hammer C, Frank M, Reaman G, Novikovs L 1980; 64: 477-83
  • Prevention and Therapy of infection in cancer patients. Current chemotherapy in infectious disease Am Soc Microbiol Klastersky J, Schimpff SC, Glauser MP, Young LS, Zinner S, Gaya H, Pizzo PA, Bodey GP 1980: 1427-34
  • Characterization of lymphoma derived cell lines negaitive for Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen. I. Physical, cytogenetic and growth characteristics. J natl Cancer Inst Magrath IT, Pizzo PA, Whang-Peng J, Douglass EC, Alabaster O, Gerber P, Freeman CB, Novikovs L 1980; 64: 465-76
  • Separation-deprivation and childhood cancer: A conceptual re-evaluation Psychological Aspects of Childhood Cancer Susman Ej, Hollenbeck AR, Strope BE, Hersh SP, Levine AS, Pizzo PA 1980: 155-70
  • Experimental approaches to the treatment of CNS leukemia. The American journal of pediatric hematology/oncology POPLACK, D. G., Bleyer, W. A., Pizzo, P. A. 1979; 1 (2): 141-149

    Abstract

    Some of the current experimental approaches to the treatment of CNS leukemia are reviewed. While small animal models have provided a basic understanding of the pathophysiology of meningeal leukemia, large animal models, particularly the subhuman primate, allow a more detailed examination of the complex dynamics of CNS pharmacokinetics. Principles derived from these models have provided a rational basis for the development of new approaches to the treatment of meningeal leukemia in man.

    View details for PubMedID 120681

  • Neurotoxicities of current leukemia therapy. The American journal of pediatric hematology/oncology Pizzo, P. A., POPLACK, D. G., Bleyer, W. A. 1979; 1 (2): 127-140

    Abstract

    While major advances have been made in the treatment of acute leukemia, complications of therapy are significant. One of the most worisome complications is the neurotoxicity which is related to both central nervous system prophylaxis (cranial irradiatif neurotoxicity may be acute or delayed, and may range in severity from mild headaches ann of treatment-related neurotoxicity is important since this may permit amelioration of otherwise irreversible neurological sequelae in some patients. We review the clinical, phyh irradiation and chemotherapy, and offer recommendations for monitoring, evaluating and treating patients with potential or proven neurotoxicity.

    View details for PubMedID 396797

  • Detection of Candida antigen in sera of patients with candidiasis by an enzymne-linked immunosorbent assay-inhibition technique. J Clin Microbiol Segal E, Berg RA, Pizzo PA, Bennett JE 1979; 10: 477-81
  • Pyomyositis in acute lymphocytic leukemia heralded by cutaneous vasculitis. Med Pediatr Oncol Blatt J, Reaman B, Pizzo PA 1979; 7: 237-9
  • Enhancemet of Epstein-Barr virus replication in producer cell lines by a combination of low-temperature and corticosteroids. Virology Magrath IT, Pizzo PA, Novikovs L, levine AS 1979; 97: 477-81
  • Past, present and future studies of protected environment regimens in cancer treatment. Environ Sci Pizzo PA, Levine AS, Robichaud K, marshall D, Susman E 1979; 22: 27-9
  • Association of cytomegalovirus with acute colitis in a patient with lymphoma Am J Pediatr Hematol/Oncol Bode U, Pizzo PA 1979; 1: 185-7
  • Duration of empiric antibiotic therapy in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. American Journal of Medicine Pizzo PA, Robichaud KJ, Gill FA, Witebsky FG, Levine AS, Deisseroth AB, Glaubiger DL, MacLowry JD, Magrath IT, Poplack DG, Simon RM 1979; 67: 194-200
  • Experimental approaches to the treatment of CNS leukemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol/Oncol Poplack DG, Bleyer WA, Pizzo PA 1979; 1: 141-9
  • Induction of Epstein-Barr virus in Burkitt's lymphoma cells. Steroid Receptors and the Management of Cancer Pizzo PA, Magrath IT 1979; 2: 131-6
  • Gnotobiology in the treatment of Cancer. Clinical and experimental gnotobiotics; Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie Levine AS, Pizzo PA 1979: 357-67
  • Neurotoxicities of current leukemia therapy. Am J Pediatr Hematol/Oncol Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, Bleyer WA 1979; 1: 127-40
  • Interactions between primary caregivers and children with cancer: A methodology for systematic observation in a hospital setting. Death and dying theory, research and practice Susman EJ, Hollenbeck AR, Nannis ED, Stroper BE, Hersh SP, Levine AS, Pizzo PA 1979: 213-24
  • Mangement of infections in children with cancer Pediatric Cancer Therapy Levine AS, Pizzo PA 1979: 233-60
  • Managing infections in children with cancer. pediatr Ann Levine AS, Pizzo PA 1979; 8: 65-92
  • Abnormal computed Tomography Scans in Children with Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) Therapy of Acute Leukemia Poplack DG, Peylan-Ramu N, Pizzo PA, Di Chiro G 1979: 544-60
  • Late soft tissue recurrence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a site of antecedent trauma. J Pediatr Reaman GH, Poplack DG, Pizzo PA 1978; 92: 849-50
  • Increasing incidence of gram-positive sepsis in cancer patients. Med Pediatr Oncol Pizzo PA, ladisch S, Simon RM, Gill F, Levine AS 1978; 5: 241-4
  • Iatrogenic lactic acidosis: association with hypertonic glucose administration in a patient with cancer. Cancer Goodgame JT, Pizzo PA, Brennan MF 1978; 42: 800-3
  • The Ommaya reservoir: newly recognized complications and recommendations for insertion and use. Cancer Bleyer WA, Pizzo PA, Spence AM, Platt WD, Benjamin DR, Kolins J, Poplack DG 1978; 41: 2431-7
  • Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in children with cancer. Pediatrics Ladisch S, Piaao PA 1978; 61: 231-4
  • Abnormal CT scans of the brain in asymptomatic children with acute lymphocytic leukemia after prophylactic treatment of the central nervous system with radiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. New England Journal of Medicine Peylan-Ramu N, Poplack DG, Pizzo PA, Adornato BT, Di Chiro G. 1978; 298: 815-18
  • Combined modality treatment of Burkitt's lymphoma. Cancer Treat REp Ziegler JL, Magrath IT, Deisseroth AB, Glaubiger DL, Kent HC, Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, Levine AS 1978; 68: 2031-34
  • Meningeal relapse of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma. Med Pediatr Oncol Fusner JE, Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, Freeman C 1978; 4: 247-51
  • Prolonged complete remission following high-dose chemotherapy of Burkitt's lymphoma in relapse. Cancer Applebaum FR, Deisseroth AB, Graw RG, Herzig GP, Levine AS, Magrath IT, Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, Ziegler JL 1978; 41: 1059-63
  • Fever of Unknown Origin Principles of Pediatrics: Health Care of the Young Pizzo PA 1978: 1839-42
  • A new tumor-derived transforming strain of Epstein-Barr virus. Nature Pizzo PA, Magrath IT, Chattopadhyay SK, Biggar RJ, Gerber P 1978; 272: 629-31
  • Sequential combination chemotherapy (containing high-dose cyclophosphamide) in the treatment of metastatic osteogenic sarcoma. Cancer Treat Rep Levine AS, Applebaum FR, Graw RG, Magrath IT, Pizzo PA, Poplack DG, Ziegler JL 1978; 62: 247-50
  • Alpha-hemolytic strptococci: clinical significance in the cancer patients. Med Pediatr Oncol Pizzo PA, Ladisch S, Witebsky FG 1978; 4: 367-70
  • The utility of protected-environment regimens for the compromised host: A critical assessment. Progress in Hematology Pizzo PA, Levine AS 1977; 10: 311-32
  • Leukocencephalopathy following chemotherapy for rhabdomyosarcoma: Reversibility of cerebral changes demonstrated by computed tomography. J Pediatr Fusner J, Poplack DG, Pizzo PA, DiChiro G. 1977; 91: 77-9
  • Blindness during remission in two patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer marglieth DA, Poplack DG, Pizzo PA, Leventhal BG 1977; 39: 58-61
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia in children: A preliminary report of combination chemotherapy. J pediatr Pizzo PA, henderson ES, Leventhal BG. 1976; 88: 125-30
  • Reversible dementia temporally associated with intraventricular therapy with methotrexate in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia J Pediatr Pizzo PA, Bleyer WA, Poplack DG, Leventhal BG 1976; 88: 131-3
  • Prolonged fever in children. Pediatr Pizzo PA, Lovejoy FH Jr., Smith DH. 1975; 55: 468-73
  • Health care workers poisitive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Are their contacts at risk? New England Journal of Medicine Alter HJ, Chalmers TC, Freeman BM, Lunceford JL, Lewis TL, Holland PV, Pizzo PA, Plotz PH, Meyers WJ III 1975; 292: 454-7
  • The pediatric internship as a teaching technique Pediatr Roghmann K, Pizzo PA, Guyer B, Graham E, Graham D, Guyer B, Harris P 1975; 56: 239-45
  • Fever Manual of Pediatric Therapeutics Pizzo PA 1974: 173

Conference Proceedings


  • Long-term virologic and immunologic responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children treated with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine Jankelevich, S., Mueller, B. U., Mackall, C. L., Smith, S., Zwerski, S., Wood, L. V., Zeichner, S. L., Serchuck, L., STEINBERG, S. M., Nelson, R. P., Sleasman, J. W., Nguyen, B. Y., Pizzo, P. A., Yarchoan, R. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2001: 1116-1120

    Abstract

    Virologic and immunologic responses were examined for 33 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children who participated for > or = 96 weeks in a phase 1/2 protocol of 16 weeks of indinavir monotherapy, followed by the addition of zidovudine and lamivudine. At week 96, a median increase of 199 CD4+ T cells/microL and a median decrease of 0.74 log(10) HIV RNA copies/mL were observed. The relationship between control of viral replication and CD4) T cell count was examined. Patients were categorized into 3 response groups on the basis of duration and extent of control of viral replication. Of 21 children with a transient decrease in virus load of > or = 0.7 log(10) HIV RNA copies/mL from baseline, 7 experienced sustained increases in CD4+, CD4+ CD45RA+, and CD4+ CD45RO+ T cell counts. CD4+ CD45RA+ (naive) T cells were the major contributor to CD4+ T cell expansion. Continued long-term immunologic benefit may be experienced by a subset of children, despite only transient virologic suppression.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167366900018

    View details for PubMedID 11237839

  • Esophageal candidiasis in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: clinical manifestations and risk factors Chiou, C. C., Groll, A. H., Gonzalez, C. E., Callender, D., Venzon, D., Pizzo, P. A., Wood, L., Walsh, T. J. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2000: 729-734

    Abstract

    Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical features of esophageal candidiasis (EC) in pediatric AIDS. We therefore investigated the clinical presentation and risk factors of EC in a large prospectively monitored population of HIV-infected children at the National Cancer Institute.We reviewed the records of all HIV-infected children (N = 448) followed between 1987 and 1995 for a history of esophageal candidiasis to characterize the epidemiology, clinical features, therapeutic interventions and outcome of esophageal candidiasis. To understand further the risk factors for EC in pediatric AIDS, we then performed a matched case-control analysis of 25 patients for whom control cases were available.There were 51 episodes of EC documented in 36 patients with 23 male and 13 female patients (0.2 to 17 years; median CD4, count 11/microl), representing a frequency of EC of 8.0%. Concurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) was the most common clinical presentation of EC (94%); other signs and symptoms included odynophagia (80%), retrosternal pain (57%), fever (29%), nausea/vomiting (24%), drooling (12%), dehydration (12%), hoarseness (6%) and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (6%). The causative organism documented in 36 episodes (18 from OPC, 17 from endoscopic biopsy and 1 from autopsy) was Candida albicans in all cases. Patients received treatment for EC with amphotericin B (63%), fluconazole (29%), ketoconazole (4%) or itraconazole (1%). A clinical response was documented in all 45 evaluable episodes. In 6 other cases, EC was a final event without contributing to the cause of death. By a conditional logistic regression model for matched data, the best predictor of EC was the presence of prior OPC (P<0.0001), followed by CD4 count and CD4 percentage (P = 0.0002) and use of antibacterial antibiotics (P = 0.0013). The risks associated with low CD4 count were independent of that of prior OPC.EC in pediatric AIDS is a debilitating infection, which develops in the setting of prior OPC, low CD4 counts and previous antibiotics.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088754800010

    View details for PubMedID 10959741

  • Preliminary evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) immunogen in children with HIV-1 infection Sei, S., Sandelli, S. L., Theofan, G., Ratto-Kim, S., Kumagai, M., Loomis-Price, L. D., Cox, J. H., Jarosinski, P., Walsek, C. M., Brouwers, P., VENZON, D. J., Xu, J., Pizzo, P. A., Moss, R. B., ROBB, M. L., Wood, L. V. UNIV CHICAGO PRESS. 1999: 626-640

    Abstract

    The safety and preliminary activity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) immunogen were evaluated in 10 HIV-1-infected children with disease stage N1,2 or A1,2. Multiple inoculations of 2. 5 or 10 units (U) of HIV-1 immunogen were safe and well tolerated without an acceleration of disease progression. When antiretroviral agents were coadministered, the 10 U dose appeared to be associated with more sustained reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA than the 2.5 U dose (median log10 HIV-1 RNA at month 18, 3.07 vs. 4.01 copies/mL in 10 U [n=4] vs. 2.5 U [n=3], respectively; P=.034). Levels of regulated-on-activation, normal T cell-expressed and -secreted chemokine produced from HIV-1 immunogen-stimulated lymphocytes in vitro were increased in the children who had HIV-1 immunogen-specific antibody responses (P<.02) and appeared to be inversely correlated with levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA (P<.01). These preliminary data warrant larger studies to determine the effectiveness of adjunctive therapy with HIV-1 immunogen in children with HIV-1 infection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000082246300009

    View details for PubMedID 10438349

  • Interleukin-4 suppresses antifungal activity of human mononuclear phagocytes against Candida albicans in association with decreased uptake of blastoconidia Roilides, E., Kadiltsoglou, I., Dimitriadou, A., Hatzistilianou, M., Manitsa, A., KARPOUZAS, J., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1997: 169-180

    Abstract

    Pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis may involve regulatory activities of Th2 immunity on phagocytic host defenses. The effects of interleukin (IL)-4 on antifungal capacity of human mononuclear phagocytes against Candida albicans were studied. Incubation of adherent mononuclear leukocytes from healthy donors with IL-4 (1-5 ng ml(-1)) at 37 degrees C for 2-4 days suppressed uptake of C. albicans blastoconidia in the presence of human serum (P < or = 0.01), and anti-IL-4 inhibited its suppressive effect. The effect of IL-4 was protein synthesis-dependent. Interferon-gamma (0.25-25 ng ml(-1)), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF, 20 ng ml(-1)), macrophage-CSF (15 ng ml(-1)) but not IL-10 (100 ng ml(-1)) somewhat counteracted the suppressive effect of IL-4. In contrast, mannose receptor-mediated uptake of blastoconidia in the absence of serum was increased by IL-4. Killing of conidia was decreased after incubation of morphonuclear leukocytes with IL-4 for 2 days (P < 0.05). While superoxide anion production in response to phorbol myristate acetate was decreased by IL-4 (P < 0.05), it was not altered in response to blastoconidia and pseudohyphae. Morphonuclear leukocyte-induced pseudohyphal damage also remained unaltered. These findings suggest that IL-4 plays its detrimental role in invasive candidiasis by predominantly suppressing uptake and killing of blastoconidia by morphonuclear leukocytes. Anti-IL-4, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF and M-CSF appear to counteract suppression of morphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic activity suggesting new approaches to the management of disseminated candidiasis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YD55100009

    View details for PubMedID 9395062

  • IL-10 exerts suppressive and enhancing effects on antifungal activity of mononuclear phagocytes against Aspergillus fumigatus Roilides, E., Dimitriadou, A., Kadiltsoglou, I., Sein, T., KARPOUZAS, J., Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 1997: 322-329

    Abstract

    Invasive aspergillosis has emerged as a frequent and serious infection in immunocompromised patients. We studied the effects of human IL-10 on antifungal activity of monocytes (MNCs) from healthy adults against Aspergillus fumigatus after incubation with IL-10 at 37 degrees C for 2 to 4 days. IL-10 (2-20 ng/ml)-pretreated MNCs exhibited approximately 40% suppression of superoxide anion (02-) production in response to PMA and FMLP (p < or = 0.003), and anti-IL-10 containing supernatant neutralized the IL-10 effect. IL-10 (20 ng/ml)-pretreated MNCs exhibited decreased damage of Aspergillus hyphae after 2 to 4 days (55-98% decrease, p < or = 0.04). The MNC phagocytic activity against conidia, as assessed by microscopy (percentage of phagocytosing MNCs and number of intracellular conidia per MNC) as well as by colony counting (colonies grown from intracellular conidia), was enhanced by 127% (p = 0.006), 14% (p = 0.03), and 23% (p = 0.009), respectively. MNC capacity to inhibit intracellular germination was marginally enhanced (p = 0.04) and intracellular conidiocidal activity was unaffected by IL-10. IL-4 (5 ng/ml) did not change the up-regulatory IL-10 effect on phagocytosis. IFN-gamma (25 ng/ml) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (20 ng/ml), but not macrophage CSF (15 ng/ml), appeared to counteract suppressive IL-10 effects. Thus, IL-10 suppresses oxidative burst and antifungal activity of MNCs against Aspergillus hyphae, while increasing their phagocytic activity. These findings further elucidate a potential role of IL-10 in the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis, which may lead to new treatment strategies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997VZ12800040

    View details for PubMedID 8977206

  • INFECTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR CHILDREN WITH CANCER AND AIDS - CONTRASTING DILEMMAS Chanock, S. J., Pizzo, P. A. W B SAUNDERS CO LTD. 1995: 197-208

    Abstract

    Infectious complications represent significant challenges for children with cancer and those infected with HIV. Although both have similarities in the disease- and treatment-related alterations in host defences, there are significant differences that can have an impact on the approach to treatment and prevention of the dominant infectious complications. An important difference is that children with cancer readily recover from neutropenia. Thus, the immune deficits are interspersed with intervals of immunological recovery. On the other hand, children with HIV infection do not appreciably recover from the progressive, immunological changes associated with the underlying HIV infection. The loss of cellular and humoral immunity is generally not reversible, and thus the risk of infection only increases over time. Bacteria constitute the predominant pathogen for paediatric cancer patients but invasive mycoses, viruses and parasitic infections are emerging as important pathogens. In paediatric cancer patients, strategies have been directed at altering or suppressing the endogenous colonization patterns of pathogenic bacteria. The success of this approach has been limited and at the expense of selecting for antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. Children with HIV infection are at risk of developing a wide spectrum of pathogens. Strategies for infection prevention in the HIV setting have been directed at specific organisms, generally using more specific antimicrobial agents and with greater success.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RH51800021

    View details for PubMedID 7560951

  • Markers and determinants of disease progression in children with HIV infection. The Pediatric AIDS Siena Workshop II. Pizzo, P. A., WILFERT, C. M. 1995: 30-44

    View details for PubMedID 8548344

  • CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ANTIRETROVIRAL AGENTS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN INFECTED WITH HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS - A PERSPECTIVE FROM THE NATIONAL-CANCER-INSTITUTE Pizzo, P. A. UNIV CHICAGO PRESS. 1990: S561-S569

    Abstract

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants and young children differs in a number of ways from that in adults. In most HIV-infected children the infection is acquired perinatally and the course of infection is more accelerated than in adults. Diseases related to B cell defects and dysgammaglobulinemia (e.g., multiple or recurrent bacterial infections) predominate early in the disease, and children can be symptomatic before their CD4+ count decreases. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis occurs frequently and almost exclusively in children, and a number of the opportunistic infections (e.g., cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis) or malignancies (e.g., Kaposi's sarcoma) occur infrequently in children. A major disease manifestation in the pediatric population is HIV encephalopathy, which results in impairment in neurologic development that can lead to loss or lack of developmental milestones and to diminished intellectual function. The methodology and design of clinical trials for the study of pediatric HIV infection should consider these clinical and laboratory manifestations as well as the developmental differences that reflect the disease in infants and young children.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DQ09600009

    View details for PubMedID 2201073

  • FUNGAL-INFECTIONS IN THE PEDIATRIC CANCER-PATIENT Pizzo, P. A., Walsh, T. J. W B SAUNDERS CO. 1990: 6-9

    Abstract

    Chemotherapy, while undeniably effective in controlling or eradicating a variety of neoplasms, is also accompanied by a number of toxicities. Foremost among these is neutropenia, which places the pediatric cancer patient at risk for serious fungal infections. The fungal organisms most commonly responsible for infection in neutropenic children are Candida, Aspergillus, Mucor, and the Phycomycetes. Common sites of infection include the oral cavity, sinuses, lung, and bloodstream. Recently, candidal infection of the liver was recognized as a growing problem. Diagnosis of deep-seated fungal infections, such as pneumonia and hepatic candidiasis, is extremely difficult, often requiring open-lung or liver biopsy, which a patient's hematologic status may not permit. Because early treatment significantly improves prognosis, empirical antifungal therapy may be indicated in selected patients. Amphotericin B is currently the antifungal agent of choice against most fungal organisms. Antifungal efficacy studies based on animal models of disseminated candidal infection suggest that amphotericin B combined with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) is more effective than amphotericin B alone against most deep-seated Candida infections. The investigational drug, fluconazole, appears as effective as amphotericin B plus 5-FC in the prevention and early treatment of disseminated candidiasis, and clinical trials to assess this potentially important role for the new antifungal agent are now being initiated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DJ40100003

    View details for PubMedID 2191445

  • From the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with unexplained fever. Hughes, W. T., Armstrong, D., Bodey, G. P., Feld, R., Mandell, G. L., Meyers, J. D., Pizzo, P. A., Schimpff, S. C., Shenep, J. L., Wade, J. C. 1990: 381-396

    View details for PubMedID 2179420

  • EXPERIMENTAL BASIS FOR USE OF FLUCONAZOLE FOR PREVENTIVE OR EARLY TREATMENT OF DISSEMINATED CANDIDIASIS IN GRANULOCYTOPENIC HOSTS Walsh, T. J., Lee, J., Aoki, S., Mechinaud, F., Bacher, J., LECCIONES, J., Thomas, V., Rubin, M., Pizzo, P. A. UNIV CHICAGO PRESS. 1990: S307-S317

    Abstract

    To determine the potential for the use of fluconazole for prevention and treatment of disseminated candidiasis in granulocytopenic patients, we investigated its activity and pharmacokinetics in models of acute, subacute, and chronic forms of disseminated candidiasis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits. Fluconazole was administered for systemic prophylaxis, early treatment, and delayed treatment. Single-dose and steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue penetration, and dose-response studies of the investigational compound were studied in subacutely infected granulocytopenic rabbits. Fluconazole was more effective when used for systemic prophylaxis or early treatment of disseminated candidiasis than for delayed treatment. Fluconazole was as effective as amphotericin B plus flucytosine in preventive and early treatment of disseminated candidiasis but was significantly less effective than amphotericin plus flucytosine in the treatment of chronic candidiasis. Dose-response studies demonstrated that the antifungal effect of fluconazole was dose- and time-dependent. Studies of the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in rabbits demonstrated a long half-life in plasma and a large volume of distribution, properties that correspond to the attainment of high levels of penetration into tissues at multiple organ sites. We conclude that fluconazole is effective for prevention and early treatment of disseminated candidiasis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits and that the evaluation of its use in preventive or early treatment of disseminated candidiasis in carefully designed clinical trials is warranted.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CZ28100012

    View details for PubMedID 2184509

  • PRACTICAL ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF CLINICAL-TRIALS FOR HIV-INFECTED INFANTS AND CHILDREN Pizzo, P. A. LIPPINCOTT-RAVEN PUBL. 1990: S61-S63

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EL48100012

    View details for PubMedID 2231304

  • CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER Pizzo, P. A. UNIV CHICAGO PRESS. 1989: S1551-S1563

    Abstract

    Methods of preventing the infectious complications that occur in patients undergoing therapy for cancer have been the focus of considerable research. Because infections arise from both the endogenous microbial flora and newly acquired organisms and because the pathogens include bacteria, fungi, viruses, and/or parasites and affect a number of different body sites, it has been difficult to conceive of a single or simple method of controlling these multiple infectious etiologies. The suppression or elimination of the host's own microbial flora by the use of various prophylactic antibiotics and the reduction in the patient's acquisition of new organisms by the use of isolation techniques have received the greatest attention. While a number of these approaches (including total protected isolation, nonabsorbable antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, selective decontamination, and most recently the quinolones) have appeared to reduce the incidence of infections, few have stood the test of time. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods are reviewed, and newer promising areas for current and future investigation are considered.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989BQ03H00003

    View details for PubMedID 2513631

  • EVALUATION OF FEVER IN THE PATIENT WITH CANCER Pizzo, P. A. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 1989: S9-S16

    Abstract

    During the last decade, the survival of patients with fever and neutropenia has continued to improve. This is largely a reflection of the increasing repertoire of antimicrobial agents available to treat the fevers and infections that arise in this ever-increasing population of patients. Although it would be optimal if therapeutic decisions could always be made based on the microbial isolates and their sensitivity patterns, this is generally not possible in the cancer patient. Fever remains the predominant manifestation of infection, but the underlying microbial etiology is infrequently delineated. In spite of improved diagnostic tests, clinical acumen along with vigilant and repetitive patient assessment remain the cornerstone for evaluation of the cancer patient who becomes febrile. Indeed, strict adherence to simple principles can have a significant impact on improving the chances for survival of cancer patients who develop fever or infection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989CN10800002

    View details for PubMedID 2693112

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