Education & Certifications
BS, UC San Diego, Chemistry/Biochemistry
PhD, UC Berkeley, Molecular Cell Biology
Oligomerization of the ER Ca(2+) sensor STIM1 is an essential step in store-operated Ca(2+) entry. The lumenal EF-hand and SAM domains of STIM1 are believed to initiate oligomerization after Ca(2+) store depletion, but the contributions of STIM1 cytosolic domains (coiled-coil 1, CC1; coiled-coil 2, CC2; CRAC activation domain, CAD) to this process are not well understood. By applying coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescence photobleaching and energy transfer techniques to truncated and mutant STIM1 proteins, we find that STIM1 cytosolic domains play distinct roles in forming both "resting" oligomers in cells with replete Ca(2+) stores and higher-order oligomers in store-depleted cells. CC1 supports the formation of resting STIM1 oligomers and appears to interact with cytosolic components to slow STIM1 diffusion. On store depletion, STIM1 lacking all cytosolic domains (STIM1-DeltaC) oligomerizes through EF-SAM interactions alone, but these oligomers are unstable. Addition of CC1 + CAD, but not CC1 alone, enables the formation of stable store-dependent oligomers. Within the CAD, both CC2 and C-terminal residues contribute to oligomer formation. Our results reveal a new function for the CAD: in addition to binding and activating Orai1, it is directly involved in STIM1 oligomerization, the initial event triggering store-operated Ca(2+) entry.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E10-02-0145
View details for Web of Science ID 000278118000011
View details for PubMedID 20375143
Ca(2+)-release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels generate sustained Ca(2+) signals that are essential for a range of cell functions, including antigen-stimulated T lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Recent studies have revealed that the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the oligomerization of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), the ER Ca(2+) sensor, and its redistribution to ER-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions where the CRAC channel subunit ORAI1 accumulates in the plasma membrane and CRAC channels open. However, how the loss of ER Ca(2+) sets into motion these coordinated molecular rearrangements remains unclear. Here we define the relationships among [Ca(2+)](ER), STIM1 redistribution and CRAC channel activation and identify STIM1 oligomerization as the critical [Ca(2+)](ER)-dependent event that drives store-operated Ca(2+) entry. In human Jurkat leukaemic T cells expressing an ER-targeted Ca(2+) indicator, CRAC channel activation and STIM1 redistribution follow the same function of [Ca(2+)](ER), reaching half-maximum at approximately 200 microM with a Hill coefficient of approximately 4. Because STIM1 binds only a single Ca(2+) ion, the high apparent cooperativity suggests that STIM1 must first oligomerize to enable its accumulation at ER-PM junctions. To assess directly the causal role of STIM1 oligomerization in store-operated Ca(2+) entry, we replaced the luminal Ca(2+)-sensing domain of STIM1 with the 12-kDa FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein (FKBP12, also known as FKBP1A) or the FKBP-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, also known as FRAP1). A rapamycin analogue oligomerizes the fusion proteins and causes them to accumulate at ER-PM junctions and activate CRAC channels without depleting Ca(2+) from the ER. Thus, STIM1 oligomerization is the critical transduction event through which Ca(2+) store depletion controls store-operated Ca(2+) entry, acting as a switch that triggers the self-organization and activation of STIM1-ORAI1 clusters at ER-PM junctions.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature07065
View details for Web of Science ID 000257860300056
View details for PubMedID 18596693
The means by which Ca(2+) store depletion evokes the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) in the plasma membrane of excitable and non-excitable cells has been a longstanding mystery. Indirect evidence has supported local interactions between the ER and SOCs as well as long-range interactions mediated through a diffusible activator. The recent molecular identification of the ER Ca(2+) sensor (STIM1) and a subunit of the CRAC channel (Orai1), a prototypic SOC, has now made it possible to visualize directly the sequence of events that links store depletion to CRAC channel opening. Following store depletion, STIM1 moves from locations throughout the ER to accumulate in ER subregions positioned within 10-25nm of the plasma membrane. Simultaneously, Orai1 gathers at discrete sites in the plasma membrane directly opposite STIM1, resulting in local CRAC channel activation. These new studies define the elementary units of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and reveal an unprecedented mechanism for channel activation in which the stimulus brings a channel and its activator/sensor together for interaction across apposed membrane compartments. We discuss the implications of this choreographic mechanism with regard to Ca(2+) dynamics, specificity of Ca(2+) signaling, and the existence of a specialized ER subset dedicated to the control of the CRAC channel.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ceca.2007.03.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000248833400007
View details for PubMedID 17499354
Stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1), reported to be an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) sensor controlling store-operated Ca(2+) entry, redistributes from a diffuse ER localization into puncta at the cell periphery after store depletion. STIM1 redistribution is proposed to be necessary for Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channel activation, but it is unclear whether redistribution is rapid enough to play a causal role. Furthermore, the location of STIM1 puncta is uncertain, with recent reports supporting retention in the ER as well as insertion into the plasma membrane (PM). Using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and patch-clamp recording from single Jurkat cells, we show that STIM1 puncta form several seconds before CRAC channels open, supporting a causal role in channel activation. Fluorescence quenching and electron microscopy analysis reveal that puncta correspond to STIM1 accumulation in discrete subregions of junctional ER located 10-25 nm from the PM, without detectable insertion of STIM1 into the PM. Roughly one third of these ER-PM contacts form in response to store depletion. These studies identify an ER structure underlying store-operated Ca(2+) entry, whose extreme proximity to the PM may enable STIM1 to interact with CRAC channels or associated proteins.
View details for Web of Science ID 000240697100010
View details for PubMedID 16966422
The activation of store-operated Ca(2+) entry by Ca(2+) store depletion has long been hypothesized to occur via local interactions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane, but the structure involved has never been identified. Store depletion causes the ER Ca(2+) sensor stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) to form puncta by accumulating in junctional ER located 10-25 nm from the plasma membrane (see Wu et al. on p. 803 of this issue). We have combined total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and patch-clamp recording to localize STIM1 and sites of Ca(2+) influx through open Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels in Jurkat T cells after store depletion. CRAC channels open only in the immediate vicinity of STIM1 puncta, restricting Ca(2+) entry to discrete sites comprising a small fraction of the cell surface. Orai1, an essential component of the CRAC channel, colocalizes with STIM1 after store depletion, providing a physical basis for the local activation of Ca(2+) influx. These studies reveal for the first time that STIM1 and Orai1 move in a coordinated fashion to form closely apposed clusters in the ER and plasma membranes, thereby creating the elementary unit of store-operated Ca(2+) entry.
View details for Web of Science ID 000240697100011
View details for PubMedID 16966423