Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Musculoskeletal Radiology
  • Body Imaging
  • Diagnostic Radiology

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • GU Paper Presenter Award, Society of Abdominal Radiology (2013)
  • Scholar Award, Marsha Rivkin Center for Ovarian Cancer Research (2009)
  • Bronze Award (co-author), European Society of Gastrointestinal Radiology (2008)
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Swiss National Science Foundation (2007)
  • New Horizons Keynote Lecture “Cellular Imaging in Rheumatoid Arthritis”, ECR (2006)
  • Research Scholarship, Holcim Foundation, Switzerland (2006)
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellowship, Swiss National Science Foundation (2006)
  • “Jubiläumspreis” (award for the young researcher of the year), • 91. General Assembly of the Swiss Society of Radiology (2004)
  • Top 50 papers, • European Society of Gastrointestinal Radiology (2004)
  • Poster Award “summa cum laude” (co-author), Swiss Society of Radiology (2003)

Professional Education


  • Albert Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (1999) Germany
  • Medical Education:Albert Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (1998) Germany
  • Fellowship:Kantonal Hospital Frauenfeld (2006) Switzerland
  • Residency:University Hospital of Zurich (2005) Switzerland
  • Internship:University Hospital Freiburg (2000) Germany

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Molecular imaging in oncology
Cellular imaging of musculoskeletal inflammatory diseases
Kinematic musculoskeletal imaging
Magnetic resonance imaging of hepatic disorders

Clinical Trials


  • 3D Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Liver Metastases From Colon Cancer Recruiting

    Patients are invited to participate in a research study of liver perfusion (how blood flows to the liver over time). Researchers hope to learn whether perfusion characteristics of liver metastases may be predictive of response to treatment and whether liver perfusion characteristics can be used to follow response to treatment. Patients were selected as a possible participant in this study because they are identified as having liver metastases

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  • Combined F18 and F18 FDG PET/CT for Evaluation of Malignancy Recruiting

    Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET/CT is established as a powerful imaging tool for cancer detection and monitoring response to therapy. However, not all cancers are identified reliably due to variable rates of glucose metabolism. Sodium Fluorine-18 (F-18) was used in the 1970s for bone scanning and can be used as a skeletal tracer in current PET/CT scanners. The combined administration of F-18 and F-18 FDG in a single PET/CT scan for cancer detection was not attempted to date. However, such an approach has the potential to improve cancer diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and therapy monitoring. The combination of these technologies may also allow for shorter imaging times, lower costs, as well as improved screening or earlier cancer detection. The investigators will attempt a pilot study with 10 patients to acquire the preliminary results needed to proceed with additional 90 subjects.

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Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Ultrasound Molecular Imaging in a Human CD276 Expression-Modulated Murine Ovarian Cancer Model. Clinical cancer research Lutz, A. M., Bachawal, S. V., Drescher, C. W., Pysz, M. A., Willmann, J. K., Gambhir, S. S. 2014; 20 (5): 1313-1322

    Abstract

    To develop a mouse ovarian cancer model that allows modulating the expression levels of human vascular targets in mouse xenograft tumors and to test whether expression of CD276 during tumor angiogenesis can be visualized by molecularly targeted ultrasound in vivo.CD276-expressing MILE SVEN 1 (MS1) mouse endothelial cells were engineered and used for coinjection with 2008 human ovarian cancer cells for subcutaneous xenograft tumor induction in 15 nude mice. Fourteen control mice were injected with 2008 cells only. After confirming their binding specificity in flow chamber cell attachment studies, anti-CD276 antibody-functionalized contrast microbubbles were used for in vivo CD276-targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging.CD276-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was significantly higher (P = 0.006) in mixed MS1/2008 tumors than in control tumors. Compared with control microbubbles, the ultrasound signal using CD276-targeted microbubbles was significantly higher (P = 0.002), and blocking with purified anti-CD276 antibody significantly decreased (P = 0.0096) the signal in mixed MS1/2008 tumors. Immunofluorescence analysis of the tumor tissue confirmed higher quantitative immunofluorescence signal in mixed MS1/2008 tumors than in control 2008 only tumors, but showed not significantly different (P = 0.54) microvessel density.Our novel small animal model allows for modulating the expression of human tumor-associated vascular endothelial imaging targets in a mouse host and these expression differences can be visualized noninvasively by ultrasound molecular imaging. The animal model can be applied to other human vascular targets and may facilitate the preclinical development of new imaging probes such as microbubbles targeted at human vascular markers not expressed in mice. Clin Cancer Res; 20(5); 1313-22. ©2014 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1642

    View details for PubMedID 24389327

  • MR Imaging of the Brachial Plexus. Neuroimaging clinics of North America Lutz, A. M., Gold, G., Beaulieu, C. 2014; 24 (1): 91-108

    Abstract

    Continuous improvements in magnetic resonance scanner, coil, and pulse sequence technology have resulted in the ability to perform routine, high-quality imaging of the brachial plexus. With knowledge of the anatomy of the plexus, and a familiarity with common pathologic conditions affecting this area, radiologists can provide valuable imaging evaluation of patients with brachial plexus pathologies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nic.2013.03.024

    View details for PubMedID 24210315

  • Detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice by ultrasound imaging of thymocyte differentiation antigen 1. Gastroenterology Foygel, K., Wang, H., Machtaler, S., Lutz, A. M., Chen, R., Pysz, M., Lowe, A. W., Tian, L., Carrigan, T., Brentnall, T. A., Willmann, J. K. 2013; 145 (4): 885-894 e3

    Abstract

    Early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) allows for surgical resection and increases patient survival times. Imaging agents that bind and amplify the signal of neovascular proteins in neoplasms can be detected by ultrasound, enabling accurate detection of small lesions. We searched for new markers of neovasculature in PDAC and assessed their potential for tumor detection by ultrasound molecular imaging.Thymocyte Differentiation Antigen 1 (Thy1) was identified as a specific biomarker of PDAC neovasculature by proteomic analysis. Upregulation in PDAC was validated by immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic tissue samples from 28 healthy individuals, 15 with primary chronic pancreatitis tissues, and 196 with PDAC. Binding of Thy1-targeted contrast microbubbles was assessed in cultured cells, in mice with orthotopic PDAC xenograft tumors expressing human Thy1 on the neovasculature, and on the neovasculature of a genetic mouse model of PDAC.Based on immunohistochemical analyses, levels of Thy1 were significantly higher in the vascular of human PDAC than chronic pancreatitis (P=.007) or normal tissue samples (P<.0001). In mice, ultrasound imaging accurately detected human Thy1-positive PDAC xenografts, as well as PDACs that express endogenous Thy1 in genetic mouse models of PDAC.We have identified and validated Thy1 as a marker of PDAC that can be detected by ultrasound molecular imaging in mice. The development of a specific imaging agent and identification of Thy1 as a new biomarker could aid in the diagnosis of this cancer and management of patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.06.011

    View details for PubMedID 23791701

  • Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease with a Clinically Translatable Dual-Selectin-targeted US Contrast Agent: Comparison with FDG PET/CT in a Mouse Model. Radiology Wang, H., Machtaler, S., Bettinger, T., Lutz, A. M., Luong, R., Bussat, P., Gambhir, S. S., Tranquart, F., Tian, L., Willmann, J. K. 2013; 267 (3): 818-829

    Abstract

    Purpose: To develop and test a molecular imaging approach that uses ultrasonography (US) and a clinically translatable dual-targeted (P- and E-selectin) contrast agent (MBSelectin) in the quantification of inflammation at the molecular level and to quantitatively correlate selectin-targeted US with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) combined positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in terms of visualization and quantification of different levels of inflammation in a murine acute colitis model. Materials and Methods: Animal studies were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care at Stanford University. MBSelectin was developed by covalently binding an analog of the naturally occurring binding ligand P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 fused to a human fragment crystallizable(or Fc) domain onto the lipid shell of perfluorobutane and nitrogen-containing MBs. Binding specificity of MBSelectin was assessed in vitro with a flow chamber assay and in vivo with a chemically induced acute colitis murine model. US signal was quantitatively correlated with FDG uptake at PET/CT and histologic grade. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student t test, analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: MBSelectin showed strong attachment to both human and mouse P- and E-selectin compared with MBControl in vitro (P ? .002). In vivo, US signal was significantly increased (P < .001) in mice with acute colitis (173.8 arbitrary units [au] ± 134.8 [standard deviation]) compared with control mice (5.0 au ± 4.5). US imaging signal strongly correlated with FDG uptake on PET/CT images (? = 0.89, P < .001). Ex vivo analysis enabled confirmation of inflammation in mice with acute colitis and high expression levels of P- and E-selectin in mucosal capillaries (P = .014). Conclusion: US with MBSelectin specifically enables detection and quantification of inflammation in a murine acute colitis model, leveraging the natural pathway of leukocyte recruitment in inflammatory tissue. US imaging with MBSelectin correlates well with FDG uptake at PET/CT imaging. © RSNA, 2013 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122509/-/DC1.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.13122509

    View details for PubMedID 23371306

  • Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer with Ultrasound Molecular Imaging in a Transgenic Mouse Model CANCER RESEARCH Bachawal, S. V., Jensen, K. C., Lutz, A. M., Gambhir, S. S., Tranquart, F., Tian, L., Willmann, J. K. 2013; 73 (6): 1689-1698

    Abstract

    While there is an increasing role of ultrasound for breast cancer screening in patients with dense breast, conventional anatomical ultrasound lacks sensitivity and specificity for early breast cancer detection. In this study, we assessed the potential of ultrasound molecular imaging using clinically translatable vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2)-targeted microbubbles (MB(VEGFR2)) to improve the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in earlier detection of breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a transgenic mouse model [FVB/N-Tg(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul]. In vivo binding specificity studies (n = 26 tumors) showed that ultrasound imaging signal was significantly higher (P < 0.001) using MB(VEGFR2) than nontargeted microbubbles and imaging signal significantly decreased (P < 0.001) by blocking antibodies. Ultrasound molecular imaging signal significantly increased (P < 0.001) when breast tissue (n = 315 glands) progressed from normal [1.65 ± 0.17 arbitrary units (a.u.)] to hyperplasia (4.21 ± 1.16), DCIS (15.95 ± 1.31), and invasive cancer (78.1 ± 6.31) and highly correlated with ex vivo VEGFR2 expression [R(2) = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-0.91; P < 0.001]. At an imaging signal threshold of 4.6 a.u., ultrasound molecular imaging differentiated benign from malignant entities with a sensitivity of 84% (95% CI, 78-88) and specificity of 89% (95% CI, 81-94). In a prospective screening trail (n = 63 glands), diagnostic performance of detecting DCIS and breast cancer was assessed and two independent readers correctly diagnosed malignant disease in more than 95% of cases and highly agreed between each other [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.98; 95% CI, 97-99]. These results suggest that VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging allows highly accurate detection of DCIS and breast cancer in transgenic mice and may be a promising approach for early breast cancer detection in women.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-3391

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316187500006

    View details for PubMedID 23328585

  • Antiangiogenic and Radiation Therapy Early Effects on In Vivo Computed Tomography Perfusion Parameters in Human Colon Cancer Xenografts in Mice INVESTIGATIVE RADIOLOGY Ren, Y., Fleischmann, D., Foygel, K., Molvin, L., Lutz, A. M., Koong, A. C., Jeffrey, R. B., Tian, L., Willmann, J. K. 2012; 47 (1): 25-32

    Abstract

    To assess early treatment effects on computed tomography (CT) perfusion parameters after antiangiogenic and radiation therapy in subcutaneously implanted, human colon cancer xenografts in mice and to correlate in vivo CT perfusion parameters with ex vivo assays of tumor vascularity and hypoxia.Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (perfusion CT, 129 mAs, 80 kV, 12 slices × 2.4 mm; 150 ?L iodinated contrast agent injected at a rate of 1 mL/min intravenously) was performed in 100 subcutaneous human colon cancer xenografts on baseline day 0. Mice in group 1 (n=32) received a single dose of the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab (10 mg/kg body weight), mice in group 2 (n=32) underwent a single radiation treatment (12 Gy), and mice in group 3 (n=32) remained untreated. On days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after treatment, 8 mice from each group underwent a second CT perfusion scan, respectively, after which tumors were excised for ex vivo analysis. Four mice were killed after baseline scanning on day 0 for ex vivo analysis. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), and flow extraction product were calculated using the left ventricle as an arterial input function. Correlation of in vivo CT perfusion parameters with ex vivo microvessel density and extent of tumor hypoxia were assessed by immunofluorescence. Reproducibility of CT perfusion parameter measurements was calculated in an additional 8 tumor-bearing mice scanned twice within 5 hours with the same CT perfusion imaging protocol.The intraclass correlation coefficients for BF, BV, and flow extraction product from repeated CT perfusion scans were 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.97), 0.88 (0.66, 0.95), and 0.88 (0.56, 0.95), respectively. Changes in perfusion parameters and tumor volumes over time were different between treatments. After bevacizumab treatment, all 3 perfusion parameters significantly decreased from day 1 (P ? 0.006) and remained significantly decreased until day 7 (P ? 0.008); tumor volume increased significantly only on day 7 (P=0.04). After radiation treatment, all 3 perfusion parameters decreased significantly on day 1 (P < 0.001); BF and flow extraction product increased again on day 3 and 5, although without reaching statistically significant difference; and tumor volumes did not change significantly at all time points (P ? 0.3). In the control group, all 3 perfusion parameters did not change significantly, whereas tumor volume increased significantly at all the time points, compared with baseline (P ? 0.04). Ex vivo immunofluorescent staining showed good correlation between all 3 perfusion parameters and microvessel density (?=0.71, 0.66, and 0.69 for BF, BV, and flow extraction product, respectively; P < 0.001). There was a trend toward negative correlation between extent of hypoxia and all 3 perfusion parameters (?=-0.53, -0.47, and -0.40 for BF, BV, and flow extraction product, respectively; P ? 0.05).CT perfusion allows a reproducible, noninvasive assessment of tumor vascularity in human colon cancer xenografts in mice. After antiangiogenic and radiation therapy, BF, BV, and flow extraction product significantly decrease and change faster than the tumor volume.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/RLI.0b013e31823a82f6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298400100006

    View details for PubMedID 22178893

  • Quantification and Monitoring of Inflammation in Murine Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Targeted Contrast-enhanced US RADIOLOGY Deshpande, N., Lutz, A. M., Ren, Y., Foygel, K., Tian, L., Schneider, M., Pai, R., Pasricha, P. J., Willmann, J. K. 2012; 262 (1): 172-180

    Abstract

    To evaluate ultrasonography (US) by using contrast agent microbubbles (MBs) targeted to P-selectin (MB(P-selectin)) to quantify P-selectin expression levels in inflamed tissue and to monitor response to therapy in a murine model of chemically induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).All procedures in which laboratory animals were used were approved by the institutional administrative panel on laboratory animal care. Binding affinity and specificity of MB(P-selectin) were tested in cell culture experiments under flow shear stress conditions and compared with control MBs (MB(Control)). In vivo binding specificity of MB(P-selectin) to P-selectin was tested in mice with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis (n = 22) and control mice (n = 10). Monitoring of anti-tumor necrosis factor ? antibody therapy was performed over 5 days in an additional 30 mice with colitis by using P-selectin-targeted US imaging, by measuring bowel wall thickness and perfusion, and by using a clinical disease activity index score. In vivo targeted contrast material-enhanced US signal was quantitatively correlated with ex vivo expression levels of P-selectin as assessed by quantitative immunofluorescence.Attachment of MB(P-selectin) to endothelial cells was significantly (P = .0001) higher than attachment of MB(Control) and significantly (? = 0.83, P = .04) correlated with expression levels of P-selectin on endothelial cells. In vivo US signal in mice with colitis was significantly higher (P = .0001) with MB(P-selectin) than with MB(Control). In treated mice, in vivo US signal decreased significantly (P = .0001) compared with that in nontreated mice and correlated well with ex vivo P-selectin expression levels (? = 0.69; P = .04). Colonic wall thickness (P ? .06), bowel wall perfusion (P ? .85), and clinical disease activity scoring (P ? .06) were not significantly different between treated and nontreated mice at any time.Targeted contrast-enhanced US imaging enables noninvasive in vivo quantification and monitoring of P-selectin expression in inflammation in murine IBD.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.11110323

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298611500021

    View details for PubMedID 22056689

  • Early Diagnosis of Ovarian Carcinoma: Is a Solution in Sight? RADIOLOGY Lutz, A. M., Willmann, J. K., Drescher, C. W., Ray, P., Cochran, F. V., Urban, N., Gambhir, S. S. 2011; 259 (2): 329-345

    Abstract

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynecologic malignancies. Because ovarian cancer symptoms are subtle and nonspecific, the diagnosis is often delayed until the disease is well advanced. Overall 5-year survival is a rather dismal 50% but can be improved to greater than 90% if the disease is confined to the ovary at the time of diagnosis (generally in fewer than 25% of patients). Effective screening tools are currently not available. Owing to the rather low incidence of the disease in the general population, potential screening tests must provide very high specificity to avoid unnecessary interventions in false-positive cases. This article reviews currently available serum biomarkers and imaging tests for the early detection of ovarian cancer and provides an outlook on the potential improvements in these noninvasive diagnostic tools that may lead to successful implementation in a screening program. Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.11090563/-/DC1.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.11090563

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289667300006

    View details for PubMedID 21502390

  • Targeted Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis with Contrast Microbubbles Conjugated to Integrin-Binding Knottin Peptides JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Willmann, J. K., Kimura, R. H., Deshpande, N., Lutz, A. M., Cochran, J. R., Gambhir, S. S. 2010; 51 (3): 433-440

    Abstract

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging is increasingly being recognized as a powerful imaging tool for the detection and quantification of tumor angiogenesis at the molecular level. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new class of targeting ligands for targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of tumor angiogenesis with small, conformationally constrained peptides that can be coupled to the surface of ultrasound contrast agents.Directed evolution was used to engineer a small, disulfide-constrained cystine knot (knottin) peptide that bound to alpha(v)beta(3) integrins with a low nanomolar affinity (Knottin(Integrin)). A targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging contrast agent was created by attaching Knottin(Integrin) to the shell of perfluorocarbon-filled microbubbles (MB-Knottin(Integrin)). A knottin peptide with a scrambled sequence was used to create control microbubbles (MB-Knottin(Scrambled)). The binding of MB-Knottin(Integrin) and MB-Knottin(Scrambled) to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-positive cells and control cells was assessed in cell culture binding experiments and compared with that of microbubbles coupled to an anti-alpha(v)beta(3) integrin monoclonal antibody (MB(alphavbeta3)) and microbubbles coupled to the peptidomimetic agent c(RGDfK) (MB(cRGD)). The in vivo imaging signals of contrast-enhanced ultrasound with the different types of microbubbles were quantified in 42 mice bearing human ovarian adenocarcinoma xenograft tumors by use of a high-resolution 40-MHz ultrasound system.MB-Knottin(Integrin) attached significantly more to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-positive cells (1.76 +/- 0.49 [mean +/- SD] microbubbles per cell) than to control cells (0.07 +/- 0.006). Control MB-Knottin(Scrambled) adhered less to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-positive cells (0.15 +/- 0.12) than MB-Knottin(Integrin). After blocking of integrins, the attachment of MB-Knottin(Integrin) to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-positive cells decreased significantly. The in vivo ultrasound imaging signal was significantly higher after the administration of MB-Knottin(Integrin) than after the administration of MB(alphavbeta3) or control MB-Knottin(Scrambled). After in vivo blocking of integrin receptors, the imaging signal after the administration of MB-Knottin(Integrin) decreased significantly (by 64%). The imaging signals after the administration of MB-Knottin(Integrin) were not significantly different in the groups of tumor-bearing mice imaged with MB-Knottin(Integrin) and with MB(cRGD). Ex vivo immunofluorescence confirmed integrin expression on endothelial cells of human ovarian adenocarcinoma xenograft tumors.Integrin-binding knottin peptides can be conjugated to the surface of microbubbles and used for in vivo targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of tumor angiogenesis. Our results demonstrate that microbubbles conjugated to small peptide-targeting ligands provide imaging signals higher than those provided by a large antibody molecule.

    View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.109.068007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275133100026

    View details for PubMedID 20150258

  • Focal Liver Lesions: Detection and Characterization at Double-Contrast Liver MR Imaging with Ferucarbotran and Gadobutrol versus Single-Contrast Liver MR Imaging RADIOLOGY Heilmaier, C., Lutz, A. M., Bolog, N., Weishaupt, D., Seifert, B., Willmann, J. K. 2009; 253 (3): 724-733

    Abstract

    To retrospectively compare, in a multiobserver study, double-contrast-material (sequential administration of ferucarbotran and gadobutrol) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with single-contrast-material ferucarbotran-enhanced and dynamic postferucarbotran gadobutrol-enhanced MR imaging for the detection and characterization of benign and malignant focal liver lesions.This study was institutional review board approved, and the requirement for informed patient consent was waived. Eighty-nine patients with a total of 128 focal liver lesions underwent double-contrast liver MR imaging (nonenhanced, ferucarbotran-enhanced, and dynamic postferucarbotran gadobutrol-enhanced MR imaging performed during one session). Four readers independently reviewed the data sets during three reading sessions focused on focal liver lesion detection and characterization: In session 1, the nonenhanced and dynamic postferucarbotran gadobutrol-enhanced images obtained at double-contrast MR imaging were analyzed. In session 2, the nonenhanced and ferucarbotran-enhanced images were analyzed. In session 3, all MR images were analyzed together. The diagnostic performance of each MR technique and each reader was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; differences between postferucarbotran gadobutrol-enhanced, ferucarbotran-enhanced, and double-contrast MR imaging were assessed at Wilcoxon signed rank testing; and interreader agreement was assessed at Cohen kappa analysis. Histopathologic confirmation or an unchanged clinical course or MR finding was the reference standard.The four readers' detection of the benign and malignant lesions was not significantly different (P > or = .11) between the three MR techniques. The benign and malignant focal liver lesions were differentiated with significantly higher confidence (P < or = .01) on the double-contrast (area under ROC curve [A(z)] = 0.988) and ferucarbotran-enhanced (A(z) = 0.985) MR images than on the dynamic gadobutrol-enhanced images (A(z) = 0.963). Accuracy in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was highest (P = .02) and confidence in the final diagnosis of HCC (P = .001) or metastasis (P = .049) was significantly higher with double-contrast imaging.In select cases, double-contrast MR imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy and increase confidence in characterizing focal liver lesions as HCC or metastasis.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2533090161

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272247300019

    View details for PubMedID 19789232

  • MR angiography with parallel acquisition for assessment of the visceral arteries: comparison with conventional MR angiography and 64-detector-row computed tomography EUROPEAN RADIOLOGY Sutter, R., Heilmaier, C., Lutz, A. M., Weishaupt, D., Seifert, B., Willmann, J. K. 2009; 19 (11): 2679-2688

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to retrospectively compare three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (conventional MRA) with MRA accelerated by a parallel acquisition technique (fast MRA) for the assessment of visceral arteries, using 64-detector-row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) as the reference standard. Eighteen patients underwent fast MRA (imaging time 17 s), conventional MRA (29 s) and MDCTA of the abdomen and pelvis. Two independent readers assessed subjective image quality and the presence of arterial stenosis. Data were analysed on per-patient and per-segment bases. Fast MRA yielded better subjective image quality in all segments compared with conventional MRA (P = 0.012 for reader 1, P = 0.055 for reader 2) because of fewer motion-induced artefacts. Sensitivity and specificity of fast MRA for the detection of arterial stenosis were 100% for both readers. Sensitivity of conventional MRA was 89% for both readers, and specificity was 100% (reader 1) and 99% (reader 2). Differences in sensitivity between the two types of MRA were not significant for either reader. Interobserver agreement for the detection of arterial stenosis was excellent for fast (kappa = 1.00) and good for conventional MRA (kappa = 0.76). Thus, subjective image quality of visceral arteries remains good on fast MRA compared with conventional MRA, and the two techniques do not differ substantially in the grading of arterial stenosis, despite the markedly reduced acquisition time of fast MRA.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00330-009-1473-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270838000016

    View details for PubMedID 19526242

  • USPIO-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the knee in asymptomatic volunteers EUROPEAN RADIOLOGY Reiner, C. S., Lutz, A. M., Tschirch, F., Froehlich, J. M., Gaillard, S., Marincek, B., Weishaupt, D. 2009; 19 (7): 1715-1722

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to compare signal characteristics of the synovium in knees of asymptomatic volunteers before and after intravenous administration of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO). Ten knees of 10 asymptomatic volunteers were examined before and 36 h after intravenous administration of USPIO on a 1.5-T MR system using T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast spin-echo, T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE), and short inversion time inversion-recovery sequences. In addition, synovial perfusion was measured using Gd-enhanced GRE imaging during the first imaging session. Images were analyzed qualitatively for any visual changes before and after USPIO administration. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the synovium were determined on unenhanced and USPIO-enhanced sequences. All MR images were reviewed for presence of any degenerative changes. Qualitative image analysis revealed no visually detectable changes of any knee joint before and after USPIO administration. The SNR values of the synovium on T1w, T2w, and T2*w images before and after USPIO administration showed no significant difference (T1, P = 0.86; T2, P = 0.95; T2*, P = 0.86). None of the volunteers showed any relevant degenerative changes of the knee and synovial perfusion was within normal limits. In knees of asymptomatic volunteers without any relevant degenerative changes and normal synovial perfusion neither visual changes nor changes of SNR values of the synovium can be depicted after USPIO administration. This means that USPIO-enhanced MRI may be used for assessment of knee disorders with increased macrophage activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00330-009-1343-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266780800022

    View details for PubMedID 19330333

  • Imaging Gene Expression in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From Small to Large Animals RADIOLOGY Willmann, J. K., Paulmurugan, R., Rodriguez-Porcel, M., Stein, W., Brinton, T. J., Connolly, A. J., Nielsen, C. H., Lutz, A. M., Lyons, J., Ikeno, F., Suzuki, Y., Rosenberg, J., Chen, I. Y., Wu, J. C., Yeung, A. C., Yock, P., Robbins, R. C., Gambhir, S. S. 2009; 252 (1): 117-127

    Abstract

    To evaluate the feasibility of reporter gene imaging in implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in porcine myocardium by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) scanning.Animal protocols were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. Transduction of human MSCs by using different doses of adenovirus that contained a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter driving the mutant herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase reporter gene (Ad-CMV-HSV1-sr39tk) was characterized in a cell culture. A total of 2.25 x 10(6) transduced (n = 5) and control nontransduced (n = 5) human MSCs were injected into the myocardium of 10 rats, and reporter gene expression in human MSCs was visualized with micro-PET by using the radiotracer 9-(4-[fluorine 18]-fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)-guanine (FHBG). Different numbers of transduced human MSCs suspended in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (n = 4) or matrigel (n = 5) were injected into the myocardium of nine swine, and gene expression was visualized with a clinical PET-CT. For analysis of cell culture experiments, linear regression analyses combined with a t test were performed. To test differences in radiotracer uptake between injected and remote myocardium in both rats and swine, one-sided paired Wilcoxon tests were performed. In swine experiments, a linear regression of radiotracer uptake ratio on the number of injected transduced human MSCs was performed.In cell culture, there was a viral dose-dependent increase of gene expression and FHBG accumulation in human MSCs. Human MSC viability was 96.7% (multiplicity of infection, 250). Cardiac FHBG uptake in rats was significantly elevated (P < .0001) after human MSC injection (0.0054% injected dose [ID]/g +/- 0.0007 [standard deviation]) compared with that in the remote myocardium (0.0003% ID/g +/- 0.0001). In swine, myocardial radiotracer uptake was not elevated after injection of up to 100 x 10(6) human MSCs (PBS group). In the matrigel group, signal-to-background ratio increased to 1.87 after injection of 100 x 10(6) human MSCs and positively correlated (R(2) = 0.97, P < .001) with the number of administered human MSCs.Reporter gene imaging in human MSCs can be translated to large animals. The study highlights the importance of co-administering a "scaffold" for increasing intramyocardial retention of human MSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2513081616

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268362900015

    View details for PubMedID 19366903

  • Targeted microbubbles for imaging tumor angiogenesis: Assessment of whole-body biodistribution with dynamic micro-PET in mice RADIOLOGY Willmann, J. K., Cheng, Z., Davis, C., Lutz, A. M., Schipper, M. L., Nielsen, C. H., Gambhir, S. S. 2008; 249 (1): 212-219

    Abstract

    To evaluate in vivo whole-body biodistribution of microbubbles (MBs) targeted to tumor angiogenesis-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by using dynamic micro-positron emission tomography (PET) in living mice.Animal protocols were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. Lipid-shell perfluorocarbon-filled MBs, targeted to VEGFR2 via anti-VEGFR2 antibodies, were radiolabeled by conjugating the radiofluorination agent N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate (SFB) to the anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. These MBs were then injected intravenously into nude mice (n = 4) bearing angiosarcomas, and the whole-body biodistribution of these probes was assessed for 60 minutes by using dynamic micro-PET. Results were compared with ex vivo gamma counting (n = 6) and immunofluorescence staining (n = 6). Control studies in angiosarcoma-bearing mice were performed with injection of the radiolabeled antibodies alone (n = 3) or free SFB (n = 3). A mixed-effects regression of MB accumulation on fixed effects of time and tissue type (tumor or muscle) and random effect of animal was performed.VEGFR2-targeted MBs rapidly cleared from the blood circulation (50% blood clearance after approximately 3.5 minutes) and accumulated in the liver (mean, 33.4% injected dose [ID]/g +/- 13.7 [standard deviation] at 60 minutes) and spleen (mean, 9.3% ID/g +/- 6.5 at 60 minutes) on the basis of micro-PET imaging. These findings were confirmed with ex vivo gamma counting. Uptake of targeted MBs was significantly higher (P < .0001) in tumor than in adjacent skeletal muscle tissue. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated accumulation of the targeted MBs within hepatic Kupffer cells and splenic macrophages. Biodistribution of the radiolabeled antibodies and free SFB differed from the distribution of the targeted MBs.Dynamic micro-PET allows assessment of in vivo biodistribution of VEGFR2-targeted MBs.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2491072050

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259505200025

    View details for PubMedID 18695212

  • Dual-targeted contrast agent for US assessment of tumor angiogenesis in vivo RADIOLOGY Willmann, J. K., Lutz, A. M., Paulmurugan, R., Patel, M. R., Chu, P., Rosenberg, J., Gambhir, S. S. 2008; 248 (3): 936-944

    Abstract

    To develop and validate a dual-targeted ultrasonographic (US) imaging agent with microbubbles (MBs) that attaches to both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and to compare the US imaging signal obtained from dual-targeted MBs (MB(D)) with that from single-targeted MBs (MB(S)) in a murine model of tumor angiogenesis.Animal protocols were approved by the institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. Single- and dual-targeted US imaging agents were prepared by attaching anti-VEGFR2, anti-alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, or both antibodies to the shell of perfluorocarbon-filled MBs. Binding specificities of targeted MBs compared with isotype-matched immunoglobulin G-labeled control MBs (MB(C)) and nontargeted nonlabeled MBs (MB(N)) were tested with VEGFR2-positive and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-positive cells (mouse SVR cells) and control cells (mouse 4T1 cells). In vivo imaging signals of contrast material-enhanced US by using anti-VEGFR2-targeted MBs (MB(V)), anti-alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-targeted MBs (MB(I)), MB(D), and MB(C) were quantified in 49 mice bearing SK-OV-3 tumors (human ovarian cancer). Tumor tissue was stained for VEGFR2, alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, and CD31.Attachment of MB(D) to SVR cells (mean, 0.74 MBs per cell +/- 0.05 [standard deviation]) was significantly higher than attachment to 4T1 cells (mean, 0.04 +/- 0.03), and attachment to SVR cells was higher for MB(D) than for MB(V) (mean, 0.58 +/- 0.09), MB(I) (mean, 0.42 +/- 0.21), MB(C) (mean, 0.11 +/- 0.13), and MB(N) (mean, 0.01 +/- 0.01) (P < .05). Imaging signal in the murine tumor angiogenesis model was significantly higher (P < .001) for MB(D) (mean, 16.7 +/- 7.2) than for MB(V) (mean, 11.3 +/- 5.7), MB(I) (mean, 7.8 +/- 5.3), MB(C) (mean, 2.8 +/- 0.9), and MB(N) (mean, 1.1 +/- 0.4). Immunofluorescence confirmed expression of VEGFR2 and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin on tumor vasculature.Dual-targeted contrast-enhanced US directed at both VEGFR2 and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin improves in vivo visualization of tumor angiogenesis in a human ovarian cancer xenograft tumor model in mice.http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/248/3/936/DC1.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2483072231

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258541500031

    View details for PubMedID 18710985

  • Cancer screening: A mathematical model relating secreted blood biomarker levels to tumor sizes PLOS MEDICINE Lutz, A. M., Willmann, J. K., Cochran, F. V., Ray, P., Gambhir, S. S. 2008; 5 (8): 1287-1297

    Abstract

    Increasing efforts and financial resources are being invested in early cancer detection research. Blood assays detecting tumor biomarkers promise noninvasive and financially reasonable screening for early cancer with high potential of positive impact on patients' survival and quality of life. For novel tumor biomarkers, the actual tumor detection limits are usually unknown and there have been no studies exploring the tumor burden detection limits of blood tumor biomarkers using mathematical models. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model relating blood biomarker levels to tumor burden.Using a linear one-compartment model, the steady state between tumor biomarker secretion into and removal out of the intravascular space was calculated. Two conditions were assumed: (1) the compartment (plasma) is well-mixed and kinetically homogenous; (2) the tumor biomarker consists of a protein that is secreted by tumor cells into the extracellular fluid compartment, and a certain percentage of the secreted protein enters the intravascular space at a continuous rate. The model was applied to two pathophysiologic conditions: tumor biomarker is secreted (1) exclusively by the tumor cells or (2) by both tumor cells and healthy normal cells. To test the model, a sensitivity analysis was performed assuming variable conditions of the model parameters. The model parameters were primed on the basis of literature data for two established and well-studied tumor biomarkers (CA125 and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]). Assuming biomarker secretion by tumor cells only and 10% of the secreted tumor biomarker reaching the plasma, the calculated minimally detectable tumor sizes ranged between 0.11 mm(3) and 3,610.14 mm(3) for CA125 and between 0.21 mm(3) and 131.51 mm(3) for PSA. When biomarker secretion by healthy cells and tumor cells was assumed, the calculated tumor sizes leading to positive test results ranged between 116.7 mm(3) and 1.52 x 10(6) mm(3) for CA125 and between 27 mm(3) and 3.45 x 10(5) mm(3) for PSA. One of the limitations of the study is the absence of quantitative data available in the literature on the secreted tumor biomarker amount per cancer cell in intact whole body animal tumor models or in cancer patients. Additionally, the fraction of secreted tumor biomarkers actually reaching the plasma is unknown. Therefore, we used data from published cell culture experiments to estimate tumor cell biomarker secretion rates and assumed a wide range of secretion rates to account for their potential changes due to field effects of the tumor environment.This study introduced a linear one-compartment mathematical model that allows estimation of minimal detectable tumor sizes based on blood tumor biomarker assays. Assuming physiological data on CA125 and PSA from the literature, the model predicted detection limits of tumors that were in qualitative agreement with the actual clinical performance of both biomarkers. The model may be helpful in future estimation of minimal detectable tumor sizes for novel proteomic biomarker assays if sufficient physiologic data for the biomarker are available. The model may address the potential and limitations of tumor biomarkers, help prioritize biomarkers, and guide investments into early cancer detection research efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.0050170

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258739200018

    View details for PubMedID 18715113

  • Dynamic MRI of the liver with parallel acquisition technique: characterization of focal liver lesions and analysis of the hepatic vasculature in a single MRI session ROFO-FORTSCHRITTE AUF DEM GEBIET DER RONTGENSTRAHLEN UND DER BILDGEBENDEN VERFAHREN Heilmaier, C., Sutter, R., Lutz, A. M., Seifert, B., Willmann, J. K. 2008; 180 (5): 440-448

    Abstract

    To retrospectively evaluate the performance of breath-hold contrast-enhanced 3D dynamic parallel gradient echo MRI (pMRT) for the characterization of focal liver lesions (standard of reference: histology) and for the analysis of hepatic vasculature (standard of reference: contrast-enhanced 64-detector row computed tomography; MSCT) in a single MRI session.Two blinded readers independently analyzed preoperative pMRT data sets (1.5T-MRT) of 45 patients (23 men, 22 women; 28 - 77 years, average age, 48 years) with a total of 68 focal liver lesions with regard to image quality of hepatic arteries, portal and hepatic veins, presence of variant anatomy of the hepatic vasculature, as well as presence of portal vein thrombosis and hemodynamically significant arterial stenosis. In addition, both readers were asked to identify and characterize focal liver lesions. Imaging parameters of pMRT were: TR/TE/matrix/slice thickness/acquisition time: 3.1 ms/ 1.4 ms/ 384 x 224 / 4 mm/ 15 - 17 s. MSCT was performed with a pitch of 1.2, an effective slice thickness of 1 mm and a matrix of 512 x 512.Based on histology, the 68 liver lesions were found to be 42 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 20 metastases, 3 cholangiocellular carcinomas (CCC) as well as 1 dysplastic nodule, 1 focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and 1 atypical hemangioma. Overall, the diagnostic accuracy was high for both readers (91 - 100 %) in the characterization of these focal liver lesions with an excellent interobserver agreement (kappa-values of 0.89 [metastases], 0.97 [HCC] and 1 [CCC]). On average, the image quality of all vessels under consideration was rated good or excellent in 89 % (reader 1) and 90 % (reader 2). Anatomical variants of the hepatic arteries, hepatic veins and portal vein as well as thrombosis of the portal vein were reliably detected by pMRT. Significant arterial stenosis was found with a sensitivity between 86 % and 100 % and an excellent interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.85).Diagnostic image quality remains good or excellent in most cases when the data acquisition time is accelerated by means of parallel imaging in dynamic MRI. It allows reliable detection and characterization of focal liver lesions as well as the depiction of hepatic vascular variants, portal vein thrombosis, and arterial stenosis. Introducing pMRT in routine liver MRI may be another step towards a simplified diagnostic work-up prior to liver surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-2008-1027279

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256025800009

    View details for PubMedID 18438745

  • US imaging of tumor angiogenesis with microbubbles targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 in mice RADIOLOGY Willmann, J. K., Paulmurugan, R., Chen, K., Gheysens, O., Rodriguez-Porcel, M., Lutz, A. M., Chen, I. Y., Chen, X., Gambhir, S. S. 2008; 246 (2): 508-518

    Abstract

    To prospectively evaluate contrast material-enhanced ultrasonography (US) with microbubbles targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2) for imaging tumor angiogenesis in two murine tumor models.Animal protocols were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. A US contrast agent, consisting of encapsulated gaseous microbubbles, was developed specifically to bind to VEGFR2 (by using anti-VEGFR2 antibodies and biotin-streptavidin interaction) which is up-regulated on endothelial cells of tumor blood vessels. VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles (MB(V)), control microbubbles (MB(C)), and nonlabeled microbubbles (MB(N)) were tested for binding specificity on cells expressing VEGFR2 (mouse angiosarcoma SVR cells) and control cells (mouse skeletal myoblast C2C12 cells). Expression of mouse VEGFR2 in culture cells was tested with immunocytochemical and Western blot analysis. Contrast-enhanced US imaging with MB(V) and MB(C) was performed in 28 tumor-bearing nude mice (mouse angiosarcoma, n = 18; rat malignant glioma, n = 10). Differences were calculated by using analysis of variance.In cell culture, adherence of MB(V) on SVR cells (2.1 microbubbles per SVR cell) was significantly higher than adherence of control microbubbles (0.01-0.10 microbubble per SVR cell; P < .001) and significantly more MB(V) attached to SVR cells than to C2C12 cells (0.15 microbubble per C2C12 cell; P < .001). In vivo, contrast-enhanced US imaging showed significantly higher average video intensity when using MB(V) compared with MB(C) for angiosarcoma and malignant glioma tumors (P < .001). Results of immunohistochemical analysis confirmed VEGFR2 expression on vascular endothelial cells of both tumor types.US imaging with contrast microbubbles targeted to VEGFR2 allows noninvasive visualization of VEGFR2 expression in tumor vessels in mice.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radio1.2462070536

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252796300021

    View details for PubMedID 18180339

  • Mapping of hepatic vascular anatomy: Dynamic contrast-enhanced parallel MR Imaging compared with 64-detector row CT RADIOLOGY Heilmaier, C., Sutter, R., Lutz, A. M., Seifert, B., Weishaupt, D., Marincek, B., Willmann, J. K. 2007; 245 (3): 872-880

    Abstract

    The study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and accuracy of breath-hold dynamic contrast material-enhanced parallel gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for mapping the hepatic vascular anatomy, with contrast-enhanced 64-detector row computed tomography (CT) as the reference standard. The parallel GRE MR data sets of 100 patients acquired at 1.5 T were evaluated independently by two blinded readers with respect to (a) image quality for depiction of the hepatic arteries and the portal and hepatic veins and (b) presence of arterial stenosis and variant hepatic vasculature. The readers rated image quality to be good or excellent for 91.1%-100% of the vessels. At parallel GRE MR imaging, the readers diagnosed variant hepatic vessels and arterial stenosis with 94%-100% accuracy. They concluded that parallel GRE MR imaging, as compared with 64-detector row CT, is feasible for hepatic vascular mapping and enables reliable and accurate detection of variant hepatic vasculature and diagnosis of arterial stenosis. Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/2453062103/DC1.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2453062103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251070700030

    View details for PubMedID 17954617

  • Assessment of aortoiliac and renal arteries: MR angiography with parallel acquisition versus conventional MR angiography and digital subtraction angiography RADIOLOGY Sutter, R., Nanz, D., Lutz, A. M., Plammatter, T., Seifert, B., Struwe, A., Heilmaier, C., Weishaupt, D., Marincek, B., Willmann, J. K. 2007; 245 (1): 276-284

    Abstract

    To prospectively compare the image quality, sensitivity, and specificity of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography accelerated by parallel acquisition (ie, fast MR angiography) with MR angiography not accelerated by parallel acquisition (ie, conventional MR angiography) for assessment of aortoiliac and renal arteries, with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard.The study was approved by the institutional review board; informed consent was obtained from all patients. Forty consecutive patients (33 men, seven women; mean age, 63 years) suspected of having aortoiliac and renal arterial stenoses and thus examined with DSA underwent both fast (mean imaging time, 17 seconds) and conventional (mean imaging time, 29 seconds) MR angiography. The arterial tree was divided into segments for image analysis. Two readers independently evaluated all MR angiograms for image quality, presence of arterial stenosis, and renal arterial variants. Image quality, sensitivity, and specificity were analyzed on per-patient and per-segment bases for multiple comparisons (with Bonferroni correction) and for dependencies between segments (with patient as the primary sample unit). Interobserver agreement was evaluated by using kappa statistics.Overall, the image quality with fast MR angiography was significantly better (P=.001) than that with conventional MR angiography. At per-segment analysis, the image quality of fast MR angiograms of the distal renal artery tended to be better than that of conventional MR angiograms of these vessels. Differences in sensitivity for the detection of arterial stenosis between the two MR angiography techniques were not significant for either reader. Interobserver agreement in the detection of variant renal artery anatomy was excellent with both conventional and fast MR angiography (kappa=1.00).Fast MR angiography and conventional MR angiography do not differ significantly in terms of arterial stenosis grading or renal arterial variant detection.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2451062081

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249577500032

    View details for PubMedID 17717331

  • 2-Deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose accumulation in ovarian carcinoma cell lines MOLECULAR IMAGING AND BIOLOGY Lutz, A. M., Ray, P., Willmann, J. K., Drescher, C., Gambhir, S. S. 2007; 9 (5): 260-266

    Abstract

    To evaluate 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) accumulation in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines compared with control tumor cell lines known to accumulate FDG.FDG accumulation assays were performed in 15 different ovarian carcinoma cell lines at 1, 2, and 3 hours after incubation with 1 microCi of FDG. Results were compared with FDG accumulation in six different control tumor cell lines. 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose accumulation was expressed as counts per minute (cpm) in cells and normalized to initial cpm in medium and total protein content of cell lysates.FDG accumulation in all 15 ovarian carcinoma cell lines was equal to or higher than 0.0005 +/- 8.6 10(-5) cpm in cells/cpm in medium/mug protein at all three different time points. In two ovarian carcinoma cell lines (ES-2, poorly differentiated clear cell carcinoma, and OVCAR-3, poorly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma), FDG accumulation was not statistically, significantly different compared to the control cell line with the highest FDG accumulation (LS 174T human colorectal adenocarcinoma) at two or more time points (P > or = 0.07). In 2 of 15 (13%) ovarian carcinoma cell lines (OVCAR5 epithelial carcinoma and SKOV3 clear cell carcinoma), FDG accumulation was lower than that in the control cell line with the lowest FDG accumulation (HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma) at one or more time points (P < 0.05).Most human ovarian carcinoma cell lines showed comparable FDG accumulations with control cell lines known to accumulate FDG. This study lays the foundations for further comparisons with other ovarian cancer cell lines and for other positron emission tomography tracers.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11307-007-0105-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248865200002

    View details for PubMedID 17610017

  • Assessment of the abdominal aorta and its visceral branches by contrast-enhanced dynamic volumetric hepatic parallel magnetic resonance imaging: feasibility, reliability and accuracy EUROPEAN RADIOLOGY Werder, R., Nanz, D., Lutz, A. M., Weishaupt, D., McCormack, L., Seifert, B., Marincek, B., Willmann, J. K. 2007; 17 (2): 541-551

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new three-dimensional gradient-echo (GRE) MR sequence performed with a parallel acquisition technique to shorten breath-hold times (parallel GRE MRI) in the detection of arterial variants and stenosis of the abdominal aorta and its visceral branches. A total of 102 patients underwent dynamic parallel GRE MRI, timed to the arterial phase by a test bolus (mean breath-hold time, 17 s). For both quantitative and qualitative analysis, the abdominal aorta and its visceral branches were divided into 13 arterial segments. In a subanalysis of 55/102 patients, the accuracy of parallel GRE MRI compared to MDCT in the detection arterial variants and stenosis was calculated for two independent readers. Mean SNRs and CNRs were 47.2 and 35.6, respectively. Image quality was rated good or excellent in 1,234/1,326 segments (93%). Hepatic and renal arterial variants were identified with an accuracy of 93 and 95%, respectively (reader 1) and 98 and 100%, respectively (reader 2). Both readers detected arterial stenosis with an accuracy of 98%. Interobserver agreement was good to excellent for the detection of hepatic (kappa=0.69) and renal (kappa=0.92) variants and for the diagnosis of stenosis (kappa=0.96). Dynamic three-dimensional parallel GRE MRI is feasible and allows a reliable and accurate diagnosis of arterial variants and stenosis of the abdominal aorta and its visceral branches in a short breath-hold-time.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00330-006-0384-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243604500025

    View details for PubMedID 16947013

  • Prospective intraindividual comparison between respiratory-triggered balanced steady-state free precession and breath-hold gradient-echo and time-of-flight magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of portal and hepatic veins EUROPEAN RADIOLOGY Willmann, J. K., Goepfert, K., Lutz, A. M., Nanz, D., McCormack, L., Petrowsky, H., Seifert, B., Hervo, P., Marincek, B., Weishaupt, D. 2007; 17 (1): 229-240

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to compare respiratory-triggered balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) with breath-hold contrast-enhanced dynamic two-dimensional (2D) gradient-echo (GRE) and time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for portal and hepatic vein visualization and assessment of portal and hepatic venous variants. Sixty patients with liver disease underwent nonenhanced bSSFP and contrast-enhanced GRE, bSSFP, and TOF imaging. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for portal and hepatic veins were measured. Two readers rated the quality of portal and hepatic vein visualization on a 5-point Likert scale. The diagnostic performance of each MRI series in the detection of portal and hepatic venous variants was assessed in 40/60 patients who also underwent contrast-enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). CNRs for portal and hepatic veins were highest on contrast-enhanced bSSFP images. Image quality of portal and hepatic veins was rated higher for nonenhanced bSSFP than for contrast-enhanced GRE (p<0.03) and TOF (p<0.003) and higher for contrast-enhanced than for nonenhanced bSSFP (p<0.003). Compared with MDCT, portal and hepatic venous variants were identified with an accuracy of 99% on bSSFP images, with an excellent interobserver agreement (kappa=0.97). Compared with MDCT, presence of surgically important portal and hepatic venous anatomical variants can be predicted with high accuracy on bSSFP images.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00330-006-0305-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243396700027

    View details for PubMedID 16703307

  • USPIO-enhanced MR imaging for visualization of synovial hyperperfusion and detection of synovial macrophages: Preliminary results in an experimental model of antigen-induced arthritis JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Lutz, A. M., Goepfert, K., Jochum, W., Nanz, D., Froehlich, J. M., Weishaupt, D. 2006; 24 (3): 657-666

    Abstract

    To evaluate whether ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron particles (USPIO)-enhanced MRI is capable of assessing both synovial perfusion characteristics and the presence of synovial macrophages in a model of antigen-induced arthritis.Unilateral arthritis was induced in six knees of six rabbits. The contralateral knees of the rabbits served as control knees. After onset of arthritis, all 12 knees were scanned prior to and immediately following intravenous administration of USPIO using a multiphase T1-weighted (T1w) fast gradient-echo (FGRE) sequence, and T1w spin-echo (SE), T2-weighted (T2w) FSE, T2*w GRE, and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences prior to and 24 hours following USPIO administration. SI-vs.-time curves (STCs) and the early enhancement rate during the first 56 seconds (REE(56)) were calculated from SI measurements within the synovial tissue of all knees on dynamic T1w images. MR findings were correlated to histopathology.REE(56) was significantly higher in the synovial tissue of arthritic knees than in the control knees (P < 0.01). Significant T1-, T2-, and T2* effects (P = 0.03-0.04) and multiple synovial vessels were visually detectable within the arthritic synovial tissue 24 hours after administration of USPIO, whereas no signal changes or synovial vessels were seen in the control knees. Histopathology revealed widened synovial blood vessels in the arthritic knees, and confirmed iron uptake by macrophages in the arthritic knees.USPIO-enhanced MRI is capable of both assessing synovial hyperperfusion and detecting macrophages in antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20667

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240300800024

    View details for PubMedID 16878310

  • Characteristics of displaceable and nondisplaceable meniscal tears at kinematic MR imaging of the knee RADIOLOGY Boxheimer, L., Lutz, A. M., Zanetti, M., Treiber, K., Labler, L., Marincek, B., Weishaupt, D. 2006; 238 (1): 221-231

    Abstract

    To prospectively determine if kinematic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the knee may demonstrate displacement of menisci with tears and, if so, to characterize displaceable and nondisplaceable meniscal tears.The study was approved by the hospital's review board, and informed consent was obtained. Forty-two patients (30 men, 12 women; mean age, 36.9 years) with 43 arthroscopically documented meniscal tears visible at 1.5-T MR imaging underwent kinematic MR imaging with an open-configuration 0.5-T MR imager with their knees in supine neutral, supine with 90 degrees flexion and external or internal rotation, and upright weight-bearing positions. Analysis of meniscal movement was performed in different knee positions in the coronal MR imaging plane. Meniscal displacement--that is, meniscal movement of 3 mm or more (in the medial direction for the medial meniscus, in the lateral direction for the lateral meniscus)--was compared with the patient's pain level as assessed with a visual analog scale by using analysis of variance.Between the different knee positions, meniscal displacement of 3 mm or more (displaceable meniscal tears) was noted in 18 (42%) of 43 menisci with tears. Simultaneous occurrence of grade II or III ipsilateral collateral ligament lesions was present in all 18 displaceable meniscal tears, whereas a normal-appearing collateral ligament or collateral ligament lesion (grade I) was present in 22 of 25 nondisplaceable tears (P < .05). Displaced menisci most commonly had complex, radial, or longitudinal tear configurations (16 of 18, 89%). Patients with displaceable meniscal tears had significantly more pain than did patients with nondisplaceable meniscal tears (P < .001), independent of the concomitant knee abnormalities.Displaceable meniscal tears usually have longitudinal, radial, or complex configurations; such tears are associated with substantial ipsilateral collateral ligament lesions and pain.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234271600027

    View details for PubMedID 16373770

  • Uptake of 18F-fluorocholine, 18F-fluoro-ethyl-L: -tyrosine and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose in F98 gliomas in the rat. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging Spaeth N, Wyss MT, Pahnke J, Biollaz G, Lutz A, Goepfert K, Westera G, Treyer V, Weber B, Buck A 2006; 33 (6): 673-82
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: Enhancement patterns at dynamic gadolinium-and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging RADIOLOGY Lutz, A. M., Willmann, J. K., Goepfert, K., Marincek, B., Weishaupt, D. 2005; 237 (2): 520-528

    Abstract

    To prospectively compare intraindividual differences in enhancement patterns between gadolinium- and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with histologically proved hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Twenty-two patients (18 men, four women; mean age, 58.9 years) with 36 pathologically proved HCC lesions underwent contrast material-enhanced dynamic T1-weighted gradient-echo MR imaging twice. Gadopentetate dimeglumine was used at the first session. After a mean interval of 5 days, a second session was performed with a bolus-injectable SPIO agent, ferucarbotran. Qualitative analysis of contrast enhancement patterns with each agent during hepatic arterial, portal venous, and equilibrium phases was performed by two readers who classified lesions as isointense, hypointense, or hyperintense compared with surrounding liver parenchyma and searched for presence of hyperintense peritumoral ring enhancement. Results of signal intensity analysis during different vascular phases at both sessions were compared by using the McNemar test, and kappa statistic was used to evaluate agreement between signal intensity and enhancement pattern of lesions during different vascular phases.On gadolinium-enhanced hepatic arterial phase images, HCC lesions (n = 36) were hyperintense in 21 (58%) cases, hypointense in 10 (28%), and isointense in five (14%). On ferucarbotran-enhanced hepatic arterial phase images, HCC lesions were isointense in 18 (50%) cases, hypointense in 11 (31%), and hyperintense in seven (19%). On gadolinium-enhanced portal venous and equilibrium phase images, respectively, HCC lesions were hypointense in 17 (47%) and 21 (58%) cases, hyperintense in 10 (28%) cases and one (3%) case, and isointense in nine (25%) and 14 (39%) cases. On ferucarbotran-enhanced portal venous and equilibrium phase images, respectively, HCC lesions were hypointense in 15 (42%) and 11 (31%) cases, hyperintense in three (8%) and three (8%) cases, and isointense in 18 (50%) and 22 (61%) cases.For HCC, contrast enhancement pattern on T1-weighted gradient-echo MR images shows marked variability with gadolinium or SPIO contrast agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2372041183

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232743300020

    View details for PubMedID 16192317

  • Imaging of macrophages in soft-tissue infection in rats: Relationship between ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide dose and MR signal characteristics RADIOLOGY Lutz, A. M., Weishaupt, D., Persohn, E., Goepfert, K., Froehlich, J., Sasse, B., Gottschalk, J., Marincek, B., Kaim, A. H. 2005; 234 (3): 765-775

    Abstract

    To describe dose-dependent signal intensity (SI) characteristics of experimentally induced soft-tissue abscesses on 1.5-T T1- and T2*-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained 24 hours after administration of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) and to describe the relationship between SI and amount of USPIO uptake and macrophage iron content.Local institutional review committee on animal care approved the experiments, which were performed according to the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health and the committee on animal research at our institution. Unilateral calf muscle abscesses were induced in 21 rats with an injection of a Staphylococcus aureus suspension. The rats were divided into three groups of seven animals each: low USPIO dose (50 micromol of iron per kilogram of body weight), high USPIO dose (150 micromol Fe/kg), and control (saline solution). All rats were imaged before and 24 hours after USPIO administration at 1.5 T (transverse T1-weighted spin-echo, T2*-weighted fast gradient-echo, and short inversion time inversion-recovery sequences). Images were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively with regard to SI and signal pattern. Temporal variation of calculated contrast-to-noise ratios was analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. MR findings were correlated with histopathologic findings, including those of electron microscopy.Twenty-four hours after USPIO administration in the high-dose group, susceptibility effects were present in abscess periphery on postcontrast T2*-weighted images (P=.04), and SI enhancement was noted on postcontrast T1-weighted images within both abscess wall and abscess center (P=.04 for both). In the low-dose group, SI enhancement was noted in entire abscess on T1-weighted postcontrast images (P=.03). Neither significant SI loss (P=.09) nor susceptibility effects were detected in periphery or center of any abscess on postcontrast T2*-weighted images. There was no obvious difference in total amount of macrophages among the groups, but there was a clear difference with regard to individual iron content of iron-positive macrophages between the USPIO dose groups.At 1.5 T, SI characteristics of abscesses on T1- and T2*-weighted images obtained 24 hours after USPIO injection strongly depend on administered dose of the contrast agent. At low doses, T1 effects were stronger than T2* effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2343031172

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227145900016

    View details for PubMedID 15665219

  • Detection of synovial macrophages in an experimental rabbit model of antigen-induced arthritis: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging RADIOLOGY Lutz, A. M., Seemayer, C., Corot, C., GAY, R. E., Goepfert, K., Michel, B. A., Marincek, B., GAY, S., Weishaupt, D. 2004; 233 (1): 149-157

    Abstract

    To evaluate intravenously administered ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) as a marker of macrophage activity in an experimental rabbit model of antigen-induced arthritis.Unilateral arthritis was induced by means of intraarticular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin in 10 knees of 10 rabbits that had been presensitized to the same antigen. The contralateral knees in these rabbits, as well as six knees in three other rabbits, served as controls. After onset of arthritis, all knees were imaged prior to and 24 hours after administration of USPIO. The magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol included T1-weighted spin-echo, T2-weighted fast spin-echo, T2*-weighted gradient-echo, and short inversion time inversion-recovery sequences. Images were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively with regard to signal characteristics and pattern. MR findings were correlated with histopathologic findings. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare results of signal-to-noise ratio calculations before and after USPIO administration.All knees with intraarticular injection of antigen suspension developed unilateral arthritis, whereas no signs of arthritis occurred in the control knees. On USPIO-enhanced images obtained 24 hours after contrast agent administration, significant T1 (P =.03) and more predominantly T2* (P =.02) and T2 effects (P =.01) were evident in the synovium of all 10 arthritic knees, which reflected USPIO uptake by macrophages in the synovial tissue. To a lesser extent, T2* effects were present also within the joint effusion (P =.01). No significant changes in signal characteristics were detected in the 10 nonarthritic knees in the antigen-injected group or the six knees in the control group (P =.06-.91). Histologic examination confirmed uptake of iron in the macrophages of arthritic knees. Changes in MR signal characteristics within the arthritic synovium and synovial effusion were visually detectable after intravenous administration of USPIO.MR imaging at 1.5 T can depict USPIO uptake in phagocytic-active macrophages in an antigen-induced arthritis animal model.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224075000020

    View details for PubMedID 15333767

  • Assessment of skeletal muscle perfusion by contrast medium first-pass magnetic resonance imaging: Technical feasibility and preliminary experience in healthy volunteers JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Lutz, A. M., Weishaupt, D., Amann-Vesti, B. R., Pfammatter, T., Goepfert, K., Marincek, B., Nanz, D. 2004; 20 (1): 111-121

    Abstract

    To probe the potential and pitfalls of contrast medium first-pass skeletal muscle perfusion imaging under reproducible stress conditions.Magnetic resonance (MR) signal dynamics in calf muscle and lower-leg arteries of 20 healthy volunteers were analyzed under postarterial occlusion reactive hyperemia and concurrent contrast medium first pass, using a saturation recovery spoiled gradient-echo type sequence without heartbeat synchronization. The signal vs. time curves were analyzed descriptively and by two-compartment deconvolution analysis.Highly significant changes in calf muscle signal dynamics in the hyperemic leg vs. those in the contralateral leg at rest were found in phenomenological and deconvolution analysis. Although a distortion of the arterial signal derived input function by inflow effects was found to cause large variations of the deconvolution results, the magnitude of the observed effects suggested a potential for immediate visual detection of areas with reduced tissue perfusion.The first-pass approach appeared promising for visual evaluation. However, a disentanglement of inflow and contrast medium-induced effects on arterial signal intensity was deemed a prerequisite for input function-based numerical assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20092

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222411900015

    View details for PubMedID 15221816

  • MR imaging of the knee: Position related changes of the menisci in asymptomatic volunteers INVESTIGATIVE RADIOLOGY Boxheimer, L., Lutz, A. M., Treiber, K., Goepfert, K., Crook, D. W., Marincek, B., Weishaupt, D. 2004; 39 (5): 254-263

    Abstract

    To evaluate position related changes of the menisci in asymptomatic volunteers based on MR imaging of the knee in different positions.Twenty-two knees from 22 asymptomatic volunteers with no history of knee injury and no evidence of meniscal tears were examined with a 0.5-T open-configuration MR system. Sagittal and coronal images were obtained with the knee supine in neutral, supine in 90-degree flexion with external and internal rotation, as well as in upright weight-bearing positions. The position of the menisci from the outer inferior edge of the meniscus to the outermost edge of the articular cartilage of the tibial plateau was measured, and meniscal movement was calculated. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical analysis.Meniscal movement in the sagittal plane was greatest in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus upon position change from supine neutral to supine in 90-degree flexion with external rotation (mean, 10.5 millimeters). The least meniscal movement was observed in the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus when changing from the supine neutral to the upright knee position (mean, 0.6 millimeters). Meniscal protrusion (ie, protrusion of any part of the meniscus beyond the tibial plateau) was noted most frequently for the anterior horn of the medial meniscus (14/22 instances; 63.6%) in the sagittal plane with the knee in neutral position (mean, 2.6 millimeters, range, 1.8-2.8 millimeters). In the coronal plane, medial meniscal protrusion was most frequently present in the upright weight-bearing position (11/22 instances (50%; mean, 2 millimeters; range, 1.2-2.6 millimeters).: Meniscal movement is most prominent in the anterior horn of the medial meniscus with the knee in the supine position in 90-degree flexion with external rotation. Meniscal protrusion is more frequently present in the medial meniscus and averaged less than 3 millimeters in normal volunteers in either the sagittal or coronal MR imaging plane.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.rli.0000116895.04239.84

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220990600002

    View details for PubMedID 15087719

  • Resovist for imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma in the cirrhotic liver EUROPEAN RADIOLOGY Weishaupt, D., Willmann, J. K., Lutz, A. M., Marincek, B. 2004; 14: C5-C6

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00330-003-2150-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188874400004

    View details for PubMedID 15113059

  • Uptake of 18F-fluorocholine, 18F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine, and 18F-FDG in acute cerebral radiation injury in the rat: implications for separation of radiation necrosis from tumor recurrence J Nucl Med Spaeth N, Wyss MT, Weber B, Scheidegger S, Lutz A, Verwey J, Radovanovic I, Pahnke J, Wild D, Westera G, Weishaupt D, Hermann DM, Kaser-Hotz B, Aguzzi A, Buck A 2004; 45 (11): 1931-8
  • Contrast-enhanced MR angiography for differentiation between perigastric and submucosal gastric fundal varices ROFO-FORTSCHRITTE AUF DEM GEBIET DER RONTGENSTRAHLEN UND DER BILDGEBENDEN VERFAHREN Willmann, J. K., Bauerfeind, P., Boehm, T., Lutz, A. M., Gopfert, K., Marincek, B., Weishaupt, D. 2003; 175 (4): 507-514

    Abstract

    To evaluate contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the distinction between perigastric and submucosal fundal varices.Nineteen consecutive patients with clinically suspected fundal varices underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) within one week. Diagnostic confidence for the detection of perigastric and submucosal fundal varices was compared between MR angiography (two radiologists) and EUS (one gastroenterologist), and the agreement of size and location was evaluated.Both MR angiography and EUS detected perigastric varices in all 19 patients and submucosal fundal varices in 14 of the 19 patients. The interobserver reliability of MR angiography was good for measuring the variceal diameter (kappa = 0.76) and excellent for localizing the varices (kappa = 1.0). EUS and MR angiography agreed in 12 of 14 patients (86 %) in determining variceal diameter and location.Contrast-enhanced MR angiography is comparable to endoscopic ultrasound in the detection and characterization of gastric fundal varices.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182382400009

    View details for PubMedID 12677506

  • Evaluation of aortoiliac aneurysm before endovascular repair: Comparison of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with multidetector row computed tomographic angiography with an automated analysis software tool JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY Lutz, A. M., Willmann, J. K., Pfammatter, T., Lachat, M., Wildermuth, S., Marincek, B., Weishaupt, D. 2003; 37 (3): 619-627

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to assess accuracy and reliability of a volumetric analysis of abdominal aneurysms on the basis of multidetector row computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with a commercially available automated vessel analysis software program.Twenty patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms underwent preoperative CTA and MRA before endovascular repair. Postdeployment CTA was performed in 15 of these 20 patients (75%). All preoperative CTA and MRA and postdeployment CTA data sets were analyzed with an automated software tool. The length of the stent grafts on postdeployment CTA was measured and compared with the true length of the primary component. Two readers independently evaluated 13 vessel parameters on preoperative CTA and MRA, which are considered to be important in planning stent graft deployment.With the automated analysis software tool, all measurements could be performed on either CTA or MRA data sets. There was no statistically significant difference between postdeployment measurements of stent graft length on CTA and the true dimensions of the implanted stent grafts. Interobserver agreement for all of the measurements with either CTA or MRA was good to excellent (interclass coefficient, 0.71 to 0.99) with only minimal mean differences of measured dimensions between both readers (range, -2.0 to +2.3 mm, Bland-Altman). Intermodality agreement between CTA and MRA was good to excellent (interclass coefficient, 0.62 to 0.98) with small mean differences of measured dimensions between both methods (range, -4.1 to +2.1 mm, Bland-Altman).Volumetric measurement with an automated analysis software tool allows a fast, precise, and reliable noninvasive preoperative determination of all aortic dimensions on the basis of either CTA or MRA data sets.

    View details for DOI 10.1067/mva.2003.143

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181364400023

    View details for PubMedID 12618702

  • Bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound in adults with cystic fibrosis EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY Flohr, F., Lutz, A., App, E. M., Matthys, H., Reincke, M. 2002; 146 (4): 531-536

    Abstract

    With increasing life span osteoporosis becomes a more recognized problem in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this cross-sectional study in 75 adult patients with CF (mean age 25.3 years) was to assess the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and, for the first time, by quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and to identify predicting factors.Bone status was assessed at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the femoral neck by DEXA, and at the calcaneus by QUS (stiffness index). These data were correlated with a variety of clinical and anthropomorphic variables. Biochemical markers of bone turnover such as osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, crosslinks in urine, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH vitamin D), parathyroid hormone, calcium and free testosterone were determined by standard assays.The mean BMD T score (+/-s.e.m.) was -1.4+/-0.17 at the lumbar spine, and -0.54+/-0.16 at the femoral neck. The mean T score of the calcaneal stiffness index was -0.83+/-0.19. Based on a lumbar spine T score <-2.5 by DEXA, 27% of the patients had osteoporosis. Multiple regression analysis showed that the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the use of oral glucocorticoids were independent predictors of low lumbar spine BMD, whereas body mass index (BMI) and the use of oral glucocorticoids were independent predictors of low femoral neck BMD. The stiffness index correlated moderately with BMD (0.49-0.62, P<0.0001). QUS had a sensitivity and specificity of only 57% and 89% respectively for diagnosing 'osteoporosis' (based on a femoral neck T score <-2.5 by DEXA). Positive and negative predictive values were 36% and 95% respectively.Low BMD is frequent in adults with CF and is most strongly correlated with disease severity (BMI, FEV1) and the use of glucocorticoids. Calcaneal QUS might help to screen out patients with a normal BMD, but sensitivity and specificity were not sufficiently high to replace DEXA in these patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178743000012

    View details for PubMedID 11916622

  • Adrenocortical function in patients with macrometastases of the adrenal gland EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY Lutz, A., Stojkovic, M., Schmidt, M., Arlt, W., Allolio, B., Reincke, M. 2000; 143 (1): 91-97

    Abstract

    Metastases of the adrenal gland are a frequent finding in patients with malignant tumors like bronchogenic carcinoma or breast cancer. Only limited and conflicting data on adrenocortical function in these patients are available.Cross-sectional study.We investigated the impact of adrenal macrometastases on adrenocortical function in a series of 28 tumor patients using the ACTH(1-24) stimulation test and dexamethasone suppression test. Seven normal controls (Con), eleven patients without adrenal metastases (No Met), eight patients with unilateral (Uni Met) and nine patients with bilateral adrenal metastases (Bil Met) were investigated.The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was low in our study population, with only two of nine patients with bilateral metastases having subclinical adrenocortical insufficiency. In the remaining patients with uni- or bilateral metastases, baseline and stimulated cortisol concentrations were higher than in controls and cancer patients without metastases (baseline cortisol (in nmol/l): Con: 307+/-33.2 vs Uni Met: 440+/-53.5, and Bil Met: 637.6+/-92.1, P=0.04 by ANOVA; cortisol 60 min after ACTH(1-24): Con: 794.6+/-41.2 vs Uni Met: 990.8+/-92.9, and Bil Met: 1151.4+/-155.5, P=0.03 by ANOVA). Simultaneously, baseline and stimulated serum aldosterone concentrations were significantly blunted in the tumor groups.Adrenal insufficiency is infrequent and develops only in patients with bilateral metastases. However, the majority of patients have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis despite adrenal metastases with strongly elevated cortisol concentrations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088162000012

    View details for PubMedID 10870036

  • Worsening enterocolitis in neonates: diagnosis by CT examination of urine after enteral administration of iohexol PEDIATRIC RADIOLOGY Patton, W. L., Willmann, J. K., Lutz, A. M., Rencken, I. O., Gooding, C. A. 1999; 29 (2): 95-99

    Abstract

    Perforation, a severe complication of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), has a high mortality rate. Recently, we presented a new technique for evaluation of NEC: measuring the CT attenuation coefficient of urine after oral administration of iohexol. We present three cases of neonates with NEC who demonstrated serial increases in urine CT attenuation coefficients, all of whom subsequently deteriorated clinically and radiographically. Surgery in all three cases confirmed severe necrosis and/or perforation. These three cases suggest that the CT attenuation coefficient of urine after oral administration of iohexol may be a more sensitive indicator of NEC severity, progression, and perforation than clinical evaluation and radiography. More investigation is necessary, but eventually, this noninvasive technique may be able to decrease morbidity and mortality by predicting the need for surgical intervention or more aggressive medical management of NEC before perforation occurs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078689500006

    View details for PubMedID 9933327

  • Systemic spread of meconium peritonitis PEDIATRIC RADIOLOGY Patton, W. L., Lutz, A. M., Willmann, J. K., Callen, P., Barkovich, A. J., Gooding, C. A. 1998; 28 (9): 714-716

    Abstract

    Meconium peritonitis is a chemical peritonitis which occurs following bowel perforation during fetal life. It is generally looked upon as benign, resulting in no long-term sequelae. We present a case of a newborn infant with meconium peritonitis who developed infarcts in several organs. At autopsy the infarcts proved to be caused by emboli as a result of intravascular dissemination of meconium. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of systemic spread of meconium peritonitis in the literature and suggests that meconium peritonitis may have more serious implications than generally thought.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076131500014

    View details for PubMedID 9732503

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